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  • cytokines
  • IL-2 plays a central role in the activation of regulatory T cells to produce the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). (omicsonline.org)
  • The effects of cytokines on the immune response depend on a number of factors, such as their local concentrations, receptor expression patterns and the integration of multiple signalling pathways in response to immune cells [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • IL6R subunit is also shared by many other cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucocorticoid
  • Separating Transrepression and Transactivation: A Distressing Divorce for the Glucocorticoid Receptor? (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, clinical utility can be compromised by the development of side effects, many of which are attributed to the ability of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to induce the transcription of, or transactivate, certain genes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • signal
  • There are 3 alpha-1 adrenergic receptor subtypes: alpha-1A, -1B and -1D, all of which signal through the Gq/11 family of G-proteins and different subtypes show different patterns of activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal specificity is provided by the IL-11Rα subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzymatic activity is under the control of several hormones, and different polypeptides participate in the transduction of the signal from the receptor to the catalytic moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 3 is an interleukin, a type of biological signal (cytokine) that can improve the body's natural response to disease as part of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Interleukin 15 controls both proliferation and survival of a subset of memory-phenotype CD8(+) T-cells. (springer.com)
  • Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signalling), or that of other T cells (paracrine signalling) - both involve IL-2 binding to the IL-2 receptor on T cells (upregulated upon cell activation, under the induction of macrophage-secreted IL-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • The estrogen receptor (ER) is a ligand-activated transcription factor composed of several domains important for hormone binding, DNA binding, and activation of transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • IKK1 functions as the major kinase phosphorylating serine 536 under different stimuli, such as the ligand activation of the lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR). (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Martin JW, Chen JC, Neidleman J, Tatsumi K, Hu J, Giudice LC, Greene WC, Roan NR. Potent and rapid activation of tropomyosin-receptor kinase A in endometrial stromal fibroblasts by seminal plasma. (ucsf.edu)
  • In response to DNA damage, ribosomal subunit kinase-1 (RSK1) also has the ability to phosphorylate RELA at serine 536 in a p53-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Differentiation
  • T he current literature on the role of interleukin (IL)-2 in memory CD8 + T-cell differentiation indicates a significant contribution of IL-2 during primary and also secondary expansion of CD8 + T cells. (springer.com)
  • extracellular
  • The precursor is proteolytically cleaved at a furin site to yield a highly glycosylated extracellular α-subunit and a transmembrane β-subunit, which are linked together by a disulfide bridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germline mutations of the extracellular domains of this receptor were found to be associated with the human genetic disorder called tumor necrosis factor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) or periodic fever syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • The strength and duration from the BCR sign are handled by different adverse regulators, including inhibitory receptors, phosphatases, and ubiquitin ligases. (bus2226w16.com)
  • This dual part of LYN is due to its unique capability to phosphorylate the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs in the inhibitory receptors Compact disc22, FcRIIb, 134523-00-5 manufacture Compact disc5, and Compact disc72.23 Phosphorylation of the receptors provides the phosphatases SHP-1 and Dispatch near the antigen-stimulated BCR, where they terminate the signal by dephosphorylating various activated the different parts of the BCR signaling pathway. (bus2226w16.com)
  • soluble
  • The AGE- and CML-dependent activation of NF-κBp65 and NF-κB-dependent IL-6 expression could be inhibited using the soluble form of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) (soluble RAGE [sRAGE]), RAGE-specific antibody, or the antioxidant thioctic acid. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Phosphorylation
  • A Juxtamembrane segment that contains: a serine residue (Ser 985), which inhibits the receptor kinase activity upon phosphorylation a tyrosine (Tyr 1003), which is responsible for MET polyubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation upon interaction with the ubiquitin ligase CBL Tyrosine kinase domain, which mediates MET biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • This structural motif twists two alpha helical protein domains into a "coiled coil," characterized by a periodicity of 3.5 residues per turn and repetitive leucines appearing at every seventh position of the polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • ryanodine
  • Crucial to this process are ryanodine receptors (RyRs), the sentinels of massive intracellular calcium stores contained within the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This exquisitely coordinated series of events, in which an electrical stimulus (depolarization) is converted into a mechanical contraction, is collectively termed 'excitation-contraction (EC) coupling', and it has as central players the voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels/dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) as the sarcolemmal voltage sensors, and the Ca 2+ release channels/ryanodine receptors (RyRs) as the SR Ca 2+ release conduits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mediate
  • Furthermore, studies in models of psychopathology and neurodegenerative disease states suggest that estrogen receptors mediate the neuroprotective role of estrogen in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This receptor can activate the transcription factor NF-κB, mediate apoptosis, and function as a regulator of inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibroblast
  • C-jun has been shown to be essential for fibroblast proliferation, and levels of both AP-1 subunits have been shown to be expressed above basal levels during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, 22 members of the FGF family have been identified, all of which are structurally related signaling molecules: Members FGF1 through FGF10 all bind fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • FGFR
  • The signaling complex at the cell surface is believed to be a ternary complex formed between two identical FGF ligands, two identical FGFR subunits, and either one or two heparan sulfate chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • isoform
  • Hepatocyte growth factor/Scatter Factor (HGF/SF) and its splicing isoform (NK1, NK2) are the only known ligands of the MET receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Fyn is located downstream of several cell surface receptors, commonly associated with neuronal development and T-cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphocyte
  • We concentrated primarily for the phosphatases SHP-1 and PTPN22, because they are regarded as principal adverse regulators of antigen-receptor signaling in regular B and T lymphocytes, and both have already been implicated in the pathogenesis of varied lymphocyte disorders. (bus2226w16.com)
  • Subunit beta of interleukin 12 (also known as IL-12B, natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor p40, or interleukin-12 subunit p40) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL12B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • de Groot RP, Coffer PJ, Koenderman L. Regulation of proliferation, differentiation and survival by the IL-3/IL-5/GM-CSF receptor family. (springer.com)
  • Transcriptional regulation of hypoxia inducible factors alpha (HIF-alpha) and their inhibiting factor (FIH-1) of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) under hypoxia. (auburn.edu)
  • The sustainability of this cycle is crucially dependent upon precise regulation of RyRs by numerous cytosolic metabolites and by proteins within the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and those directly associated with the receptors in a macromolecular complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RELA
  • In response to DNA damage, ribosomal subunit kinase-1 (RSK1) also has the ability to phosphorylate RELA at serine 536 in a p53-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • beta
  • The growth factors TGF alpha, TGF beta, and IL2 have all been shown to stimulate c-Fos, and thereby stimulate cellular proliferation via AP-1 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Wild-type rat astrocytes (TNF-activated) or from human SOD1 G93A transgenic mice (a neurodegenerative disease model) were used to evaluate cell migration, Thy-1 receptor levels, signaling molecules, and reactivity markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signalling), or that of other T cells (paracrine signalling) - both involve IL-2 binding to the IL-2 receptor on T cells (upregulated upon cell activation, under the induction of macrophage-secreted IL-1). (wikipedia.org)