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  • AIDS
  • They are highly effective against HIV and have, since the 1990s, been a key component of anti-retroviral therapies for HIV/AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1985, HIV was identified as the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its complete genome was immediately available. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 protease is one of the best known aspartic proteases, and an attractive target for the treatment of AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HIV-1 group M viruses predominate and are responsible for the AIDS pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, HIV-2 viruses are thought to be less virulent and transmissible than HIV-1 M group viruses, although HIV-2 is known to cause AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 'N' stands for "non-M, non-O". This group was discovered by a Franco-Cameroonia team in 1998, when they identified and isolated the HIV-1 variant strain, YBF380, from a Cameroonian woman who died of AIDS in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV/AIDS incident was formally discovered in Nigeria in 1986 and since then the prevalence rate has been increasing in the country. (scidoc.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiological agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is responsible for more than 25 million deaths worldwide and estimated 34 million people are infected with HIV across the globe with consequently devastating socioeconomic effects [ 1 ]. (annexpublishers.co)
  • What is the medical name for HIV and AIDS? (answers.com)
  • HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is the virus that causes AIDS. (answers.com)
  • Many people also refer to HIV as the "AIDS virus. (answers.com)
  • Therefore, CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses can lead to AIDS progression but the mechanism remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This course is designed to fulfill the Washington requirement for HIV/AIDS education. (netce.com)
  • This introductory course is designed for all psychologists in Washington involved in the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. (netce.com)
  • Zidovudine penetrates the central nervous system and has shown efficacy in settings such as prevention of intrapartum mother-to-child transmission (E2), 9 HIV-related thrombocytopenia, 11 - 13 AIDS dementia complex 14 and post-exposure prophylaxis. (mja.com.au)
  • Since the first description of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the early 1980s, management of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has evolved dramatically. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • More particularly, the present invention relates to compounds useful for the treatment of HIV and AIDS. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The number of cases of HIV and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) has risen rapidly. (allindianpatents.com)
  • HIV-1 is the virus responsible for the AIDS pandemic. (researchfeatures.com)
  • chemokine
  • HIV-1 strains can be broadly divided into two groups based on their Env tropism, each using CCR5 or CXCR4 chemokine co-receptor for viral entry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After attachment and binding to the CD4 receptor and specific chemokine co-receptors (primarily CCR5 and/or CXCR4), the virus and host cell membranes fuse and HIV RNA enters the target cell. (mja.com.au)
  • anti-HIV drugs
  • Additionally, as with many common health foods / nutritional supplements / natural remedies (such as grapefruit juice, aloe vera, borage oil, DHEA, ginko, St John's wort, milk thistle and valerian), there is a theoretical risk of an adverse interaction between anti-HIV drugs and licorice (liquorice). (answers.com)
  • infections
  • HIV-1 is an enveloped RNA retrovirus which causes most HIV infections worldwide and HIV-2 which is found mainly in West Africa . (scidoc.org)
  • prevention
  • To be effective and provide compassionate care, adequate and up-to-date information about transmission, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care of HIV-infected individuals should be obtained by all healthcare professionals. (netce.com)
  • viruses
  • HIV belongs to the class of viruses called retroviruses, which carry genetic information in the form of RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 is related to viruses found in chimpanzees and gorillas living in western Africa, while HIV-2 viruses are related to viruses found in the endangered west African primate sooty mangabey. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 viruses may be further divided into groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enveloped viruses encode specialized fusion proteins which promote the merger of viral and cell membranes, permitting the cytosolic release of the viral cores. (biomedcentral.com)
  • novel
  • When tested, the YBF380 variant reacted with an envelope antigen from SIVcpz rather than with those of Group M or Group O, indicating it was indeed a novel strain of HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, novel anti-HIV agents exhibiting distinct resistance patterns, and favorable pharmacokinetic as well as safety profiles are needed to provide more treatment options. (allindianpatents.com)
  • West Africa
  • Despite the presence of HIV-2 globally, Group B is mainly confined to West Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite its relative confinement, HIV-2 should be considered in all patients exhibiting symptoms of HIV that not only come from West Africa, but also anyone who has had any body fluid transfer with a person from West Africa (i.e. needle sharing, sexual contact, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • One hundred and twenty (120) participants involving HIV-patients on treatment (n = 40), treatment-naïve (n = 40) and equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. (scidoc.org)
  • The drugs bevirimat and vivecon are being investigated for their benefits in HIV treatment. (answers.com)
  • Human
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that has two major species, HIV-1 which causes the majority of the epidemic, and HIV-2, a close relative whose distribution is concentrated in western Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (mdpi.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a blood-borne virus typically transmitted via sexual intercourse, shared intravenous drug paraphernalia, and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), which can occur during the birth process or during breastfeeding. (medscape.com)
