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  • rats
  • Lesions of periaqueductal gray dissociate-conditioned freezing from conditioned suppression behavior in rats: Learning & Memory Vol 6(5) Sep-Oct 1999, 491-499. (wikia.com)
  • Adell, A., A. Carceller, and F. Artigas (1991) Regional distribution of extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the brain of freely moving rats. (springer.com)
  • 5. Fink, G., Smith, J.R. & Tibballs, J. (1971) Corticotrophin releasing factor in hypophysial portal blood of rats. (georgefink.com)
  • The morphological features and distribution of serotonergic fibers in the spinal cord of 7-and 12-month-old zitter mutant rats which are characterized by abnormal metabolism of superoxides were examined immunohistochemically. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Rats were given MDMA (20 or 40 mg/kg) or saline and placed in an ambient temperature of 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, or 30°C using a novel temperature measurement apparatus that controls ambient temperature ±0.5°C. Two weeks after MDMA treatment, the rats were killed, and regional 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels were analyzed as a measure of neurotoxicity. (jneurosci.org)
  • receptor
  • Pharmacogenetic studies have linked the response to SSRIs to polymorphism in various genes such as those responsible for reuptake, biosynthesis, and metabolism of 5-HT and genes coding for some 5-HT receptor subtypes and signal transduction mechanisms ( Serretti and Artioli, 2004 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The "R" isomers of both drugs showed a moderate affinity at the 5-HT2 receptor (labelled with 3H ketanserin), and the "S" isomers were lower. (ecstasy.org)
  • Both D 1 and D 2 receptor antagonists, SCH 23390 [ R (+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H -3-benzazepine] and raclopride, inhibited BTS 74 398-induced circling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1986
  • Aston-Jones, G., M. Ennis, V.A. Pieribone, W.T. Nickell, and M.T. Shipley (1986) The brain nucleus locus coeruleus: Restricted afferent control of a broad efferent network. (springer.com)
  • 2001
  • Paradoxical effects of thought suppression: A meta-analysis of controlled studies: Clinical Psychology Review Vol 21(5) Jul 2001, 683-703. (wikia.com)
  • neurons
  • Aston-Jones, G., M.T. Shipley, M. Ennis, J.T. Williams, and V.A. Pieribone (1990) Restricted afferent control of locus coeruleus neurons revealed by anatomic, physiologic and pharmacologic studies. (springer.com)
  • ketanserin
  • In contrast, the 5-HT 1A 5-HT 1A/B antagonists, WAY 100635 ( N -[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]- N -2-pyridinyl-cyclohexane-carboxamide maleate) and pindolol, and the 5-HT 2A antagonist, ketanserin, had no effect. (aspetjournals.org)
  • selective
  • We selected the forced swimming test, a mouse model used to assess the antidepressant potential of drugs, and neurochemical techniques to study strain differences in the response to citalopram, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor. (jneurosci.org)
  • locomotor activity
  • Because there were no strain differences in catecholamine synthesis, locomotor activity, and brain levels of citalopram at the end of the behavioral test, the results suggest that the failure of citalopram to reduce immobility time in DBA/2J and BALB/c mice is attributable to genotype-dependent impairment of 5-HT synthesis. (jneurosci.org)
  • MDMA
  • The amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a drug of abuse and has been shown to be neurotoxic to 5-HT terminals in many species. (jneurosci.org)
  • gene
  • Mutation of this gene resulted in a marked reduction of 5-HT production when the enzyme was expressed in PC12 cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • release
  • Berger, U.V., Gu, X.F. and Azmitia, E.C. The Substituted Amphetamines 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Methamphetamine, p-Chloroamphetamine and Fenfluramine Induce 5-Hydroxytryptamine Release via a Common Mechanism Blocked by Fluoxetine and Cocaine. (ecstasy.org)
  • A novel technique allowing measurement of neurotransmitter release and single unit recordings from brain slices is described. (ecstasy.org)
  • specific
  • The nonspecific 5-HT ½ antagonists, methysergide and metergoline, and the specific 5-HT 2C antagonist, N -desmethylclozapine, enhanced BTS 74 398-induced circling, as did the α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan. (aspetjournals.org)
  • relationship
  • However, these studies have given conflicting results, and no firm conclusion can be drawn about the relationship between genotype-dependent differences in 5-HT synthesis and the response to SSRIs. (jneurosci.org)
  • cycle
  • All animals were housed under controlled conditions (12 h light/dark cycle, starting at 7:00 A.M. (jneurosci.org)
  • studies
  • 7. Fink, G. & Schofield, G.C. (1971) Experimental studies on the innervation of the ovary in cats. (georgefink.com)
  • drug
  • The drug reduced accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), an indicator of 5-HT synthesis, in C57BL/6J and 129/Sv mice but much less in DBA/2J and BALB/c mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Professor Borchardt contributions to the development and validation of cell cultures for studying drug transport across the intestinal mucosa and the blood-brain barrier have been particularly significant. (ku.edu)
  • method
