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  • glial fibrill
  • The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the structural protein of the glial intermediate filament, which constitutes the morphological basis of astrogliosis. (springer.com)
  • Class III contains the proteins vimentin, desmin, peripherin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its potential clinical use in the therapeutic decision making process is substantiated by a vast body of literature validating variations in serum 100B levels with standard modalities for prognosticating the extent of CNS damage: alterations in neuroimaging, cerebrospinal pressure, and other brain molecular markers (neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • amyloid plaques
  • Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau), causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) characteristic of AD. (frontiersin.org)
  • We recently reported an inverse relationship between cortical amyloid deposits, as viewed by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the amyloid binding agent, Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and the amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β 42 (Aβ 42 ), the primary constituent of brain amyloid plaques (Fagan et al, 2006 , 2007 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This review provides a thorough description of several factors involved in the development of the pathological changes associated with AD, such as neuroinflammatory oxidative stress and methylation, apoptosis, NFTs, amyloid plaques, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • neurons
  • We explored the relationship between in vivo brain amyloid and CSF markers of proteins present in neurons and constituents of neurofibrillary tangles (tau and ptau 181 ), as well as Aβ species in plasma, and investigated whether the CSF Aβ 42 /PIB relationship remains robust in this large cohort of non-demented individuals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The present study aims to evaluate the expression stability of seven housekeeping genes in rat granule neurons treated with cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • GeNorm identified transferrin receptor ( Tfrc ) and microglobulin beta-2 ( B2m ) the most stable genes followed by ribosomal protein L19 ( Rpl19 ) whereas β-actin ( ActB ) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase ( Gapdh ) the most fluctuated ones in these neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • The major neurofilament subunits occupy the class IV family of intermediate filaments, along with two other filament proteins of neurons, alpha-internexin and nestin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fourth class IV subunit, alpha-internexin (NF66) was discovered much later than NF-L, NF-M and NF-H, and is found co-polymerized with these proteins in most mature neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally expressed earlier in development than the other neurofilament proteins and may be found in some neurons in the apparent absence of the neurofilament triplet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fifth protein belonging to class IV, Nestin, is found in developing neurons and glia, and the presence of this protein is widely used to define neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The class III intermediate filament protein subunit peripherin is found in neurofilaments along with the class IV subunits in a few neurons, mostly in the peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally another class III intermediate filament subunit, vimentin, is found in developing neurons and a few very unusual neurons in the adult in association with class IV proteins, such as the horizontal neurons of the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • The present invention identifies biomarkers that are diagnostic of nerve cell injury and/or neuronal disorders. (google.ca)
  • These techniques provide simple yet sensitive approaches to diagnosing damage to the central nervous system, brain injury and neuronal disorders using biological fluids. (google.ca)
  • Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzyme (IDE)s such as neprilysin or insulin IDE. (frontiersin.org)
  • NMR investigation of the interaction between the neuronal protein tau and the microtubules. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the developing CNS it acts as a neurotrophic factor and neuronal survival protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of markers of neural injury and immune activation have been found in HIV dementia, but neither of those, nor CSF HIV-1 RNA levels have been proven useful as diagnostic or prognostic pseudomarkers in HIV dementia. (springer.com)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore more research for better definition of exposure, as well as for the identification of early specific biomarkers for the diagnosis of these diseases is needed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Though early theories assumed that the OCBs were somehow pathogenic autoantigens, recent research has shown that the IgG present in the OCBs are antibodies against debris, and therefore, OCBs seem to be just a secondary effect of MS. Nevertheless, OCBs remain useful as a biomarker. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • DSIP is an amphiphilic peptide of molecular weight 850 daltons with the amino acid motif: N-Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu-C It has been found in both free and bound forms in the hypothalamus, limbic system and pituitary as well as various peripheral organs, tissues and body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Two methods of analysis are possible: (a) protein electrophoresis, a method of analyzing the composition of fluids, also known as "agarose gel electrophoresis/Coomassie Blue staining", and (b) the combination of isoelectric focusing/silver staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Even more than 12 OCBs can appear in MS. Each one of them represent proteins (or protein fragments) secreted by plasma cells, although why exactly these bands are present, and which proteins these bands represent, has not yet been fully elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysfunction
  • The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies (LB), a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • amino acids
  • In HIV, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 downregulates the expression of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) in peptide-treated PBMCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALOX12 is 75 kilodalton protein composed of 663 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnostic
  • Detection of different biomarkers of the invention are also diagnostic of the degree of severity of nerve injury, the cell(s) involved in the injury, and the subcellular localization of the. (google.ca)
  • The diagnostic potential of the biomarker H-FABP for heart injury was discovered in 1988 by Professor Jan Glatz (Maastricht, Netherlands). (wikipedia.org)
  • constituent
  • As a constituent (residue) of proteins, its side chain can undergo O-linked glycosylation, which may be functionally related to[clarification needed] diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (hFABP) also known as mammary-derived growth inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FABP3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acid-binding protein 3 gene contains four exons and its function is to arrest growth of mammary epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurofilament light polypeptide is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEFL gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amyloid precursor protein gene is on chromosome 21, and so is over-expressed in Down syndrome, leading to amyloid β (Aβ) over-production, a major upstream pathway leading to Alzheimer disease (AD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been suggested that in the body it complexes with carrier proteins to prevent degradation, or exists as a component of a large precursor molecule, but as yet no structure or gene has been found for this precursor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entrez Gene: S100B S100 calcium binding protein B". Verma N, Karmakar M, Singh KP, Smita S (February 2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • These three alleles encode similar proteins different only in 112th residue and 158th residue, respectively [ 2 ] ( Figure 1 ). (omicsonline.org)
