• amyloid plaques
  • Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau), causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) characteristic of AD. (frontiersin.org)
  • We recently reported an inverse relationship between cortical amyloid deposits, as viewed by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the amyloid binding agent, Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and the amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β 42 (Aβ 42 ), the primary constituent of brain amyloid plaques (Fagan et al, 2006 , 2007 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This review provides a thorough description of several factors involved in the development of the pathological changes associated with AD, such as neuroinflammatory oxidative stress and methylation, apoptosis, NFTs, amyloid plaques, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • neurons
  • We explored the relationship between in vivo brain amyloid and CSF markers of proteins present in neurons and constituents of neurofibrillary tangles (tau and ptau 181 ), as well as Aβ species in plasma, and investigated whether the CSF Aβ 42 /PIB relationship remains robust in this large cohort of non-demented individuals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The present study aims to evaluate the expression stability of seven housekeeping genes in rat granule neurons treated with cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • GeNorm identified transferrin receptor ( Tfrc ) and microglobulin beta-2 ( B2m ) the most stable genes followed by ribosomal protein L19 ( Rpl19 ) whereas β-actin ( ActB ) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase ( Gapdh ) the most fluctuated ones in these neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • The major neurofilament subunits occupy the class IV family of intermediate filaments, along with two other filament proteins of neurons, alpha-internexin and nestin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fourth class IV subunit, alpha-internexin (NF66) was discovered much later than NF-L, NF-M and NF-H, and is found co-polymerized with these proteins in most mature neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally expressed earlier in development than the other neurofilament proteins and may be found in some neurons in the apparent absence of the neurofilament triplet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fifth protein belonging to class IV, Nestin, is found in developing neurons and glia, and the presence of this protein is widely used to define neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The class III intermediate filament protein subunit peripherin is found in neurofilaments along with the class IV subunits in a few neurons, mostly in the peripheral nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally another class III intermediate filament subunit, vimentin, is found in developing neurons and a few very unusual neurons in the adult in association with class IV proteins, such as the horizontal neurons of the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligoclonal
  • Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) are bands of immunoglobulins that are seen when a patient's blood serum, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lytic protein of HHV-6A virus was identified as the target of HHV-6 specific oligoclonal bands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligoclonal bands are found in: Multiple sclerosis Lyme disease Neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease) Systemic lupus erythematosus Neurosarcoidosis Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis Subarachnoid hemorrhage Syphilis Primary central nervous system lymphoma Sjögren's syndrome Guillain-Barré syndrome Meningeal carcinomatosis Multiple myeloma Parry-Romberg syndrome Oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis - The Medical School, Birmingham University Oligoclonal Bands in CSF - ClinLab Navigator Davenport RD, Keren DF (1988). (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrophoretic method provides higher resolution than the typical methods for serum protein analysis, and it is applied in the clinical laboratory to achieve higher-resolution separations of immunoglobulins for evaluation of oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid. (asmscience.org)
  • diagnosis
  • The invention provides for the reliable detection and identification of biomarkers, important for the diagnosis and prognosis of damage to the nervous system (central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)), brain injury and neural disorders. (google.ca)
  • Therefore more research for better definition of exposure, as well as for the identification of early specific biomarkers for the diagnosis of these diseases is needed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The brain MRI showed a small crescent of dependent fluid layering in the right posterior globe adjacent to the right optic nerve head, and pachymeningeal enhancement of the skull base dura along the clivus.This case demonstrates the utility of brain MRI and OCT findings in the early diagnosis of VKH syndrome, in the absence of prominent clinical signs of meningitis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CXC chemokine ligand 13 and interleukin 10 have emerged as CSF biomarkers for the diagnosis of CNS lymphoma. (ajnr.org)
  • Blood biomarkers may play a relevant role in early stroke diagnosis, outcome prediction, or treatment, supporting clinicians in assessing severity and predict outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • glial fibrill
  • Class III contains the proteins vimentin, desmin, peripherin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its potential clinical use in the therapeutic decision making process is substantiated by a vast body of literature validating variations in serum 100B levels with standard modalities for prognosticating the extent of CNS damage: alterations in neuroimaging, cerebrospinal pressure, and other brain molecular markers (neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • DSIP is an amphiphilic peptide of molecular weight 850 daltons with the amino acid motif: N-Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu-C It has been found in both free and bound forms in the hypothalamus, limbic system and pituitary as well as various peripheral organs, tissues and body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the last decade, S100B has emerged as a candidate peripheral biomarker of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • constituent
  • The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies (LB), a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, sortilin fragments are a prominent constituent of the extracellularly deposited protein products at SPs in human cerebrum. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a constituent (residue) of proteins, its side chain can undergo O-linked glycosylation, which may be functionally related to[clarification needed] diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • These techniques provide simple yet sensitive approaches to diagnosing damage to the central nervous system, brain injury and neuronal disorders using biological fluids. (google.ca)
  • Common mechanisms of environmental pollutants to increase Aβ, P-Tau, α-syn and neuronal death have been reported, including the oxidative stress mainly involved in the increase of Aβ and α-syn, and the reduced activity/protein levels of Aβ degrading enzyme (IDE)s such as neprilysin or insulin IDE. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the developing CNS it acts as a neurotrophic factor and neuronal survival protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (hFABP) also known as mammary-derived growth inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FABP3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acid-binding protein 3 gene contains four exons and its function is to arrest growth of mammary epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that in the body it complexes with carrier proteins to prevent degradation, or exists as a component of a large precursor molecule, but as yet no structure or gene has been found for this precursor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expansion of CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) triplet repeats in the gene coding for the Huntingtin protein results in an abnormal protein, which gradually damages cells in the brain, through mechanisms that are not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entrez Gene: S100B S100 calcium binding protein B". Verma N, Karmakar M, Singh KP, Smita S (February 2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • isolate
