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  • antigen
  • Visualising an antibody-antigen interaction can be accomplished in a number of ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the method of fixation and tissue preservation, the sample may require additional steps to make the epitopes available for antibody binding, including deparaffinization and antigen retrieval. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the tissue type and the method of antigen detection, endogenous biotin or enzymes may need to be blocked or quenched, respectively, prior to antibody staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although antibodies show preferential avidity for specific epitopes, they may partially or weakly bind to sites on nonspecific proteins (also called reactive sites) that are similar to the cognate binding sites on the target antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quality control should as a minimum include a tissue known to express the antigen as a positive control and negative controls of tissue known not to express the antigen, as well as the test tissue probed in the same way with omission of the primary antibody (or better, absorption of the primary antibody). (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary antibodies are raised against an antigen of interest and are typically unconjugated (unlabeled), while secondary antibodies are raised against immunoglobulins of the primary antibody species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this technology, a collection of capture antibodies are spotted and fixed on a solid surface such as glass, plastic, membrane, or silicon chip, and the interaction between the antibody and its target antigen is detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the Fab's variable region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Buffered formalin solutions cross link proteins and nucleic acids when they are used for fix tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipocytes and infiltrating inflammatory cells (primarily macrophages) present within the tissue secrete key inflammatory proteins, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemoattractant protein, and their gene expression and release are markedly increased in obesity ( 3 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chomczynski, Piotr, (1993) "A Reagent For the Single-Step Simultaneous Isolation of RNA, DNA and Proteins from Cell and Tissue Samples. (patentgenius.com)
  • In the analysis of tumor samples from stage II colon cancer patients and the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT116, pRKIP and STAT3, 2 proteins potentially involved in the resistance to conventional treatments were detected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry is also widely used in basic research to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers and differentially expressed proteins in different parts of a biological tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter method, in which analyte detection requires the binding of 2 distinct antibodies (a capture antibody and a reporter antibody, each binding to a unique epitope), confers greater specificity and lower background signal compared with label-based immunodetection (where only 1 capture antibody is used and detection is achieved by chemically labeling all proteins in the starting sample). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this methodology, one set of specific antibodies is used and all the proteins in a sample are labelled directly by fluorescent dyes or haptens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunofluorescence studies using specific antibodies against P450scc system enzymes have demonstrated that proteins are located exclusively within the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • In this mode, a particular exon may be included in mRNAs under some conditions or in particular tissues, and omitted from the mRNA in others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcription PCR and real-time PCR of estrogen receptors, GPR30 and STYK1 following treatment of ovarian cell lines with estrogen or G1, a GPR30 agonist, as well as western analysis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alternative splicing is a mechanism wherein exons are either retained in the mRNA or targeted for removal in different combinations to create a diverse array of mRNAs from a single pre-mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Pathway analyses revealed over-representation of deregulated genes in the networks of proliferation, cell cycle, extracellular matrix biology, and inflammatory immune response. (springer.com)
  • We used RNA sequencing-based transcriptome analyses to compare patterns of gene expression in VMN to the surrounding hindbrain across three daily and seasonal time points of high and low sound production to identify candidate genes that underlie VMN's intrinsic and network neuronal properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Supporting evidence from previous studies in midshipman strongly validate the value of transcriptomic analyses for linking genes to neural characters that drive behavior. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A vast array of tropomyosin isoforms are generated by using a combination of different genes and alternative splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, five different functions have been ascribed to gap junction protein: Electrical and metabolic coupling between cells Electrical and metabolic exchange through hemichannels Tumor suppressor genes (Cx43, Cx32 and Cx36) Adhesive function independent of conductive gap junction channel (neural migration in neocortex) Role of carboxyl-terminal in signaling cytoplasmic pathways (Cx43) Gap Junctions have been observed in various animal organs and tissues where cells contact each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • He established the utility of second site homologous recombination for genetic analyses that identified the essential EBV genes for growth transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basically, the antibody paratope is polygenic, made up of three genes, V, D, and J. Each paratope locus is also polymorphic, such that during antibody production, one allele of V, one of D, and one of J is chosen. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Transcriptome analyses highlighted a suite of molecular mechanisms that regulate vocalization over behaviorally relevant timescales, spanning milliseconds to hours and seasons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • specimens
