• diagnosis
  • The invention provides for the reliable detection and identification of biomarkers, important for the diagnosis and prognosis of damage to the nervous system (central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)), brain injury and neural disorders. (google.ca)
  • Therefore more research for better definition of exposure, as well as for the identification of early specific biomarkers for the diagnosis of these diseases is needed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The brain MRI showed a small crescent of dependent fluid layering in the right posterior globe adjacent to the right optic nerve head, and pachymeningeal enhancement of the skull base dura along the clivus.This case demonstrates the utility of brain MRI and OCT findings in the early diagnosis of VKH syndrome, in the absence of prominent clinical signs of meningitis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CXC chemokine ligand 13 and interleukin 10 have emerged as CSF biomarkers for the diagnosis of CNS lymphoma. (ajnr.org)
  • Blood biomarkers may play a relevant role in early stroke diagnosis, outcome prediction, or treatment, supporting clinicians in assessing severity and predict outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As SE may lead to inflammatory reaction, the value of acute phase proteins and white blood cells (WBC) for diagnosis of infections during SE may be important. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We examined the reliability of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and WBC for diagnosis of infections during SE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, epileptic activity may also lead to an increase of CRP, PCT and white blood cells (WBC) without the presence of infections and thus reduce the reliability of these biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of infectious complications during SE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oligoclonal
  • Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) are bands of immunoglobulins that are seen when a patient's blood serum, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lytic protein of HHV-6A virus was identified as the target of HHV-6 specific oligoclonal bands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligoclonal bands are found in: Multiple sclerosis Lyme disease Neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease) Systemic lupus erythematosus Neurosarcoidosis Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis Subarachnoid hemorrhage Syphilis Primary central nervous system lymphoma Sjögren's syndrome Guillain-Barré syndrome Meningeal carcinomatosis Multiple myeloma Parry-Romberg syndrome Oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis - The Medical School, Birmingham University Oligoclonal Bands in CSF - ClinLab Navigator Davenport RD, Keren DF (1988). (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrophoretic method provides higher resolution than the typical methods for serum protein analysis, and it is applied in the clinical laboratory to achieve higher-resolution separations of immunoglobulins for evaluation of oligoclonal bands in cerebrospinal fluid. (asmscience.org)
  • glial fibrill
  • Class III contains the proteins vimentin, desmin, peripherin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its potential clinical use in the therapeutic decision making process is substantiated by a vast body of literature validating variations in serum 100B levels with standard modalities for prognosticating the extent of CNS damage: alterations in neuroimaging, cerebrospinal pressure, and other brain molecular markers (neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • electrophoresis
  • Two methods of analysis are possible: (a) protein electrophoresis, a method of analyzing the composition of fluids, also known as "agarose gel electrophoresis/Coomassie Blue staining", and (b) the combination of isoelectric focusing/silver staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further description of analysis of proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis and peptides by mass spectrometry is present in this chapter, which describes research and potential future clinical laboratory methods. (asmscience.org)
  • QPNC-PAGE, or quantitative preparative native continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is a high-resolution and a highly accurate technique applied in biochemistry and bioinorganic chemistry to separate proteins quantitatively by isoelectric point. (wikipedia.org)
  • This standardized variant of native gel electrophoresis is used by biologists to isolate active or native metalloproteins in biological samples and to resolve properly and improperly folded metal cofactor-containing proteins or protein isoforms in complex protein mixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the high-precision electrophoresis and other native separation techniques are highly relevant as initial step of protein analysis and trace metal speciation followed by mass spectrometric and magnetic resonance methods for quantifying and identifying the soluble proteins of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • In gel electrophoresis proteins are normally separated by charge, size, or shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the specific properties of the prepared gel and electrophoresis buffer solution (which is basic and contains Tris-HCl and NaN3), most proteins of a biological system (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the pH value (10.00) of the electrophoresis buffer does not correspond to a physiological pH value within a cell or tissue type, the separated ring-shaped protein bands are eluted continuously into a physiological buffer solution (pH 8.00) and isolated in different fractions (see figure Electropherogram). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathology
