• dengue hemor
  • In some infected persons a milder form, dengue fever (DF), may develop, whereas in a smaller proportion, the severe disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), develops, which is characterized by an excessive capillary permeability that may lead to shock (dengue shock syndrome [DSS]) and death. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • waterborne
  • The reporting of foodborne and waterborne diseases in the United States began greater than 60 years ago when state and territorial health officers, concerned about the high morbidity and mortality caused by typhoid fever and infantile diarrhea, recommended that cases of "enteric fever" be investigated and reported. (cdc.gov)
  • Even though major outbreaks of waterborne disease of the Milwaukee type are comparatively rare, there is substantial evidence that human enteric pathogens that are frequently present in domestic water supplies are responsible for low-level incidence of chronic gastroenteritis (upset stomach, vomiting, diarrhea) as well as other "mild illness" in people. (gfredlee.com)
  • rapidly
  • This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 22, No 11, 29 October 1998 contains information on enterococci with acquired resistance to vancomycin and other glycopeptides, which has emerged and spread rapidly through Europe and the United States since 1988. (health.gov.au)
  • Enterococci with acquired resistance to vancomycin and other glycopeptides (VRE) have emerged and spread rapidly through Europe and the United States since 1988. (health.gov.au)
  • onset
  • all were aged less than 3 years and died within 3 weeks of disease onset. (cdc.gov)
  • The fourth pattern is one of degenerative diseases onset by a diet high in total fat, cholesterol, sugar, and other refined carbohydrates and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral
  • Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral disease of public health importance in Africa and South America, and of interest for travel clinics in other areas of the world. (scielo.br)
  • The first chapter provides an introduction to viral hepatitis and to the global response to this group of diseases. (blogspot.com)
  • humans
  • Blastomycosis (also known as "North American blastomycosis", "Blastomycetic dermatitis", and "Gilchrist's disease") is a fungal infection of humans and other animals, notably dogs and occasionally cats, caused by the organism Blastomyces dermatitidis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, DHS has not yet focused its regulatory program for reclaimed wastewaters on the control of the cyst-forming and oocyst-forming pathogenic protozoans that are known to cause significant disease in humans. (gfredlee.com)
  • The nematodes can also infect humans and cause the disease called mammomonogamiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only M. laryngeus is known to infect and cause disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that humans can contract the disease by consuming material from animals infected with the bovine form of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • endemic
  • The disease occurs in several endemic areas, the most important of which is in eastern North America, particularly in the western and northern periphery of the Great Lakes Basin, extending eastward along the south shore of the St. Lawrence River Valley and southward in the territory spanned by the central Appalachian Mountains in the east, to the Mississippi River Valley in the west. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • As of the last few years new designs have emerged that work on a needle that is low dead space and fits onto and transforms high dead space syringes into low dead space syringes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such change has been dramatic over the past 100 years or so, with the decline of communicable diseases and the rise in non-communicable diseases, particularly in developed countries. (australiangraduate.com)
  • Despite South Asia's many challenges, including a rapid increase in non-communicable eye diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, the many and varied successes of the last thirty years are a cause for celebration. (cehjournal.org)
  • Life expectancy at birth across South Asia has increased by 11 years, from 57 years in 1988 to 68 years in 2015, with the increase ranging from 6 years in Pakistan to 19 years in Bhutan. (cehjournal.org)
  • Infant and under-five mortality rates have decreased in all countries in South Asia from 1988 to 2016 and the population aged 50 years and older has increased significantly. (cehjournal.org)
  • The year 1988 began with the reaffirmation of the Alma-Ata 'Health for all' declaration in Riga, Latvia - ten years after it first identified primary health care as the key to the attainment of the goal of Health for All. (cehjournal.org)
  • Neisseria meningitidis is an exclusive human pathogen causing serious disease worldwide resulting in rapid mortality, and is associated with large epidemics every 5 -10 years. (scielo.org.za)
  • sporadic
  • 5,6 Meningococcal disease is characterised by sporadic cases throughout the year with occasional small clusters and a definite seasonal increase in winter and early spring. (scielo.org.za)