  • electrophoresis
  • QPNC-PAGE, or quantitative preparative native continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is a high-resolution and a highly accurate technique applied in biochemistry and bioinorganic chemistry to separate proteins quantitatively by isoelectric point. (wikipedia.org)
  • This standardized variant of native gel electrophoresis is used by biologists to isolate active or native metalloproteins in biological samples and to resolve properly and improperly folded metal cofactor-containing proteins or protein isoforms in complex protein mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In gel electrophoresis proteins are normally separated by charge, size, or shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the specific properties of the prepared gel and electrophoresis buffer solution (which is basic and contains Tris-HCl and NaN3), most proteins of a biological system (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the pH value (10.00) of the electrophoresis buffer does not correspond to a physiological pH value within a cell or tissue type, the separated ring-shaped protein bands are eluted continuously into a physiological buffer solution (pH 8.00) and isolated in different fractions (see figure Electropherogram). (wikipedia.org)
  • isolate
  • The target antigens for these antibodies is not easy to find because it requires to isolate a single kind of protein in each band, though new techniques are able to do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • The understanding of the processes in organisms, which are mainly driven by biochemical reactions and protein-protein interactions, depends to a great extent on our ability to isolate active proteins in biological samples for more detailed examination of chemical structure and physiological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Precipitated proteins (bound fraction, B) were immunoblotted with the antibodies as indicated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In MS, normally only OCBs made of immunoglobulin G antibodies are considered, though sometimes other proteins can be taken into account, like lipid-specific immunoglobulin M. The presence of these IgM OCBs is associated with a more severe course. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • If both biomarkers were negative, there is 0% mortality at 6 months, in the authors own words this "represents a particularly worthwhile clinical outcome, especially because it was observed in patients admitted into hospital for suspected ACS. (wikipedia.org)
  • These observations are consistent with the idea of preclinical AD and suggest that these measures may have clinical utility as antecedent biomarkers of the disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pharmacokinetic modeling of interleukin- 1 receptor antagonist in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage," British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 317-325, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • polypeptide
  • Neurofilaments are composed of polypeptide chains or subunits which belong to the same protein family as the intermediate filaments of other tissues such as keratin subunits, which make 10 nm filaments expressed specifically in epithelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three triplet proteins contain long stretches of polypeptide sequence rich in glutamic acid residues, and NF-M and especially NF-H also contain multiple tandemly repeated serine phosphorylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • The presence of sAPPf and sAPP heteromers should be taken into consideration when exploring the levels of sAPPα and sAPPβ as potential CSF biomarkers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, these data reveal that the contactin-2 changes observed in tissues are reflected in CSF, suggesting that decreased contactin-2 CSF levels might be a biomarker reflecting synaptic or axonal loss. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In several studies, levels of DSIP in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are significantly deviated from the norm in patients with MDD, though there are contradictions as to whether levels are higher or lower than healthy control patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • This protein may function in neurite extension, proliferation of melanoma cells, stimulation of Ca2+ fluxes, inhibition of PKC-mediated phosphorylation, astrocytosis and axonal proliferation, and inhibition of microtubule assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • The spectrins are a family of widely distributed cytoskeletal proteins which are involved in actin crosslinking, cell adhesion, intercellular communication and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The SDS-PAGE molecular masses of the triplet proteins vary between mammalian species, with larger species usually having larger proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The real molecular masses of these proteins are considerably lower than estimated based on SDS-PAGE mobility, particularly in the case of NF-H and NF-M. This is due to the highly charged C-terminal regions of the molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Proteins perform several functions in living organisms, including catalytic reactions and transport of molecules or ions within the cells, the organs or the whole body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these cofactors (e.g., iron, copper, or zinc) play a key role in vital enzymatic catalytic processes or stabilize globular protein molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the reduced state, the thiol group of cysteine is able to donate a reducing equivalent (H++ e−) to other molecules, such as reactive oxygen species to neutralize them, or to protein cysteines to maintain their reduced forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • Apolipoprotein E is a plasma protein that has an important role in transport and metabolism of lipids in serum as well as in central nervous system. (omicsonline.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E was known as a protein constituting lipid-rich plasma lipoproteins in the early 1970s. (omicsonline.org)
  • cerebral
  • Temporal profile and cellular localization of interleukin-6 protein after focal cerebral ischemia in rats," Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1256-1262, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • filaments
  • The family of proteins making intermediate filaments is divided into 5 major classes, the keratins forming the classes I and II. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NF-H and NF-M proteins have lengthy C-terminal tail domains that appear to control the spacing between neighboring filaments, generating aligned arrays with a fairly uniform interfilament spacing as seen in axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • strongly
  • A high reproducibility in gel pore size and a high-yield electroelution of proteins performed by this highly reliable technique strongly correlate with the polymerization time of the acrylamide gels representing an inherent stability constant of the separation system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally
  • Normally it is assumed that all the proteins that appear in the CSF, but are not present in the serum, are produced intrathecally (inside the CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)