• cytokines
  • IL-2 plays a central role in the activation of regulatory T cells to produce the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). (omicsonline.org)
  • The effects of cytokines on the immune response depend on a number of factors, such as their local concentrations, receptor expression patterns and the integration of multiple signalling pathways in response to immune cells [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • IL6R subunit is also shared by many other cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulates
  • Through binding to the interleukin-5 receptor, interleukin 5 stimulates B cell growth and increases immunoglobulin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated NFATc is then translocated into the nucleus, where it upregulates the expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2), which, in turn, stimulates the growth and differentiation of T cell response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 3 stimulates the differentiation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells into myeloid progenitor cells or, with the addition of IL-7, into lymphoid progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucocorticoid
  • Separating Transrepression and Transactivation: A Distressing Divorce for the Glucocorticoid Receptor? (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, clinical utility can be compromised by the development of side effects, many of which are attributed to the ability of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to induce the transcription of, or transactivate, certain genes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • signal
  • There are 3 alpha-1 adrenergic receptor subtypes: alpha-1A, -1B and -1D, all of which signal through the Gq/11 family of G-proteins and different subtypes show different patterns of activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal specificity is provided by the IL-11Rα subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzymatic activity is under the control of several hormones, and different polypeptides participate in the transduction of the signal from the receptor to the catalytic moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 3 is an interleukin, a type of biological signal (cytokine) that can improve the body's natural response to disease as part of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Furthermore, studies in models of psychopathology and neurodegenerative disease states suggest that estrogen receptors mediate the neuroprotective role of estrogen in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • CD4+ mouse T cells treated with anti-mouse CD3 and anti-mouse CD28 for 24 hours were stained with Rat Anti-Mouse CD25/IL-2 R alpha APC-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody. (antibodies-online.com)
  • ligand
  • The estrogen receptor (ER) is a ligand-activated transcription factor composed of several domains important for hormone binding, DNA binding, and activation of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • IKK1 functions as the major kinase phosphorylating serine 536 under different stimuli, such as the ligand activation of the lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • When an antigen-presenting cell interacts with a T cell receptor on T cells, there is an increase in the cytoplasmic level of calcium, which activates calcineurin, by binding a regulatory subunit and activating calmodulin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signalling), or that of other T cells (paracrine signalling) - both involve IL-2 binding to the IL-2 receptor on T cells (upregulated upon cell activation, under the induction of macrophage-secreted IL-1). (wikipedia.org)