• pollution
  • air pollution from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (questia.com)
  • air pollution, contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health. (questia.com)
  • The major sources of air pollution are transportation engines, power and heat generation, industrial processes, and the burning of solid waste . (questia.com)
  • In urban areas like Los Angeles where transportation is the main cause of air pollution, nitrogen dioxide tints the air, blending with other contaminants and the atmospheric water vapor to produce brown smog . (questia.com)
  • Air pollution from cities also affects rural areas for many miles downwind. (questia.com)
  • In less developed regions, indoor air pollution from open fires burning wood and other fuels for heating and cooking can be a significant health hazard. (questia.com)
  • Every industrial process exhibits its own pattern of air pollution. (questia.com)
  • The dramatic and debilitating effects of severe air pollution episodes in cities throughout the world-such as the London smog of 1952 that resulted in 4,000 deaths-have alerted governments to the necessity for crisis procedures. (questia.com)
  • Even everyday levels of air pollution may insidiously affect health and behavior. (questia.com)
  • Indoor air pollution is a problem in developed countries, where efficient insulation keeps pollutants inside the structure. (questia.com)
  • Air pollution may possibly harm populations in ways so subtle or slow that they have not yet been detected. (questia.com)
  • For that reason research is now under way to assess the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low levels of air pollution-what most people experience-as well as to determine how air pollutants interact with one another in the body and with physical factors such as nutrition , stress, alcohol, cigarette smoking , and common medicines. (questia.com)
  • Another subject of investigation is the relation of air pollution to cancer , birth defects , and genetic mutations . (questia.com)
  • A relatively recently discovered result of air pollution are seasonal "holes" in the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica and the Arctic, coupled with growing evidence of global ozone depletion. (questia.com)
  • Despite great gains in fuel economy and the efficacy of air pollution control equipment over the past twenty years, the EPA estimated in 1990 that mobile sources emit 39% of all man-made air toxic emissions in the United States. (ct.gov)
  • The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. (wikipedia.org)
  • it also provided funds for federal government research of air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first federal legislation to actually pertain to "controlling" air pollution was the Clean Air Act of 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1963 act accomplished this by establishing a federal program within the U.S. Public Health Service and authorizing research into techniques for monitoring and controlling air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first amended in 1965, by the Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act, which authorized the federal government to set required standards for controlling the emission of pollutants from certain automobiles, beginning with the 1968 models. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second amendment, the Air Quality Act of 1967, enabled the federal government to increase its activities to investigate enforcing interstate air pollution transport, and, for the first time, to perform far-reaching ambient monitoring studies and stationary source inspections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further amendments were made in 1990 to address the problems of acid rain, ozone depletion, and toxic air pollution, and to establish a national permit program for stationary sources, and increased enforcement authority. (wikipedia.org)
  • The law encourages prevention of regional air pollution and control programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also provides technical and financial assistance for air pollution prevention at both state and local governments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grants for air pollution planning and control programs, and interstate air quality agencies and program cost limitations are also included in this section of the act. (wikipedia.org)
  • The act lists unregulated radioactive pollutants such as cadmium, arsenic, and polycyclic organic matter and mandates listing them if they will cause or contribute to air pollution that endangers public health, under section 7408 or 7412. (wikipedia.org)
  • To protect the environment from existing pollutants, there is a need to promote innovation in pollution abatement technologies. (omicsonline.org)
  • Air pollution in the United States EPA: Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Overview, a brief description of the sections of the Clean Air Act related to air toxics as well as further links to relevant rules, reports, and programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Act defines "air pollutant" to include "any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive … substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. (justia.com)
  • Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution, such as air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, municipal solid waste mishandling, and environmental impact assessments of certain localities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollution, noise from traffic or neighbours, or litter and mess on the streets can affect people's quality of life. (www.gov.uk)
  • Air pollution, for example from road transport, harms our health and wellbeing. (www.gov.uk)
  • Air pollution also damages biodiversity, reduces crop yields and contributes to climate change. (www.gov.uk)
  • We followed this with 'Air pollution: action in a changing climate' , which explained the benefits of combining work on climate change and air quality. (www.gov.uk)
  • We publish daily forecasts of air pollution and health advice so that those with health conditions such as heart or lung problems or asthma can protect their health. (www.gov.uk)
  • The Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants advises government on the health effects of air pollution. (www.gov.uk)