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid neuropeptide, was originally isolated from porcine brain using a method detecting the C-terminal amide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Serotonin
  • Serotonin (5-HT) has been strongly implicated in the regulation of the mammalian circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). (jneurosci.org)
  • Serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in the modulation of photic signaling in the SCN and the resetting of circadian phase. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dopaminergic neurones were distinguished from non-dopaminergic neurones by staining with the autofluorescent serotonin analogue 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine and briefly viewing the preparation with short exposures to ultraviolet (UV) light (365 nm). (springer.com)
  • Baker, K.G., G.M. Halliday, P. Halasz, J-P. Hornung, L.B. Geffen, R.G.H. Cotton, and I. Törk (1991a) Cytoarchitecture of serotonin-synthesizing neurons in the pontine tegmentum of the human brain. (springer.com)
  • Long-term serotonin changes are blocked by 5-HT re-uptake blockers, and the interactions between MDMA and caffeine have been reported. (ecstasy.org)
  • Brain slices of the dorsal raphe nucleus were exposed to a medium containing MDMA and the released serotonin was measured. (ecstasy.org)
  • Both MDMA and MDA, and their respective optical isomers, were assayed as to their affinity at radio-labelled serotonin (5-HT1 and 5-HT2) and dopamine (D2) binding sites. (ecstasy.org)
  • Polymorphism of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of brain serotonin (5-HT), is associated with less synthesis of brain 5-HT in DBA/2J and BALB/c than in C57BL/6J and 129/Sv mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are currently the mainstays in the treatment of depression. (jneurosci.org)
  • For more than twenty years researchers have been searching for a method of measuring the rate of brain serotonin synthesis which is both convenient and anatomically precise. (springer.com)
  • 1981). To date it has been impossible to measure serotonin synthesis rate in living human brain, although it has often been determined in laboratory animals in a 'normal' state and under the influence of various drugs. (springer.com)
  • Chronic stress increases serotonin and noradrenalin in rat brain and sensitizes their responses to a further acute stress. (springer.com)
  • reuptake
  • We selected the forced swimming test, a mouse model used to assess the antidepressant potential of drugs, and neurochemical techniques to study strain differences in the response to citalopram, a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pharmacogenetic studies have linked the response to SSRIs to polymorphism in various genes such as those responsible for reuptake, biosynthesis, and metabolism of 5-HT and genes coding for some 5-HT receptor subtypes and signal transduction mechanisms ( Serretti and Artioli, 2004 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • 1976
  • 23. Bird, E.D., Chiappa, S.A. & Fink, G. (1976) Brain immunoreactive gonadotropin releasing hormone in Huntington's chorea and in normal subjects. (georgefink.com)
  • Stimulation
  • Locomotor activity induced by exposure to a novel running wheel had a pronounced phase-dependent effect on 5-HT release in the SCN, with stimulation during the light phase and suppression during the late dark phase. (jneurosci.org)
  • acid
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid neuropeptide, was originally isolated from porcine brain using a method detecting the C-terminal amide. (frontiersin.org)
  • serotonergic
  • Collectively, these results show that the daily rhythm in output of 5-HT in the SCN is generated endogenously, and that behavioral state can strongly influence serotonergic activity in the circadian clock in a phase-dependent manner. (jneurosci.org)
  • We also used this methodology to evaluate the influences of light and locomotor activity on 5-HT release in the SCN to provide fundamental information on factors regulating serotonergic activity in the circadian clock. (jneurosci.org)
  • contrast
  • In contrast to the well-characterized effects of 5-HT agonists in the circadian system, little is known concerning the regulation of endogenous 5-HT release in the SCN. (jneurosci.org)
  • freely
  • Using in vivo microdialysis, we demonstrated the existence of a daily rhythm in the output of 5-HT in the SCN of freely behaving hamsters. (jneurosci.org)
  • internal
  • A new protocol was tested that shortens the experiment from up to 12 weeks for existing protocols to 2 weeks and reduces the number of fish by a factor of 5, while introducing internal benchmarking for the BCF determination. (diva-portal.org)
  • It is also unclear whether the putative daily rhythm in 5-HT output in the SCN is driven by internal pacemakers or by environmental influences. (jneurosci.org)
  • cells
  • Mutation of this gene resulted in a marked reduction of 5-HT production when the enzyme was expressed in PC12 cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • numerous
  • While numerous molecules in the brain and neural structures play key roles in regulating energy and glucose balance and deserve attention, the current review will focus on the central melanocortin system. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • known
  • significantly more depleted than all known industrially produced organochlorine compounds (delta Cl-37 = -7 to +6 parts per thousand). (diva-portal.org)