  • Gene expression in fresh-frozen pre-surgical biopsies (before treatment) and surgical excision specimens (after treatment) was profiled by using Affymetrix arrays. (springer.com)
  • precisely
  • Then all the frozen tissue cores are inserted in a recipient OCT frozen block in a precisely spaced, array pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, J. Kononen and collaborators developed the current technique, which uses a novel sampling approach to produce tissues of regular size and shape that can be more densely and precisely arrayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Secondly in 1986 Hood and co-workers devised a method to label DNA molecules with fluorescent tags instead of radiolabels, thus enabling hybridization experiments to be observed optically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, polyclonal antibodies are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies that recognize several epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes
  • Steroidogenic cells include a diverse array of antioxidant systems to cope with the radicals generated by the steroidogenic enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • Methods to eliminate background staining include dilution of the primary or secondary antibodies, changing the time or temperature of incubation, and using a different detection system or different primary antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most antibody array systems employ 1 of 2 non-competitive methods of immunodetection: single-antibody (label-based) detection and 2-antibody (sandwich-based) detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • PrPSc is a conformational isoform of PrPC, but this orientation tends to accumulate in compact, protease-resistant aggregates within neural tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • To reduce background staining in IHC, ICC and other immunostaining methods, samples are incubated with a buffer that blocks the reactive sites to which the primary or secondary antibodies may otherwise bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyclonal antibodies are made by injecting animals with the protein of interest, or a peptide fragment and, after a secondary immune response is stimulated, isolating antibodies from whole serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Gap junctions occur in virtually all tissues of the body, with the exception of adult fully developed skeletal muscle and mobile cell types such as sperm or erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell to be free in the blood plasma, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Increased adipocyte chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) secretion may initiate adipose inflammation by attracting the migration of inflammatory cells into the tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • HCT-116 colon cancer cells were treated with CPT, OXP, and IL-6 separately or in combination in a time and dose-dependent manner and examined for phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated RKIP and STAT3 via Western blot analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a digital microfluidic biochip, a group of (adjacent) cells in the microfluidic array can be configured to work as storage, functional operations, as well as for transporting fluid droplets dynamically. (wikipedia.org)
  • TNFR1 is expressed in most tissues, and can be fully activated by both the membrane-bound and soluble trimeric forms of TNF, whereas TNFR2 is found typically in cells of the immune system, and respond to the membrane-bound form of the TNF homotrimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasma cells can also form a mass in the bone marrow or soft tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies are secreted by B cells of the adaptive immune system, mostly by differentiated B cells called plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • The ability of an antibody to bind to its corresponding FcR is further modulated by the structure of the glycan(s) present at conserved sites within its Fc region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of antibodies to bind to FcRs helps to direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Using this binding mechanism, an antibody can tag a microbe or an infected cell for attack by other parts of the immune system, or can neutralize its target directly (for example, by blocking a part of a microbe that is essential for its invasion and survival). (wikipedia.org)
  • Assays
  • The first array approaches attempted to miniaturize biochemical and immunobiological assays usually performed in 96-well microtiter plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Obesity is associated with a low-grade inflammatory state in white adipose tissue (WAT), which influences fat cell function and may promote insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These temporal changes of the endometrium are evident at the tissue and epithelial cell level. (biologists.org)
  • Preparation of the sample is critical to maintain cell morphology, tissue architecture and the antigenicity of target epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • demonstrated the role of the EBV glycoprotein, gp350, in B-cell infection, and demonstrated that gp350 antibodies can be used as a vaccine to block EBV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • The ability of an antibody to communicate with the other components of the immune system is mediated via its Fc region (located at the base of the "Y"), which contains a conserved glycosylation site involved in these interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production