  • The Department of Health has published an indicator for air pollution as part of its Public Health Outcomes Framework . (www.gov.uk)
  • In 1990 the energy sector emitted around 2.3 million tons of such pollution, accounting for 35% of total atmospheric emissions and 53% of emissions from stationary sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Section 202(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. § 7521(a)(1), requires the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") to set emission standards for "any air pollutant" from motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines "which in his judgment cause[s], or contribute[s] to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare. (wikisource.org)
  • He has written numerous research papers and articles on energy, natural resources, mining, air and water pollution, climate change, economic development, malaria prevention and other topics. (issuu.com)
  • In 2013 the burning of fossil fuels produced around 32 billion tonnes (32 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide and additional air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the late 1960s, the Air Pollution Control Office of the U.S. EPA initiated research projects that would lead to the development of models for the use by urban and transportation planners. (wikipedia.org)
  • The atmospheric dispersion models are also known as atmospheric diffusion models, air dispersion models, air quality models, and air pollution dispersion models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The environmental impact of the coal industry includes issues such as land use, waste management, water and air pollution, caused by the coal mining, processing and the use of its products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants with air pollution controls such as wet scrubbers typically transfer the captured pollutants to the wastewater stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metal forging appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, and street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of urine and manure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952. (wikipedia.org)
  • Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread widely after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent Organic Po
  • Continuous generation and accumulation of waste, including hazardous waste (Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), medical waste, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weight of pollutants from heating and power generation enterprises, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and oil and gas sector Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of chemicals - industrial substances such as poly-chloride biphenyl, pesticides of the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) type and harmful waste products of dioxin type - the compounds and mixtures of which have toxic properties, are resistant to decomposition and higher bioaccumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • hazardous
  • Uninsulated high-voltage power lines ionize the adjacent air, forming ozone and other hazardous pollutants. (questia.com)
  • Air quality criteria, national primary and secondary ambient air quality standards, state implementation plans and performance standards for new stationary sources are also covered in Part A. The list of hazardous air pollutants established by the act includes acetaldehyde, benzene, chloroform, phenols and selenium compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, also using the acronym NESHAP, are emissions standards set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency-EPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The USEPA regulates the following hazardous air pollutants via the MACT standards: For all listings above which contain the word "compounds" and for glycol ethers, the following applies: Unless otherwise specified, these listings are defined as including any unique chemical substance that contains the named chemical (i.e., antimony, arsenic, etc.) as part of that chemical's infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • emission
  • The 1967 act also authorized expanded studies of air pollutant emission inventories, ambient monitoring techniques, and control techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • These sources may release air toxics from equipment leaks, when materials are transferred from one location to another, or during discharge through emission stacks or vents "Area" sources consist of smaller-size facilities that release lesser quantities of toxic pollutants into the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of transboundary transfer by air and water, they settle long distances from their emission points, accumulating in water and land ecosystems. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989
  • Mangano has now found that mortality rates for all age groups in these areas have, since 1989, improved for all diseases mediated by the immune response, so that San Francisco, for example (only seventy miles from Rancho Seco), had in 1998 the lowest age-adjusted mortality rate of any large US county, with extraordinary declines since 1990 in all cancers, including breast and prostate, and in all infectious diseases. (thenation.com)
  • wastes
  • These substances would include, wastes with any of the following characteristics: poisonous, explosive, radioactive, corrosive, flammable, carcinogenic (causing cancer), mutagenic (damaging chromosomes), teratogenic (causing defects in the unborn) or bioaccumulative (accumulating in the bodies of plants and animals and thus in food chains) (Enviro Facts - Toxic Waste - , 2002). (writework.com)
  • Most definitions of municipal solid waste do not include industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, medical waste, radioactive waste or sewage sludge. (wikipedia.org)
  • originate
  • Sources: USEPA's original list & Modifications Most air toxics originate from human-made sources, including mobile sources (e.g., cars, trucks, buses) and stationary sources (e.g., factories, refineries, power plants), as well as indoor sources (e.g., building materials and activities such as cleaning). (wikipedia.org)
  • downwind
