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  • bacillus
  • plural "Moneres") in German Bacillus-a genus of spore-forming rod shaped bacteria first described in 1835 Spirochaeta-thin spiral shaped bacteria first described in 1835 Spirillum-spiral shaped bacteria first described in 1832 etc. die Lepomoneren (with envelope) Protomonas-now classed as a eukaryote and not a bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name was reused in 1984 for an unrelated genus of Bacteria Vampyrella-now classed as a eukaryote and not a bacterium The classification of Cohn (1872) was influential in the nineteenth century, and recognized six genera: Micrococcus, Bacterium, Bacillus, Vibrio, Spirillum, and Spirochaeta. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • The finding that intimin-negative strains are still associated with bloody diarrhea or hemolytic-uremic syndrome ( 5 ) led several research groups to seek additional adherence factors expressed by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains. (asm.org)
  • In the currently accepted classification of life, there are three domains (Eukaryotes, Bacteria and Archaea), which, in terms of taxonomy, despite following the same principles have several different conventions between them and between their subdivisions as are studied by different disciplines (botany, zoology, mycology and microbiology), for example in zoology there are type specimens, whereas in microbiology there are type strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • phylum
  • Bacteria were first classified as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes, which along with the Schizophyceae (blue green algae/Cyanobacteria) formed the phylum Schizophyta. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classification of Cyanobacteria (colloquially "blue green algae") has been fought between being algae or bacteria (for example, Haeckel classified Nostoc in the phylum Archephyta of Algae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses
  • Before the discovery of msDNA in myxobacteria, a group of swarming, soil-dwelling bacteria, it was thought that the enzymes known as reverse transcriptases (RT) existed only in eukaryotes and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • These discoveries suggest that reverse transcriptase played a role in the evolution of viruses from bacteria, with one hypothesis stating that, with the help of reverse transcriptase, viruses may have arisen as a breakaway msDNA gene that acquired a protein coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • Additionally, the outer leaflet of this membrane comprises a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS) whose lipid A component can cause a toxic reaction when these bacteria are lysed by immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Inhibition of mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation by whole live bacteria, soluble or particulate preparations of the bacteria, and sometimes purified molecules is arguably the most common observation in the literature concerning inhibition of the host's immune response. (asmscience.org)
  • Myxococcus
  • Sequence comparison of msDNAs from Myxococcus xanthus, Stigmatella aurantiaca, and many other bacteria reveal conserved and hypervariable domains reminiscent of conserved and hypervariable sequences found in allorecognition molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth
  • Although bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, and molds are cells that must be magnified in order to see them, when cultured on solid media that allow their growth and multiplication, they form visible colonies consisting of millions of cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • immune
  • This chapter examines the increasingly common scenarios in which bacteria actively modulate the immune response to ensure their persistence. (asmscience.org)
  • include
  • Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • cases
  • From 1983 through 1987, 2397 outbreaks (54,453 cases) of foodborne illness were reported to the Centers for Disease Control (Bean et al. (springer.com)
  • eukaryotes
  • Before the discovery of msDNA in myxobacteria, a group of swarming, soil-dwelling bacteria, it was thought that the enzymes known as reverse transcriptases (RT) existed only in eukaryotes and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the currently accepted classification of life, there are three domains (Eukaryotes, Bacteria and Archaea), which, in terms of taxonomy, despite following the same principles have several different conventions between them and between their subdivisions as are studied by different disciplines (botany, zoology, mycology and microbiology), for example in zoology there are type specimens, whereas in microbiology there are type strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • 1 Introduction Fin fish and shell fish farming have been commercialized to fulfill the protein requirement of rapidly arising population and is one of the fastest growing food production sectors in the world, but infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites cost the industry billions of dollars in worldwide losses each year (Ugelvik et al. (jebas.org)
  • Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • comprises
  • The injectisome comprises different components that combine to form the basal body, which spans the inner and outer membranes, and a projection from the basal body, called the hollow needle, that mediates the export of cargo from a bacterium to its host or the local environment. (elifesciences.org)
  • Additionally, the outer leaflet of this membrane comprises a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS) whose lipid A component can cause a toxic reaction when these bacteria are lysed by immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotics
  • Bacteria acquire resistance to one or more of these antibiotics by the acquisition of a gene(s) or with certain mutations. (asmscience.org)
  • Based upon a number of different observations including that the gram-positive bacteria are the major reactors to antibiotics and that gram-negative bacteria are, in general, resistant to them, it has been proposed that the outer cell membrane in gram-negative bacteria (diderms) evolved as a protective mechanism against antibiotic selection pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • Ketolide resistance in streptococci and oxazolidinone resistance in gram-positive enterococci or staphylococci are surfacing with increased therapeutic use. (asmscience.org)
  • viruses
  • These discoveries suggest that reverse transcriptase played a role in the evolution of viruses from bacteria, with one hypothesis stating that, with the help of reverse transcriptase, viruses may have arisen as a breakaway msDNA gene that acquired a protein coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • A further experiment confirmed the adaptability of the basal body: when the separation of the membranes was deliberately increased by placing bacteria in a high-salt medium, the basal body extended approximately 10% in length. (elifesciences.org)
  • Gram-positive bacteria are also referred to as monoderms having one membrane, and gram-negative bacteria are also referred to as diderms, having two membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • fish
  • The bacterium enters the fish via the secondary gill lamellae and from there it spreads to the blood and internal organs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • animals
  • Research in soil biology would clearly benefit from incorporating more protistology alongside the study of bacteria, fungi and animals. (deepdyve.com)
  • host
  • Cumulatively, therefore, these experiments suggest that the in-built flexibility of the basal body of the injectisome allows bacteria to adjust to environmental changes while maintaining their sensory abilities and host-invasion potential. (elifesciences.org)