  • This is the first reaction in the process of steroidogenesis in all mammalian tissues that specialize in the production of various steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • In the most common instance, an antibody is conjugated to an enzyme, such as peroxidase, that can catalyse a colour-producing reaction (see immunoperoxidase staining). (wikipedia.org)
  • enables
  • The actual sensing component (or "chip") is just one piece of a complete analysis system Transduction must be done to translate the actual sensing event (DNA binding, oxidation/reduction, etc.) into a format understandable by a computer (voltage, light intensity, mass, etc.), which then enables additional analysis and processing to produce a final, human-readable output. (wikipedia.org)
  • allow
  • Chemically derivatized glass slides allow for printing of sub-microliter sized antibody spots, reducing the array surface area without sacrificing spot density. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • this array can help scientists high throughput analyze gene and protein expressions in multiple tissue samples, especially analyze different protein levels with antibodies by immunohistochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA, RNA, and protein within the tissues are damaged in various levels during the fixation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry combined with tissue microarrays has also been used with success in large scale efforts to create a map of protein expression on a more global scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyclonal antibodies are made by injecting animals with the protein of interest, or a peptide fragment and, after a secondary immune response is stimulated, isolating antibodies from whole serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, five different functions have been ascribed to gap junction protein: Electrical and metabolic coupling between cells Electrical and metabolic exchange through hemichannels Tumor suppressor genes (Cx43, Cx32 and Cx36) Adhesive function independent of conductive gap junction channel (neural migration in neocortex) Role of carboxyl-terminal in signaling cytoplasmic pathways (Cx43) Gap Junctions have been observed in various animal organs and tissues where cells contact each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. (genecards.org)
  • The combination of the microscopic examination of the peripheral blood and analysis of the lymphocytes by flow cytometry to confirm clonality and marker molecule expression is needed to establish the diagnosis of CLL. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • The invention thus relates to the plants, seeds and tissue cultures of the variety CH440457, and to methods for producing a corn plant produced by crossing a corn plant of variety CH440457 with itself or with another corn plant, such as a plant of another variety. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Secondly in 1986 Hood and co-workers devised a method to label DNA molecules with fluorescent tags instead of radiolabels, thus enabling hybridization experiments to be observed optically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, polyclonal antibodies are a heterogeneous mix of antibodies that recognize several epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cohorts
  • Multivariate analysis of two cohorts treated with antiestrogen monotherapy revealed that low nuclear Stat5a levels were associated with a more than fourfold risk of unfavorable outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical cancer patient cohorts and corresponding tissue microarray sets have been used to study diagnostic, prognostic and treatment predictive cancer biomarkers in most forms of cancer, including lung, breast, colorectal and renal cell cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristics
  • GM atrophy is independent of the MS lesions and is associated with physical disability, fatigue, and cognitive impairment in MS At least five characteristics are present in CNS tissues of MS patients: Inflammation beyond classical white matter lesions, intrathecal Ig production with oligoclonal bands, an environment fostering immune cell persistence, Follicle-like aggregates in the meninges and a disruption of the blood-brain barrier also outside of active lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • According to the present invention, the temperature range required in the process of medical treatment in tissue (42° C. to 43° C.) can be more effectively maintained compared with a conventional magnetic exothermic member. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to a process of thermal treatment in a tissue, and especially relates to a process of thermal treatment in a tissue comprising embedding a heat-sensitive magnetic material (hereinafter referred to as 'implant') in a tumor, and externally applying a high frequency magnetic field thereto for raising the temperature of the implant in order to promote the medical treatment. (google.com)
  • light
  • The actual sensing component (or "chip") is just one piece of a complete analysis system Transduction must be done to translate the actual sensing event (DNA binding, oxidation/reduction, etc.) into a format understandable by a computer (voltage, light intensity, mass, etc.), which then enables additional analysis and processing to produce a final, human-readable output. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patent
  • She has experience in patent landscape analyses, freedom-to-operate searches, patent due diligence, and non-infringement and invalidity opinions. (martindale.com)
  • sample
  • Four examples of transillumination techniques used to generate contrast in a sample of tissue paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before sectioning, the tissue sample may be embedded in a medium, like paraffin wax or cryomedia. (wikipedia.org)