• bacillus
  • plural "Moneres") in German Bacillus-a genus of spore-forming rod shaped bacteria first described in 1835 Spirochaeta-thin spiral shaped bacteria first described in 1835 Spirillum-spiral shaped bacteria first described in 1832 etc. die Lepomoneren (with envelope) Protomonas-now classed as a eukaryote and not a bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name was reused in 1984 for an unrelated genus of Bacteria Vampyrella-now classed as a eukaryote and not a bacterium The classification of Cohn (1872) was influential in the nineteenth century, and recognized six genera: Micrococcus, Bacterium, Bacillus, Vibrio, Spirillum, and Spirochaeta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Salmonella species are Gramnegative, motile bacteria that cause diseases in humans ranging from a mild gastroenteritis ( S.typhimurium , S.enteritidis ) to a systemic disease that can result in death ( S.typhi , S.paratyphi ) (for a review see Darwin and Miller, 1999b ). (embopress.org)
  • Salmonella species lead predominantly host-associated lifestyles, but the bacteria were found to be able to persist in a bathroom setting for weeks following contamination, and are frequently isolated from water sources, which act as bacterial reservoirs and may help to facilitate transmission between hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Many bacterial pathogens, such as Francisella , Yersinia , Brucella , and Coxiella , synthesize an alternative form of lipid A that is less stimulatory in the mammalian host and significantly dampens the early host inflammatory responses, thus facilitating the establishment of disease. (asmscience.org)
  • strains
  • In the currently accepted classification of life, there are three domains (Eukaryotes, Bacteria and Archaea), which, in terms of taxonomy, despite following the same principles have several different conventions between them and between their subdivisions as are studied by different disciplines (botany, zoology, mycology and microbiology), for example in zoology there are type specimens, whereas in microbiology there are type strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • SPI1 encodes at least 30 proteins necessary for the production of a type III secretion system (TTSS), which secretes protein effectors out of the bacterium and translocates them into host cells (reviewed in Hueck, 1998 ). (embopress.org)
  • genes
  • In response to environmental iron concentrations, many bacteria coordinately regulate transcription of genes involved in iron acquisition via the ferric uptake regulation (Fur) system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A second subclass controls the expression of genes involved in the response of bacteria to oxidative stress (i.e. (biomedcentral.com)
  • membrane
  • Additionally, the outer leaflet of this membrane comprises a complex lipopolysaccharide (LPS) whose lipid A component can cause a toxic reaction when these bacteria are lysed by immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-positive bacteria are also referred to as monoderms having one membrane, and gram-negative bacteria are also referred to as diderms, having two membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based upon a number of different observations including that the gram-positive bacteria are the major reactors to antibiotics and that gram-negative bacteria are, in general, resistant to them, it has been proposed that the outer cell membrane in gram-negative bacteria (diderms) evolved as a protective mechanism against antibiotic selection pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the diderm bacteria, in which the outer cell membrane is made up of mycolic acid (e. g. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chapter focuses on the various mechanisms by which membrane fluidity is modulated in bacteria vis-à-vis its importance in cold adaptation. (asmscience.org)
  • Modulation in membrane fluidity appears to be crucial for low-temperature sensing in bacteria, and this is normally achieved by the conversion of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids. (asmscience.org)
  • found
  • Gram-negative bacteria are found everywhere, in virtually all environments on Earth that support life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence comparison of msDNAs from Myxococcus xanthus, Stigmatella aurantiaca, and many other bacteria reveal conserved and hypervariable domains reminiscent of conserved and hypervariable sequences found in allorecognition molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1854, Louis Pasteur in France found that spoilage of wines was due to microorganisms (bacteria) that convert sugars to lactic acid, rather than the alcohol produced by yeasts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Subsequently, it was found that trans-monounsaturated are predominant in gram-negative bacteria and are synthesized by direct isomerization of cis -unsaturated fatty acids to trans -unsaturated fatty acids without shifting of a double bond. (asmscience.org)
  • viruses
  • Before the discovery of msDNA in myxobacteria, a group of swarming, soil-dwelling bacteria, it was thought that the enzymes known as reverse transcriptases (RT) existed only in eukaryotes and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • These discoveries suggest that reverse transcriptase played a role in the evolution of viruses from bacteria, with one hypothesis stating that, with the help of reverse transcriptase, viruses may have arisen as a breakaway msDNA gene that acquired a protein coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • The induction of apoptosis in monocytes/macrophages has been shown to be triggered by a number of bacteria or purified bacterial products in vivo, as well as in vitro in primary and short-term cultures. (asmscience.org)
  • Growth
  • Although bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, and molds are cells that must be magnified in order to see them, when cultured on solid media that allow their growth and multiplication, they form visible colonies consisting of millions of cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • immune
  • This chapter examines the increasingly common scenarios in which bacteria actively modulate the immune response to ensure their persistence. (asmscience.org)
  • Inhibition of mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation by whole live bacteria, soluble or particulate preparations of the bacteria, and sometimes purified molecules is arguably the most common observation in the literature concerning inhibition of the host's immune response. (asmscience.org)
  • important
  • Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. (wikipedia.org)