  • The dispersion models are used to estimate the downwind ambient concentration of air pollutants or toxins emitted from sources such as industrial plants, vehicular traffic or accidental chemical releases. (wikipedia.org)
  • decay
  • 4 Includes organic compounds with more than one benzene ring, and which have a boiling point greater than or equal to 100 °C. ^5 A type of atom which spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • dust
  • Dust degrades air quality in the immediate area, has an adverse impact on vegetative life, and constitutes health and safety hazards for mine workers and nearby residents. (wikipedia.org)
  • react
  • Nitrogen oxides also react with oxygen in the air to form nitrogen dioxide, a foul-smelling brown gas. (questia.com)
  • They are most useful for pollutants that are dispersed over large distances and that may react in the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • nation's
  • This section of the act declares that protecting and enhancing the nation's air quality promotes public health. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulations
  • These standards are authorized by Section 112 of the 1970 Clean Air Act and the regulations are published in 40 CFR Parts 61 and 63. (wikipedia.org)
  • At industrial facilities, this type of consequence assessment or emergency planning is required under the Clean Air Act (United States) (CAA) codified in Part 68 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitrogen dioxide
  • Like most other member states, the UK is facing difficulties in meeting the EU air quality standards for concentrations of nitrogen dioxide alongside some of our busiest roads. (www.gov.uk)
  • ambient air quality
  • The standards are for air pollutants not covered by National Ambient Air Quality Standards-NAAQS, that may cause an increase in fatalities or in serious, irreversible, or incapacitating illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dispersion models are important to governmental agencies tasked with protecting and managing the ambient air quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The models are typically employed to determine whether existing or proposed new industrial facilities are or will be in compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in the United States and other nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clean Air
  • Reviewing his tenure as EPA Administrator under President George H. W. Bush, William K. Reilly characterized passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act as his most notable accomplishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Clean Air Act was the first major environmental law in the United States to include a provision for citizen suits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Section 202(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act, as added by Pub. (justia.com)
  • This prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation, The Clean Air Act of 1956. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaks
  • These sources emit air toxics through various means, including emissions stacks and vents, fugitive process emissions, equipment leaks, material transfer and handling, or accidental releases. (ct.gov)
  • materials
  • In 2003, in an effort to secure the radioactive materials from the Institute, the U.S. government aided Serbia in the removal of the material. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • It is performed with computer programs that include algorithms to solve the mathematical equations that govern the pollutant dispersion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dispersion models vary depending on the mathematics used to develop the model, but all require the input of data that may include: Meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, the amount of atmospheric turbulence (as characterized by what is called the "stability class"), the ambient air temperature, the height to the bottom of any inversion aloft that may be present, cloud cover and solar radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the modern, advanced dispersion modeling programs include a pre-processor module for the input of meteorological and other data, and many also include a post-processor module for graphing the output data and/or plotting the area impacted by the air pollutants on maps. (wikipedia.org)
  • lungs
  • He also thought that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle movement result from the reaction of nitroaereus with certain substances in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • particulates
  • For example, forest fires produce air toxics, such as particulates and volatile organic compounds. (ct.gov)
  • environmental
  • It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws, and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of present study was to analyze the patenting trends in bioremediation technologies for environmental pollutants. (omicsonline.org)
  • Out of 31 patent assignees, the United States Secretary of Agriculture obtained maximum patents followed by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. Comparison among technological groups indicated that maximum patents (33%) were associated with technologies for reclamation of contaminated soil followed by wastewater and sewage treatment technologies (22%) and use of micro-organisms (20%) natural as well as genetically engineered for bioremediation of environmental pollutants. (omicsonline.org)
  • After various international environmental agreements, governments of different countries have focused on green product and process innovations to minimize environmental risk, but there has been little interest in developing eco-friendly technologies for removing the environmental pollutants. (omicsonline.org)
  • power
  • Power stations use additional technologies to control pollutants, depending on the particular wastestream in the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • area
  • If they are falling short, they must declare an Air Quality Management Area and produce an action plan showing what they are going to do to meet standards. (www.gov.uk)
  • less
  • Bioremediation involves naturally occurring organisms to break down or neutralize inorganic and organic pollutants into less toxic or nontoxic forms. (omicsonline.org)
  • Grants
  • We're supporting local authorities by providing advice and guidance , and through the Air Quality Grants programme . (www.gov.uk)