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  • pollution
  • air pollution from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (questia.com)
  • air pollution, contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health. (questia.com)
  • The major sources of air pollution are transportation engines, power and heat generation, industrial processes, and the burning of solid waste . (questia.com)
  • In urban areas like Los Angeles where transportation is the main cause of air pollution, nitrogen dioxide tints the air, blending with other contaminants and the atmospheric water vapor to produce brown smog . (questia.com)
  • Air pollution from cities also affects rural areas for many miles downwind. (questia.com)
  • In less developed regions, indoor air pollution from open fires burning wood and other fuels for heating and cooking can be a significant health hazard. (questia.com)
  • Every industrial process exhibits its own pattern of air pollution. (questia.com)
  • The dramatic and debilitating effects of severe air pollution episodes in cities throughout the world-such as the London smog of 1952 that resulted in 4,000 deaths-have alerted governments to the necessity for crisis procedures. (questia.com)
  • Even everyday levels of air pollution may insidiously affect health and behavior. (questia.com)
  • Indoor air pollution is a problem in developed countries, where efficient insulation keeps pollutants inside the structure. (questia.com)
  • Air pollution may possibly harm populations in ways so subtle or slow that they have not yet been detected. (questia.com)
  • For that reason research is now under way to assess the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low levels of air pollution-what most people experience-as well as to determine how air pollutants interact with one another in the body and with physical factors such as nutrition , stress, alcohol, cigarette smoking , and common medicines. (questia.com)
  • Another subject of investigation is the relation of air pollution to cancer , birth defects , and genetic mutations . (questia.com)
  • A relatively recently discovered result of air pollution are seasonal "holes" in the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica and the Arctic, coupled with growing evidence of global ozone depletion. (questia.com)
  • Despite great gains in fuel economy and the efficacy of air pollution control equipment over the past twenty years, the EPA estimated in 1990 that mobile sources emit 39% of all man-made air toxic emissions in the United States. (ct.gov)
  • An Act to improve, strengthen, and accelerate programs for the prevention and abatement of air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Clean Air Act ( 42 U.S.C. § 7401 ) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. (wikipedia.org)
  • it also provided funds for federal government research of air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first federal legislation to actually pertain to "controlling" air pollution was the Clean Air Act of 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1963 act accomplished this by establishing a federal program within the U.S. Public Health Service and authorizing research into techniques for monitoring and controlling air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was first amended in 1965, by the Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act , which authorized the federal government to set required standards for controlling the emission of pollutants from certain automobiles, beginning with the 1968 models. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second amendment, the Air Quality Act of 1967, enabled the federal government to increase its activities to investigate enforcing interstate air pollution transport, and, for the first time, to perform far-reaching ambient monitoring studies and stationary source inspections. (wikipedia.org)
  • While only six states had air pollution programs in 1960, all 50 states had air pollution programs by 1970 due to the federal funding and legislation of the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further amendments were made in 1990 to address the problems of acid rain , ozone depletion , and toxic air pollution, and to establish a national permit program for stationary sources, and increased enforcement authority. (wikipedia.org)
  • The law encourages prevention of regional air pollution and control programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also provides technical and financial assistance for air pollution prevention at both state and local governments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grants for air pollution planning and control programs, and interstate air quality agencies and program cost limitations are also included in this section of the act. (wikipedia.org)
  • The act lists unregulated radioactive pollutants such as cadmium, arsenic, and polycyclic organic matter and mandates listing them if they will cause or contribute to air pollution that endangers public health, under section 7408 or 7412. (wikipedia.org)
  • To protect the environment from existing pollutants, there is a need to promote innovation in pollution abatement technologies. (omicsonline.org)
  • Air pollution in the United States EPA: Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Overview, a brief description of the sections of the Clean Air Act related to air toxics as well as further links to relevant rules, reports, and programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Is Air Pollution? (everything2.com)
  • Air pollution in its great magnitude has existed in the 20th century from the coal burning industries of the early century to the fossil burning technology in the new century. (everything2.com)
  • The problems of air pollution are a major problem for highly developed nations whose large industrial bases and highly developed infrastructures generate much of the air pollution. (everything2.com)
  • In the United Kingdom, traffic is the major cause of air pollution in British cities. (everything2.com)
  • In the past, severe pollution in London during 1952 added with low winds and high-pressure air had taken more than four thousand lives and another seven hundred in 1962, in what was called the 'Dark Years' because of the dense dark polluted air. (everything2.com)
  • Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution, such as air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination, municipal solid waste mishandling, and environmental impact assessments of certain localities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Act defines "air pollutant" to include "any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactivesubstance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. (justia.com)