  • Fluid and imaging biomarkers of this pathology are currently being sought in order to confirm early diagnoses and, importantly, to identify individuals in the preclinical stage so emerging therapies ultimately have a chance to preserve normal brain function (Craig-Schapiro et al, 2008 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our data suggest that CSF-PS1 complexes may be useful as an early biomarker for AD, reflecting the pathology at asymptomatic state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • methods
  • These techniques are useful for qualitative analysis of the size, charge, associations, and other physical properties of proteins that may not be distinguished by quantitative methods such as immunoassays or functional assays. (asmscience.org)
  • peripheral
  • DSIP is an amphiphilic peptide of molecular weight 850 daltons with the amino acid motif: N-Trp-Ala-Gly-Gly-Asp-Ala-Ser-Gly-Glu-C It has been found in both free and bound forms in the hypothalamus, limbic system and pituitary as well as various peripheral organs, tissues and body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the last decade, S100B has emerged as a candidate peripheral biomarker of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (hFABP) also known as mammary-derived growth inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FABP3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acid-binding protein 3 gene contains four exons and its function is to arrest growth of mammary epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APP gene encodes a large type I transmembrane protein that upon proteolytic processing [ 2 ] can generate the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), the major constituent of senile plaques and the triggering effector of AD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been suggested that in the body it complexes with carrier proteins to prevent degradation, or exists as a component of a large precursor molecule, but as yet no structure or gene has been found for this precursor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of the amazingly diverse and dynamic array of proteins in the human proteome, a relatively tiny set of proteins representing a few hundred gene products are analyzed for diagnostic purposes. (asmscience.org)
  • Expansion of CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) triplet repeats in the gene coding for the Huntingtin protein results in an abnormal protein, which gradually damages cells in the brain, through mechanisms that are not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entrez Gene: S100B S100 calcium binding protein B". Verma N, Karmakar M, Singh KP, Smita S (February 2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • If both biomarkers were negative, there is 0% mortality at 6 months, in the authors own words this "represents a particularly worthwhile clinical outcome, especially because it was observed in patients admitted into hospital for suspected ACS. (wikipedia.org)
  • These observations are consistent with the idea of preclinical AD and suggest that these measures may have clinical utility as antecedent biomarkers of the disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pharmacokinetic modeling of interleukin- 1 receptor antagonist in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage," British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 317-325, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Binding assays represent the broadest range of functional assays for proteins in the clinical laboratory. (asmscience.org)
  • Clinical laboratories have applied a variety of electrophoretic, chromatographic, and other separation techniques to analysis of proteins. (asmscience.org)
  • serum
  • Apolipoprotein E is a plasma protein that has an important role in transport and metabolism of lipids in serum as well as in central nervous system. (omicsonline.org)
  • Normally it is assumed that all the proteins that appear in the CSF, but are not present in the serum, are produced intrathecally (inside the CNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, sortilin fragments are a prominent constituent of the extracellularly deposited protein products at SPs in human cerebrum. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of isoelectric focusing (IEF), for example, is to separate proteins according to their isoelectric point (pI), thus, according to their charge at different pH values. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severity
  • Detection of different biomarkers of the invention are also diagnostic of the degree of severity of nerve injury, the cell(s) involved in the injury, and the subcellular localization of the. (google.ca)
  • constituent
  • The exposure to lead, manganese, solvents and some pesticides has been related to hallmarks of PD such as mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in metal homeostasis and aggregation of proteins such as α-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key constituent of Lewy bodies (LB), a crucial factor in PD pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a constituent (residue) of proteins, its side chain can undergo O-linked glycosylation, which may be functionally related to[clarification needed] diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • These three alleles encode similar proteins different only in 112th residue and 158th residue, respectively [ 2 ] ( Figure 1 ). (omicsonline.org)
  • interleukin
  • Temporal profile and cellular localization of interleukin-6 protein after focal cerebral ischemia in rats," Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1256-1262, 1999. (hindawi.com)
  • isolate