  • Using state-of-the-art drug design methods, his team's main goal is to identify new antiviral drugs effective against viral cell entry and assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (researchfeatures.com)
  • suppress
  • 3 - 7 The goal of combination ARV therapy is firstly to suppress HIV viral load in plasma to below the limit of detection and secondly to restore immune function, as demonstrated by an increased number of CD4 + T cells. (mja.com.au)
  • resistance
  • Used alone, HIV resistance to lamivudine emerges within weeks. (mja.com.au)
  • HBV also acquires resistance to lamivudine - at a greater frequency in HIV-HBV co-infected individuals than in HBV-mono-infected individuals. (mja.com.au)
  • proteins
  • A very critical step is the proteolytic cleavage of the polypeptide precursors into mature enzymes and structural proteins catalyzed by HIV protease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent structural studies revealed a stunning diversity of viral fusion proteins in their native state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In spite of this diversity, the post-fusion structures of these proteins share a common trimeric hairpin motif in which the amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic domains are positioned at the same end of a rod-shaped molecule. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to this model, fusion proteins first anchor themselves to the target membrane through their hydrophobic segments and then fold back, bringing the viral and cellular membranes together and forcing their merger. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This membrane merger is catalyzed by specialized viral proteins referred to as fusion proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review will discuss the general principles by which viral proteins promote fusion, focusing on the retroviral envelope (Env) glycoproteins exemplified by HIV-1 Env. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whereas viral proteins regulate and promote the merger of biological membranes, complete fusion occurs when lipids from two distinct bilayers rearrange to form a continuous membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • drugs
  • These drugs prevent proteolytic cleavage of HIV Gag and Pol polyproteins that include essential structural and enzymatic components of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These nanotechnology carriers are able to deliver the HIV current drugs in a controlled and/or targeted manner thereby increasing the drug bioavailability and residence time at target sites with a considerable improvement in life quality of HIV patients. (annexpublishers.co)
  • An overview of the current state of the HIV drugs has been published (De Clercq, reference 101). (allindianpatents.com)
  • BRD4 is a major target of BET inhibitors, a class of pharmaceutical drugs currently being evaluated in clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergoes
  • The HIV RNA undergoes reverse transcription from RNA to DNA and is then transported into the nucleus to integrate with the host DNA. (mja.com.au)
  • known
  • As of 2010, there are 8 known HIV-2 groups (A to H). Of these, only groups A and B are pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, two immunological types are known, HIV-1 and HIV-2. (scidoc.org)
  • interaction
  • We provide the first evidence that shows CCR5 interaction with a dual-tropic HIV-1 Env played a significant role in Env-induced depletion of CD4 T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • virus
  • There are several steps in the HIV life cycle that may be interfered with, thus stopping the replication of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • More advanced HIV tests have now been developed to detect both Group O and Group N. In 2009, a newly analyzed HIV sequence was reported to have greater similarity to a simian immunodeficiency virus recently discovered in wild gorillas (SIVgor) than to SIVs from chimpanzees (SIVcpz). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lamivudine (3TC) has activity against both HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV), with few side effects. (mja.com.au)
  • pill
  • HIV-infected patients adherent to effective ART now have a quasi-normal life expectancy and many take a combination regimen that is contained in one pill once a day. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • class
  • A) and consensus models for class I and class II protein-mediated membrane fusion (B and C). SU and TM are the surface and transmembrane subunits of a fusion protein, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They have therefore been working on small inhibitory molecules targeted at this site and have identified several promising candidates suitable for further drug development leading to a new class of anti-HIV therapeutics. (researchfeatures.com)
  • protein
  • We also discuss the effects of a TNF receptor biological fusion protein (etanercept) and the indirect anti-TNF agents dithio-thalidomides, nilotinab, and cannabinoids on these neurological conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • transmission
  • Blocking the C-type lectin receptor DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) with neutralizing antibodies or antagonists blocked JEV transmission to T cells. (virosin.org)
  • To be effective and provide compassionate care, adequate and up-to-date information about transmission, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care of HIV-infected individuals should be obtained by all healthcare professionals. (netce.com)
  • Review the transmission of HIV to the infant and child, and discuss care of these infected children. (netce.com)
  • possible
  • A total of 39 ORFs are found in all six possible reading frames (RFs) of HIV-1 complete genome sequence, but only a few of them are functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Adverse reactions to licorice (liquorice) reported amongst HIV-positive people include: low potassium levels, muscle weakness and soreness, high blood pressure and fluid retention. (answers.com)
  • relative
  • Despite its relative confinement, HIV-2 should be considered in all patients exhibiting symptoms of HIV that not only come from West Africa, but also anyone who has had any body fluid transfer with a person from West Africa (i.e. needle sharing, sexual contact, etc. (wikipedia.org)