  • In 1990 the energy sector emitted around 2.3 million tons of such pollution, accounting for 35% of total atmospheric emissions and 53% of emissions from stationary sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollution, noise from traffic or neighbours, or litter and mess on the streets can affect people's quality of life. (www.gov.uk)
  • Air pollution, for example from road transport, harms our health and wellbeing. (www.gov.uk)
  • Air pollution also damages biodiversity, reduces crop yields and contributes to climate change. (www.gov.uk)
  • We followed this with 'Air pollution: action in a changing climate' , which explained the benefits of combining work on climate change and air quality. (www.gov.uk)
  • We publish daily forecasts of air pollution and health advice so that those with health conditions such as heart or lung problems or asthma can protect their health. (www.gov.uk)
  • The Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants advises government on the health effects of air pollution. (www.gov.uk)
  • The Department of Health has published an indicator for air pollution as part of its Public Health Outcomes Framework . (www.gov.uk)
  • In 2013 the burning of fossil fuels produced around 32 billion tonnes (32 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide and additional air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the late 1960s, the Air Pollution Control Office of the U.S. EPA initiated research projects that would lead to the development of models for the use by urban and transportation planners. (wikipedia.org)
  • The atmospheric dispersion models are also known as atmospheric diffusion models, air dispersion models, air quality models, and air pollution dispersion models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The environmental impact of the coal industry includes issues such as land use, waste management, water and air pollution, caused by the coal mining, processing and the use of its products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants with air pollution controls such as wet scrubbers typically transfer the captured pollutants to the wastewater stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metal forging appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, and street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of urine and manure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952. (wikipedia.org)
  • Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread widely after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent Organic Po
  • Weight of pollutants from heating and power generation enterprises, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and oil and gas sector Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of chemicals - industrial substances such as poly-chloride biphenyl, pesticides of the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) type and harmful waste products of dioxin type - the compounds and mixtures of which have toxic properties, are resistant to decomposition and higher bioaccumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • ozone
  • In the presence of sunlight, nitrogen oxides combine with hydrocarbons to form a secondary class of pollutants, the photochemical oxidants, among them ozone and the eye-stinging peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN). (questia.com)
  • In the presence of sunlight, nitrogen oxides combine with hydrocarbons to form a secondary class of pollutants, the photochemical oxidants, among them ozone ozone , an allotropic form of the chemical element oxygen (see allotropy). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gas emitted into the air from industrial and chemical processes, such as ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and others. (free.fr)
  • But ozone is a pollutant near the surface where it is a by-product of smog. (wikipedia.org)
  • originate
  • Sources: USEPA's original list & Modifications Most air toxics originate from human-made sources, including mobile sources (e.g., cars, trucks, buses) and stationary sources (e.g., factories, refineries, power plants), as well as indoor sources (e.g., building materials and activities such as cleaning). (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • The plan was for traffic police to stop vehicles randomly on roads leading into the city of London, the officer would then measure the amounts of air pollutants being released using a CO 2 measuring reader fixed in the owner's vehicle's exhaust. (everything2.com)
  • bioaccumulation
  • The Administrator may establish a lesser quantity, or in the case of radionuclides different criteria, for a major source than that specified in the previous sentence, on the basis of the potency of the air pollutant, persistence, potential for bioaccumulation, other characteristics of the air pollutant, or other relevant factors. (house.gov)
  • soil
  • Out of 31 patent assignees, the United States Secretary of Agriculture obtained maximum patents followed by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. Comparison among technological groups indicated that maximum patents (33%) were associated with technologies for reclamation of contaminated soil followed by wastewater and sewage treatment technologies (22%) and use of micro-organisms (20%) natural as well as genetically engineered for bioremediation of environmental pollutants. (omicsonline.org)
  • This essential publication also evaluates facility emissions, plausible air concentrations, the potential for deposition of pollutants onto plant, soil, and water surfaces, the movement and accumulation of pollutants through environmental media, and the potential for human exposure. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Authors state that iron and steel production is a source of large-scale PAH, heavy metal, chlorophenol, and creosote discharges into air, water, and soil. (silentspring.org)
  • 1999
  • Estimates from 1999 show that approximately 30% of air toxics are emitted from area sources. (ct.gov)
  • organic
  • For example, forest fires produce air toxics, such as particulates and volatile organic compounds. (ct.gov)
  • Bioremediation involves naturally occurring organisms to break down or neutralize inorganic and organic pollutants into less toxic or nontoxic forms. (omicsonline.org)
  • 4 Includes organic compounds with more than one benzene ring, and which have a boiling point greater than or equal to 100 °C. ^5 A type of atom which spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • For pollutants that have a very high spatio-temporal variability (i.e. have very steep distance to source decay such as black carbon) and for epidemiological studies statistical land-use regression models are also used. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitrogen
  • Nitrogen oxides also react with oxygen in the air to form nitrogen dioxide, a foul-smelling brown gas. (questia.com)