  • The target antigens for these antibodies is not easy to find because it requires to isolate a single kind of protein in each band, though new techniques are able to do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • The understanding of the processes in organisms, which are mainly driven by biochemical reactions and protein-protein interactions, depends to a great extent on our ability to isolate active proteins in biological samples for more detailed examination of chemical structure and physiological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • The protein/peptide profile in patients with damage to nerves and brain cells are distinguished from normal individuals using inexpensive techniques. (google.ca)
  • Normally
  • In MS, normally only OCBs made of immunoglobulin G antibodies are considered, though sometimes other proteins can be taken into account, like lipid-specific immunoglobulin M. The presence of these IgM OCBs is associated with a more severe course. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • Neurofilaments are composed of polypeptide chains or subunits which belong to the same protein family as the intermediate filaments of other tissues such as keratin subunits, which make 10 nm filaments expressed specifically in epithelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three triplet proteins contain long stretches of polypeptide sequence rich in glutamic acid residues, and NF-M and especially NF-H also contain multiple tandemly repeated serine phosphorylation sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Even more than 12 OCBs can appear in MS. Each one of them represent proteins (or protein fragments) secreted by plasma cells, although why exactly these bands are present, and which proteins these bands represent, has not yet been fully elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • This protein may function in neurite extension, proliferation of melanoma cells, stimulation of Ca2+ fluxes, inhibition of PKC-mediated phosphorylation, astrocytosis and axonal proliferation, and inhibition of microtubule assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The SDS-PAGE molecular masses of the triplet proteins vary between mammalian species, with larger species usually having larger proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The real molecular masses of these proteins are considerably lower than estimated based on SDS-PAGE mobility, particularly in the case of NF-H and NF-M. This is due to the highly charged C-terminal regions of the molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Proteins perform several functions in living organisms, including catalytic reactions and transport of molecules or ions within the cells, the organs or the whole body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these cofactors (e.g., iron, copper, or zinc) play a key role in vital enzymatic catalytic processes or stabilize globular protein molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the reduced state, the thiol group of cysteine is able to donate a reducing equivalent (H++ e−) to other molecules, such as reactive oxygen species to neutralize them, or to protein cysteines to maintain their reduced forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • Apolipoprotein E was known as a protein constituting lipid-rich plasma lipoproteins in the early 1970s. (omicsonline.org)
  • In several studies, levels of DSIP in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are significantly deviated from the norm in patients with MDD, though there are contradictions as to whether levels are higher or lower than healthy control patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • separation
  • A high reproducibility in gel pore size and a high-yield electroelution of proteins performed by this highly reliable technique strongly correlate with the polymerization time of the acrylamide gels representing an inherent stability constant of the separation system. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Though early theories assumed that the OCBs were somehow pathogenic autoantigens, recent research has shown that the IgG present in the OCBs are antibodies against debris, and therefore, OCBs seem to be just a secondary effect of MS. Nevertheless, OCBs remain useful as a biomarker. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • The spectrins are a family of widely distributed cytoskeletal proteins which are involved in actin crosslinking, cell adhesion, intercellular communication and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • filaments
  • The family of proteins making intermediate filaments is divided into 5 major classes, the keratins forming the classes I and II. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NF-H and NF-M proteins have lengthy C-terminal tail domains that appear to control the spacing between neighboring filaments, generating aligned arrays with a fairly uniform interfilament spacing as seen in axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • interacts
  • FABP3 is known to interact with TNNI3K in the context of interacting with cardiac troponin I. The protein also interacts with, VPS28, KIAA159,NUP62, PLK1, UBC, and Xpo1. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • The simplest is the qualitative question of whether a protein serving as a physiological marker is present or absent in a particular specimen. (asmscience.org)
  • known
  • As about 30-40% of all known proteins contain one or more metal ion cofactors (e.g., ceruloplasmin, ferritin, amyloid precursor protein, matrix metalloproteinase), especially native metalloproteins have to be isolated, identified and quantified after liquid biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • H-FABP is a sensitive biomarker for myocardial infarction and can be detected in the blood within one to three hours of the pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood represents the most common specimen collected for protein analysis. (asmscience.org)
  • Major transport into the blood stream is driven by an electrochemical gradient, specifically through the transport proteins RcGshT and RsGshT. (wikipedia.org)