  • The duration of the disease varies greatly, but sporadic (non-inherited) CJD can be fatal within months or even weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Control
  • A Report on the Administration of Vaccination Programs and the Control of Communicable Diseases in Canada, October 1989. (infolynk.ca)
  • Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga. (blogspot.com)
  • Although acute care has characterized all medical care until recently, several varieties of managed care have emerged in the past decades in an effort to improve care, reduce unnecessary service utilization and control spiraling costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • In particular, the females of many species of mosquitoes are blood-eating pests and dangerous vectors of diseases, whereas members of the similar-looking Chironomidae and Tipulidae are not. (wikipedia.org)
  • term
  • The term "ethnomedicine" will be used to refer to those beliefs and practices relating to disease which are the products of indigenous cultural development and are not explicitly derived from the conceptual framework of modern medicine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • differ
  • The distinction is of great practical importance because the two subfamilies tend to differ in their significance as vectors of different classes of diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • The current nutrition transition seen in the emerging markets of Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, North Africa, and urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa is largely a product of globalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • It started its operations on 1 November 1988 after taking over the treatment of skin diseases from Middle Road Hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even after what is considered to be good conventional domestic wastewater treatment and chlorination, domestic wastewaters released to surface waters in nearby streams, lakes, estuaries or coastal marine waters, may contain large numbers of enteroviruses and pathogenic protozoans that can readily cause human disease upon ingestion and, to a lesser extent, body contact with these waters. (gfredlee.com)
  • In this light, most of the following discussion focuses on the non-Western, nonindustrialized societies of the world, although it is clear that in "modern" societies as well there exist beliefs and practices relating to disease and its treatment which are based on magical or religious conceptions rather than on those of scientific medicine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Treatment of Legionnaires' disease is with antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Case
  • This would be the case where a disease is believed to be caused by the intrusion of an object which contains a spirit, and it is the latter to which primary causative influence is attributed (e.g. (encyclopedia.com)
  • people
  • Cannibalism has also been implicated as a transmission mechanism for abnormal prions, causing the disease known as kuru, once found primarily among women and children of the Fore people in Papua New Guinea. (wikipedia.org)
  • fever
  • Roughly speaking, arboviral diseases such as yellow fever and dengue fever tend to be transmitted by Culicine species, not necessarily in the genus Culex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those with Legionnaires' disease usually have fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Much more serious though, are the roles of many species of mosquitoes as vectors of diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many species of mosquitoes are not blood eaters and of those that are, many create a "high to low pressure" in the blood to obtain it and do not transmit disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • spread
  • Legionnaires' disease is usually spread by the breathing in of aerosolized water and/or soil contaminated with the Legionella bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • In all human groups, no matter how small or technologically primitive, there exists a body of belief about the nature of disease, its causation and cure, and its relations to other aspects of group life. (encyclopedia.com)
  • upper
  • The city's elite black colleges were founded between 1865 and 1885, and despite disenfranchisement and the later imposition of Jim Crow laws in the 1910s, a prosperous black middle class and upper class emerged. (wikipedia.org)
  • shift
  • This pattern reveals a shift in serogroups with an increase of serogroup B disease in the Pretoria region, and the need for ongoing monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and the value of ceftriaxone for favourable therapeutic outcome. (scielo.org.za)
  • cases
  • It is estimated that Legionnaires' disease is the cause of between two and nine percent of pneumonia cases that occur in the community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreaks of disease account for a minority of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 90% of cases of Legionnaires' disease are caused by the bacteria Legionella pneumophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevent
  • The fifth pattern, and most recently emerging pattern, is characterized by a behavioral change reflective of a desire to prevent or delay degenerative diseases. (wikipedia.org)