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  • stimuli
  • Behaviour Research and Therapy 37 (1999) S5±S27 Anxiety disorders: why they persist and how to treat them David M. Clark Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK Abstract Anxiety disorders are characterised by distorted beliefs about the dangerousness of certain situations and/or internal stimuli. (spotidoc.com)
  • Consistent with this proposal, numerous studies have shown that patients with anxiety disorders over-estimate the dangerousness of various stimuli. (spotidoc.com)
  • While this initial evidence suggests that learning experiences may have enhance unconscious visual processing of threatening stimuli, it remains unclear how durable these effects may be and whether similar mechanisms can be assumed in relevant psychopathologies, such as anxiety disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • Subjective anxiety ratings when confronted with phobic stimuli. (weebly.com)
  • Clinicians
  • Few clinicians would suggest that the parent's role during the treatment of their child's anxiety should be limited to keeping a chair warm in the therapist's waiting room. (springer.com)
  • Agoraphobics
  • Agoraphobics may suffer from temporary separation anxiety disorder when certain other individuals of the household depart from the residence temporarily, such as a parent or spouse, or when the agoraphobic is left home alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anxiety level of agoraphobics often increases when dwelling upon the idea of eventually dying, which they may consciously or unconsciously associate with being the ultimate separation from their emotional comfort and safety zones and loved ones, even for those who may otherwise believe in some form of afterlife. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • Patients with various life-threatening conditions often experience intense anxiety and preoccupation and hypervigilance regarding somatic sensations. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination. (wikipedia.org)
  • intense
  • Patients with more aggressive brain tumors, known brain or aortic aneurysms, or malignancies often experience intense anxiety in adapting to their illnesses. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • obsessive
  • Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder. (springer.com)
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Occurring as a Complication in Benzodiazepine Withdrawal. (evoca.info)
  • In obsessive-compulsive disorder, the individual tries to ward off disaster by thinking certain thoughts or performing certain actions. (weebly.com)
  • Other syndromes like obsessive compulsive disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder can also cause agoraphobia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opioids are drugs that are usually only prescribed for their painkilling properties, but some research is beginning to find that some varieties are effective at treating depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and other ailments often associated with or caused by anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • avoidance of social
  • These additional four subscales are: fear of social interaction, fear of performance, avoidance of social interaction and avoidance of performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a large study, LSAS scores were compared with scores for Total fear, Fear of social interaction, Fear of performance, Total avoidance, Avoidance of social interaction and Avoidance of performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • psychiatry
  • These studies used, however, selective and unrepresentative samples, such as members of the Alzheimer's Disease Society 3 and people known to social and medical services 4 or referred to an old age psychiatry service. (bmj.com)
  • In the 1960s, professor Andrei Snezhnevsky, the most prominent theorist of Soviet psychiatry and director of the Institute of Psychiatry of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, developed a novel classification of mental disorders postulating an original set of diagnostic criteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Phobic Disorders and Benzodiazepines in the Elderly. (evoca.info)
  • Managing Anxiety Without Benzodiazepines. (evoca.info)
  • Many experts consider these drugs obsolete for treating anxiety but valuable for the short-term treatment of severe insomnia, though only after benzodiazepines or non-benzodiazepines have failed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepines are prescribed for short-term and long-term relief of severe and disabling anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepines may also be indicated to cover the latent periods associated with the medications prescribed to treat an underlying anxiety disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydroxyzine has been shown to be as effective as benzodiazepines in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, while producing fewer side-effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anxiety disorders are partly genetic but may also be due to drug use, including alcohol, caffeine, and benzodiazepines (which are often prescribed to treat anxiety), as well as withdrawal from drugs of abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a neurological disorder whose key defining characteristic is a temporary but almost total disruption of short-term memory with a range of problems accessing older memories. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatments
  • Answers to this question are likely to be particularly helpful in understanding the maintenance of anxiety disorders and developing e cient treatments. (spotidoc.com)
  • The effectiveness of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatments for the disorder have yet to be empirically and systematically investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alexithymia is considered to be a personality trait that places affected individuals at risk for other medical and psychiatric disorders while reducing the likelihood that these individuals will respond to conventional treatments for the other conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Most of the search for a genetic substrate to child anxiety has centred around a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] transporter (5-HTT) gene. (blogspot.com)
  • A common justification for prohibiting incest is avoiding inbreeding: a collection of genetic disorders suffered by the children of parents with a close genetic relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992
  • 1992) found that scores on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were significantly correlated with scores of two other scales, which had demonstrated significant reliability and validity in several studies before. (wikipedia.org)
  • illnesses
  • Less common medical illnesses that can present with anxiety include adrenal dysfunction, carcinoid syndrome, pancreatic tumor, and pheochromocytoma. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • As a milestone in its history and "achievements," it notes that the year it was formed the American Psychiatric Association issued "version III of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders " (DSM) and "for the first time in history defines and differentiates anxiety disorders as specific illnesses that can be diagnosed and treated. (cchrint.org)
  • people
  • Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA), as many as 13% of young people had an anxiety disorder in a year. (anxietycare.org.uk)
  • First, if one looks at the natural history of anxiety disorders it is clear that there are many people in the community who develop an anxiety disorder and then recover without any treatment. (spotidoc.com)
  • People with schizoid personality disorder are often aloof, cold, and indifferent, which causes interpersonal difficulty. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is not to say that people do not experience anxiety, but psychiatrists had an agenda to redefine people's anguish in terms of "illness" or "disease" in order to turn them into a cash cow for research funds and insurance reimbursement. (cchrint.org)
  • This shows the effect of one dose of a member of this group, diazepam (Valium), on the anxiety experienced when people who were phobic about cats and roaches were exposed to these animals. (weebly.com)
  • Many people become addicted to these drugs because they are so effective at blocking emotional pain, including anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social anxiety and stranger anxiety are caused when people are apprehensive around strangers or other people in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Since children with SA are usually quiet in school and do not exhibit behavioural problems, teachers often do not recognize the disorder. (anxietycare.org.uk)
  • What can complicate matters is that anxiety disorders often run in families and children with SA may have a parent suffering from the same disorder. (anxietycare.org.uk)
  • Not only can anxiety be a manifestation of medical illness, but it often occurs as a consequence of certain medical conditions. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Scores in this range often are accompanied by great distress and difficulty in social functioning, and are also commonly seen in persons entering treatment for the generalized type of SAD. (wikipedia.org)
  • The degree of amnesia is profound, and, in the interval during which the individual is aware of his or her condition, is often accompanied by anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • 2005) found that, controlling for temperamental status at age 4 years, the presence of the short 5-HTT allele significantly raised the risk of both objectively assessed behavioural inhibition and maternal reports of child shyness in 7-year-olds, but only where there had been reduced levels of social support. (blogspot.com)
  • Schizophrenia
  • On the covert orders of the KGB, thousands of social and political reformers-Soviet dissidents-were incarcerated in mental hospitals after being labelled with diagnoses of sluggish schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • psychological
  • Secondary, or reactive, anxiety is also widespread and can arise not only from numerous medical causes but also from the psychological process of coping with illness. (psychiatrictimes.com)