• anaerobic
  • C. botulinum thrives in moist foods that are low in salt (less than 10%), particularly when they are stored at temperatures above 38°F. These organisms will not grow in an aerobic environment, but other aerobic organisms in a closed system can rapidly convert an aerobic environment to an anaerobic environment by using the oxygen for their own growth, permitting growth of C. botulinum . (uga.edu)
  • In the laboratory, C. botulinum is usually isolated in tryptose sulfite cycloserine (TSC) growth medium in an anaerobic environment with less than 2% oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridial
  • Methods for treating obsessions and compulsions by local administration of a Clostridial toxin. (google.es)
  • In particular, the present invention includes methods for treating various repetitive and/or injurious motor activity symptoms of certain obsessive compulsive disorders by peripheral administration of a Clostridial toxin. (google.es)
  • perfringens type
  • The major toxins involved in C. perfringens type A-mediated gas gangrene, the α-toxin and perfringolysin O, together with other extracellular toxins such as collagenase and hyaluronidase, are chromosomally encoded. (asmscience.org)
  • The potency of C. perfringens type D vaccines is measured in terms of their ability to induce antitoxins against the epsilon toxoid and the in vivo mouse neutralisation test (MNT) is the statutory method for determining the level of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies in the sera of vaccinated rabbits or guinea pigs. (scielo.org.za)
  • eukaryotic
  • The exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is another example of an AB toxin that targets the eukaryotic elongation factor 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane-damaging cytolysins can be classified into three types based on their damaging mechanism: Cytolysins which attack eukaryotic cells' bilayer membranes by dissolving their phospholipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • However, C. botulinum tolerates traces of oxygen due to the enzyme superoxide dismutase, which is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • They produce the botulinum toxin when exposed to low oxygen levels and certain temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion system
  • The typical RTX toxin is encoded by a four-gene operon comprising, in order, the modifying enzyme, the toxin structural gene, and the two components of the secretion system. (asmscience.org)
  • produce
  • The toxins are closely related proteins, produced as a single polypeptide chain and subsequently altered to produce a heavy chain and a light chain connected by disulfide bonds. (springer.com)
  • To be approved, a vaccine must produce an antibody response of at least 5 U/mL of anti-epsilon toxin antibodies (Rosskopf-Streicher, Volkers & Werner 2003). (scielo.org.za)
  • exposure
  • The main difference between types hinges on the route of exposure to the toxin. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Properties leading to the susceptibility of nervous tissue include a high surface area of neurons, a high lipid content which retains lipophilic toxins, high blood flow to the brain inducing increased effective toxin exposure, and the persistence of neurons through an individual's lifetime, leading to compounding of damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • adverse
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one critical example of protection which prevents toxins and other adverse compounds from reaching the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • Targets of this type of cytolysins range from general cell membranes to more specific microorganisms, such as cholesterols and phagocyte membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • protective
  • 2011). Whist there is no alternative to immunising test animals when assessing the potency of vaccines, the quantification of protective anti-epsilon toxin antibodies may be determined by in vitro methods. (scielo.org.za)