  • These pollutants are often transported over the North Sea and produce adverse effects in western Scandinavia, where sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide from UK and central Europe are generating acid rain, especially in Norway and Sweden. (everything2.com)
  • Like most other member states, the UK is facing difficulties in meeting the EU air quality standards for concentrations of nitrogen dioxide alongside some of our busiest roads. (www.gov.uk)
  • include
  • The Clean Air Act was the first major environmental law in the United States to include a provision for citizen suits . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulp mill air emissions include chemicals classified by IARC as human carcinogens. (silentspring.org)
  • It is performed with computer programs that include algorithms to solve the mathematical equations that govern the pollutant dispersion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dispersion models vary depending on the mathematics used to develop the model, but all require the input of data that may include: Meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, the amount of atmospheric turbulence (as characterized by what is called the "stability class"), the ambient air temperature, the height to the bottom of any inversion aloft that may be present, cloud cover and solar radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the modern, advanced dispersion modeling programs include a pre-processor module for the input of meteorological and other data, and many also include a post-processor module for graphing the output data and/or plotting the area impacted by the air pollutants on maps. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Air dispersion models are also used by public safety responders and emergency management personnel for emergency planning of accidental chemical releases. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • A large volume of air with certain meteorological or polluted characteristics, e,g, a heat inversion or smogginess-while in one location. (free.fr)
  • The characteristics can change as the air mass moves away. (free.fr)
  • ambient air quality
  • The standards are for air pollutants not covered by National Ambient Air Quality Standards-NAAQS, that may cause an increase in fatalities or in serious, irreversible, or incapacitating illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dispersion models are important to governmental agencies tasked with protecting and managing the ambient air quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The models are typically employed to determine whether existing or proposed new industrial facilities are or will be in compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in the United States and other nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • area
  • The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct EPA to set standards for all major sources of air toxics (and some area sources that are of particular concern). (wikipedia.org)
  • If they are falling short, they must declare an Air Quality Management Area and produce an action plan showing what they are going to do to meet standards. (www.gov.uk)
  • Dust degrades air quality in the immediate area, has an adverse impact on vegetative life, and constitutes health and safety hazards for mine workers and nearby residents. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Most of the water in Kazakhstan is polluted by industrial effluents, pesticide and fertilizer residue, and, in some places, radioactive elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clean Air
  • Reviewing his tenure as EPA Administrator under President George H. W. Bush , William K. Reilly characterized passage of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act as his most notable accomplishment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These standards are authorized by Section 112 of the 1970 Clean Air Act and the regulations are published in 40 CFR Parts 61 and 63. (wikipedia.org)
  • Section 202(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act, as added by Pub. (justia.com)
  • At industrial facilities, this type of consequence assessment or emergency planning is required under the Clean Air Act (United States) (CAA) codified in Part 68 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation, The Clean Air Act of 1956. (wikipedia.org)
  • leaks
  • These sources emit air toxics through various means, including emissions stacks and vents, fugitive process emissions, equipment leaks, material transfer and handling, or accidental releases. (ct.gov)
  • environmental
  • It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws , and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of present study was to analyze the patenting trends in bioremediation technologies for environmental pollutants. (omicsonline.org)
  • After various international environmental agreements, governments of different countries have focused on green product and process innovations to minimize environmental risk, but there has been little interest in developing eco-friendly technologies for removing the environmental pollutants. (omicsonline.org)
  • Risks
  • The comprehensive text assesses the human health risks associated with exposure to facility emitted pollutants-especially the highly toxic dioxin. (foyles.co.uk)
  • combustion
  • One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many centuries later Leonardo da Vinci built on Philo's work by observing that a portion of air is consumed during combustion and respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the late 17th century, Robert Boyle proved that air is necessary for combustion. (wikipedia.org)
  • clean air
  • Simply put, the clean air of New York City must not come at the expense of dirty air in areas where gas drilling is concentrated. (blogspot.ae)
  • Those in Pennsylvania's gas drilling communities as well as New York City have a right to breathe clean air and to breathe easy. (blogspot.ae)
  • quality
  • Three changes contributed to the winter season air quality improvements over the past several years. (blogspot.ae)
  • Neighborhoods with the highest density of emissions reductions from boiler conversions - such as northern Manhattan, northern Queens, and the South Bronx - saw the greatest improvement in air quality. (blogspot.ae)
  • Atmospheric water generation is a new technology that can provide high quality drinking water by extracting water from the air by cooling the air and thus condensing water vapor. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • On Friday, a report was released that stated that New York City's air was the cleanest in 50 years, and that 800 lives would be saved each year as a result. (blogspot.ae)
  • help
  • An efficient HEPA air purifier for Lead dust may also help to reduce health risk as a result of decomposing lead-based paint chips, but not entirely or on a wholehome basis. (home-air-purifier-expert.com)