  • The target antigens for these antibodies is not easy to find because it requires to isolate a single kind of protein in each band, though new techniques are able to do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • The understanding of the processes in organisms, which are mainly driven by biochemical reactions and protein-protein interactions, depends to a great extent on our ability to isolate active proteins in biological samples for more detailed examination of chemical structure and physiological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • The protein/peptide profile in patients with damage to nerves and brain cells are distinguished from normal individuals using inexpensive techniques. (google.ca)
  • polypeptide
  • Neurofilaments are composed of polypeptide chains or subunits which belong to the same protein family as the intermediate filaments of other tissues such as keratin subunits, which make 10 nm filaments expressed specifically in epithelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three triplet proteins contain long stretches of polypeptide sequence rich in glutamic acid residues, and NF-M and especially NF-H also contain multiple tandemly repeated serine phosphorylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Even more than 12 OCBs can appear in MS. Each one of them represent proteins (or protein fragments) secreted by plasma cells, although why exactly these bands are present, and which proteins these bands represent, has not yet been fully elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • This protein may function in neurite extension, proliferation of melanoma cells, stimulation of Ca2+ fluxes, inhibition of PKC-mediated phosphorylation, astrocytosis and axonal proliferation, and inhibition of microtubule assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • The aim of isoelectric focusing (IEF), for example, is to separate proteins according to their isoelectric point (pI), thus, according to their charge at different pH values. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • Apolipoprotein E is a plasma protein that has an important role in transport and metabolism of lipids in serum as well as in central nervous system. (omicsonline.org)
  • Apolipoprotein E was known as a protein constituting lipid-rich plasma lipoproteins in the early 1970s. (omicsonline.org)
  • In several studies, levels of DSIP in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are significantly deviated from the norm in patients with MDD, though there are contradictions as to whether levels are higher or lower than healthy control patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • We previously reported that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β 42 (Aβ 42 ) serve as an excellent marker for brain amyloid as detected by the amyloid tracer, Pittsburgh compound B (PIB). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Fluid and imaging biomarkers of this pathology are currently being sought in order to confirm early diagnoses and, importantly, to identify individuals in the preclinical stage so emerging therapies ultimately have a chance to preserve normal brain function (Craig-Schapiro et al, 2008 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In a human study involving oral administration of 500 mg over 13 weeks, resveratrol was detected in cerebrospinal fluid, indicating that it had crossed the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The SDS-PAGE molecular masses of the triplet proteins vary between mammalian species, with larger species usually having larger proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The real molecular masses of these proteins are considerably lower than estimated based on SDS-PAGE mobility, particularly in the case of NF-H and NF-M. This is due to the highly charged C-terminal regions of the molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Proteins perform several functions in living organisms, including catalytic reactions and transport of molecules or ions within the cells, the organs or the whole body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these cofactors (e.g., iron, copper, or zinc) play a key role in vital enzymatic catalytic processes or stabilize globular protein molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the reduced state, the thiol group of cysteine is able to donate a reducing equivalent (H++ e−) to other molecules, such as reactive oxygen species to neutralize them, or to protein cysteines to maintain their reduced forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • If both biomarkers were negative, there is 0% mortality at 6 months, in the authors own words this "represents a particularly worthwhile clinical outcome, especially because it was observed in patients admitted into hospital for suspected ACS. (wikipedia.org)
  • These observations are consistent with the idea of preclinical AD and suggest that these measures may have clinical utility as antecedent biomarkers of the disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Binding assays represent the broadest range of functional assays for proteins in the clinical laboratory. (asmscience.org)
  • Of particular import are the tremendous advances that have been made in the technology for protein detection, and while not all of it has gained traction in the clinical immunology laboratory, this remains an area of huge growth. (asmscience.org)
  • Protein Analysis in the Clinical Immunology Laboratory, p 26-46. (asmscience.org)
  • antibodies
  • In MS, normally only OCBs made of immunoglobulin G antibodies are considered, though sometimes other proteins can be taken into account, like lipid-specific immunoglobulin M. The presence of these IgM OCBs is associated with a more severe course. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though early theories assumed that the OCBs were somehow pathogenic autoantigens, recent research has shown that the IgG present in the OCBs are antibodies against debris, and therefore, OCBs seem to be just a secondary effect of MS. Nevertheless, OCBs remain useful as a biomarker. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • The spectrins are a family of widely distributed cytoskeletal proteins which are involved in actin crosslinking, cell adhesion, intercellular communication and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally
  • Normally it is assumed that all the proteins that appear in the CSF, but are not present in the serum, are produced intrathecally (inside the CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • The simplest is the qualitative question of whether a protein serving as a physiological marker is present or absent in a particular specimen. (asmscience.org)
  • known
  • FABP3 is known to interact with TNNI3K in the context of interacting with cardiac troponin I. The protein also interacts with, VPS28, KIAA159,NUP62, PLK1, UBC, and Xpo1. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • H-FABP is a sensitive biomarker for myocardial infarction and can be detected in the blood within one to three hours of the pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood represents the most common specimen collected for protein analysis. (asmscience.org)
  • Major transport into the blood stream is driven by an electrochemical gradient, specifically through the transport proteins RcGshT and RsGshT. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • For the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, a patient has a lumbar puncture performed, which collects some of his or her cerebrospinal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • These techniques are useful for qualitative analysis of the size, charge, associations, and other physical properties of proteins that may not be distinguished by quantitative methods such as immunoassays or functional assays. (asmscience.org)
  • reliable
  • A high reproducibility in gel pore size and a high-yield electroelution of proteins performed by this highly reliable technique strongly correlate with the polymerization time of the acrylamide gels representing an inherent stability constant of the separation system. (wikipedia.org)