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  • foodborne
  • State and local health departments continue to investigate and report FBDOs as part of efforts to better understand and define the epidemiology of foodborne disease in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The reporting of foodborne and waterborne diseases in the United States began greater than 60 years ago when state and territorial health officers, concerned about the high morbidity and mortality caused by typhoid fever and infantile diarrhea, recommended that cases of "enteric fever" be investigated and reported. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1961, CDC -- then the Communicable Disease Center -- assumed responsibility for publishing reports concerning foodborne illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Altekruse SF, Stern NJ, Fields PI, Swerdlow DL (1999) Campylobacter jejuni- an emerging foodborne pathogen. (springer.com)
  • rapidly
  • This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 22, No 11, 29 October 1998 contains information on enterococci with acquired resistance to vancomycin and other glycopeptides, which has emerged and spread rapidly through Europe and the United States since 1988. (health.gov.au)
  • Enterococci with acquired resistance to vancomycin and other glycopeptides (VRE) have emerged and spread rapidly through Europe and the United States since 1988. (health.gov.au)
  • dengue
  • In some infected persons a milder form, dengue fever (DF), may develop, whereas in a smaller proportion, the severe disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), develops, which is characterized by an excessive capillary permeability that may lead to shock (dengue shock syndrome [DSS]) and death. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • humans
  • Blastomycosis (also known as "North American blastomycosis", "Blastomycetic dermatitis", and "Gilchrist's disease") is a fungal infection of humans and other animals, notably dogs and occasionally cats, caused by the organism Blastomyces dermatitidis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, DHS has not yet focused its regulatory program for reclaimed wastewaters on the control of the cyst-forming and oocyst-forming pathogenic protozoans that are known to cause significant disease in humans. (gfredlee.com)
  • The nematodes can also infect humans and cause the disease called mammomonogamiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only M. laryngeus is known to infect and cause disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that humans can contract the disease by consuming material from animals infected with the bovine form of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • all were aged less than 3 years and died within 3 weeks of disease onset. (cdc.gov)
  • The fourth pattern is one of degenerative diseases onset by a diet high in total fat, cholesterol, sugar, and other refined carbohydrates and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • endemic areas
  • The disease occurs in several endemic areas, the most important of which is in eastern North America, particularly in the western and northern periphery of the Great Lakes Basin, extending eastward along the south shore of the St. Lawrence River Valley and southward in the territory spanned by the central Appalachian Mountains in the east, to the Mississippi River Valley in the west. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurrence
  • The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. (scielo.org.za)
  • Health
  • In 1988, the World Health Assembly formally resolved to eradicate polio, and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was born. (who.int)
  • The organised efforts of society to prevent disease, promote health, and pro- long life could, of course, include all aspects of the health sector. (australiangraduate.com)
  • last
  • As of the last few years new designs have emerged that work on a needle that is low dead space and fits onto and transforms high dead space syringes into low dead space syringes. (wikipedia.org)
  • World Polio Day, on 24 October, celebrates this progress and the people who make it possible by getting their own children vaccinated and those working to reach every last child until no child's future is threatened by the crippling impact of this disease. (who.int)
  • human disease
  • Even after what is considered to be good conventional domestic wastewater treatment and chlorination, domestic wastewaters released to surface waters in nearby streams, lakes, estuaries or coastal marine waters, may contain large numbers of enteroviruses and pathogenic protozoans that can readily cause human disease upon ingestion and, to a lesser extent, body contact with these waters. (gfredlee.com)
  • known
  • Cannibalism has also been implicated as a transmission mechanism for abnormal prions, causing the disease known as kuru, once found primarily among women and children of the Fore people in Papua New Guinea. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatal
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a universally fatal brain disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • The duration of the disease varies greatly, but sporadic (non-inherited) CJD can be fatal within months or even weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • coverage
  • The RCC urged all countries to ensure high routine vaccination coverage, high-quality disease surveillance and adherence to WHO poliovirus containment requirements. (who.int)
  • fever
  • Those with Legionnaires' disease usually have fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • The main driver of seasonality of campylobacter remains elusive and underscores the need to identify the major serotypes and routes of transmission for this disease. (springer.com)
  • control
  • As long as polio is circulating somewhere in the world, everyone who is not immunized is at risk," says Dr Patrick O'Connor, Team Lead, Accelerated Disease Control, WHO/Europe. (who.int)
  • Although acute care has characterized all medical care until recently, several varieties of managed care have emerged in the past decades in an effort to improve care, reduce unnecessary service utilization and control spiraling costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • The RCC identified 3 countries at high risk for the possible spread of poliovirus if the virus were to be imported or emerge (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania and Ukraine) and 21 countries considered to be at intermediate risk. (who.int)
  • Risk factors for infection include older age, history of smoking, chronic lung disease, and poor immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is based on the philosophy of harm reduction that attempts to reduce the risk factors for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • spread
  • Legionnaires' disease is usually spread by the breathing in of aerosolized water and/or soil contaminated with the Legionella bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • upper
  • The city's elite black colleges were founded between 1865 and 1885, and despite disenfranchisement and the later imposition of Jim Crow laws in the 1910s, a prosperous black middle class and upper class emerged. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrition
  • The current nutrition transition seen in the emerging markets of Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, North Africa, and urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa is largely a product of globalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • cases
  • Before the first vaccine against polio was introduced in 1955, polio was a widely feared disease that infected most people in childhood, causing paralysis in approximately 1 in 200 cases. (who.int)
  • It is estimated that Legionnaires' disease is the cause of between two and nine percent of pneumonia cases that occur in the community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 90% of cases of Legionnaires' disease are caused by the bacteria Legionella pneumophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevent
  • The fifth pattern, and most recently emerging pattern, is characterized by a behavioral change reflective of a desire to prevent or delay degenerative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allergy
  • She holds a PhD in Biochemistry/Immunology from the University of Montpellier, France, directed toward auto-immune disease mechanisms, and held a Postdoc fellow position in Allergy at the University of Minnesota. (tropicalmedicine2016.com)
  • recent
  • It is recommended that those with severe pneumonia and those with pneumonia and a recent travel history be tested for the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • require
  • Title 63 Oklahoma Statute §1-503 as well as Oklahoma Administrative Code (OAC) Title 310, Chapter 515 require that healthcare providers and laboratories report cases of certain communicable diseases to the OSDH. (ok.gov)
  • high
  • The fourth pattern is one of degenerative diseases onset by a diet high in total fat, cholesterol, sugar, and other refined carbohydrates and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • Those with Legionnaires' disease usually have fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmission
  • 20-22) Deforestation has facilitated disease emergence both through increased "bush-meat" trade and by creating altered habitats that promote insect vector proliferation (e.g., mosquitoes) and transmission of malaria. (thefreelibrary.com)