• cation
  • CNG channels are nonselective cation channels that are found in the membranes of various tissue and cell types, and are significant in sensory transduction as well as cellular development. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • It was further discovered that prostaglandin analogues synergistically work with phosphodiesterase 3B inhibitors to improve or increase cAMP accumulation and ATP release RBCS. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Using an isolated, perfused working heart preparation of C. hamatus , we show that both endogenous ( l -arginine) and exogenous (SIN-1 in presence of SOD) NO-donors as well as the guanylate cyclase (GC) donor 8Br-cGMP elicit positive inotropism, while both nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and sGC inhibitors, i.e. l -NIO and ODQ, respectively, induce significant negative inotropic effects. (biologists.org)
  • elicit
  • 1 2 Furthermore, NO and NO donors have been shown to elicit a wide range of effects on myocardial contractility, 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 but the specific nature of the subcellular mechanisms underlying the diverse effects in heart is largely unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • cardiac
  • We examined the subcellular mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of NO on cardiac contraction and investigated whether NO modulates contraction exclusively via guanylyl cyclase (GC) activation or whether some contribution occurs via cGMP/PKG-independent mechanisms, in indo 1-loaded adult cardiac myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although the coronary endothelium is responsible for the bulk of the endogenous, physiological production of NO in the heart, 10 11 NO can also be produced within the cardiac myocytes themselves (ie, autocrine production) by the constitutive NO synthase NOS-3. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 Until recently, it was generally accepted that NO induced negative inotropic effects in cardiac preparations, mediated principally through cGMP-related mechanisms, specifically via the reduction of Ca 2+ influx through L-type Ca 2+ channels, either through activation of cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase 14 15 16 or PKG and/or phosphatases. (ahajournals.org)
  • wherein
  • 3. The compound of claim 2, wherein R 1 and R 2 are each independently (C 1 -C 4 )alkoxy. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 4. The compound of claim 2, wherein, R 7 is R 11 and R 11 is phenyl optionally substituted by (C 1 -C 6 )alkoxy, (C 1 -C 5 )alkyl, --CN, --OH, phenyl or (C 1 -C 6 )alkoxy substituted with 1 to 3 halogens. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • stimulates
  • By the end of the decade, the presence of two types of intramembrane receptors was understood: Rs (which stimulates cyclase[disambiguation needed]) and Ri (which inhibits cyclase). (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • The understanding of the concept of second messengers, and in particular the role of cyclic nucleotides and their ability to relay physiological signals to a cell, has its origins in the research of glycogen metabolism by Carl and Gerty Cori, for which they were awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium
  • Incubation of arteries in calcium-free medium almost abolished the synergistic effect of tetrahydrobiopterin and superoxide dismutase on cGMP production. (ahajournals.org)
  • however
  • However, when arteries were incubated with superoxide dismutase plus sepiapterin, endothelium-dependent relaxations to A23187, as well as cGMP production, were significantly augmented. (ahajournals.org)
  • 21 However, the hypothesis that cGMP-mediated processes are the only mechanisms responsible for the NO-mediated contractile effects has subsequently been challenged. (ahajournals.org)
  • recent
  • 3 5 More recent findings 6 demonstrated that tetrahydrobiopterin is needed for formation and stabilization of active dimeric NO synthase. (ahajournals.org)
  • levels
  • High levels of NO induce large increases in cGMP and a negative inotropic effect mediated by a PKG-dependent reduction in myofilament responsiveness to Ca 2+ . (ahajournals.org)
  • actions
  • By contrast PKG II has a much wider expression in the brain, indicating that it is most likely to be the mediator of cGMP actions. (ubc.ca)
  • portion
  • Construction and expression of a truncated form of the (3 subunit demonstrated that it is the glutamic acidrich N-terminal portion of the (3 subunit that is responsible for its anomalous migration on an SDS gel. (ubc.ca)
  • evidence
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin is a key cofactor required for activation of NO synthase and production of NO. 1 2 3 4 Existing evidence suggests that tetrahydrobiopterin may function as an allosteric and/or reducing cofactor. (ahajournals.org)
  • complete
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) vaso-occlusion constitutes a complex multifactorial process characterized by oxidative stress and recurrent ischemia-reperfusion injury in a vicious circle contributing to reduced blood flow and results, eventually, in complete obstruction of the microcirculation and organic dysfunction [ 3 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • positive
  • These results therefore demonstrate that under basal working conditions the icefish heart is under the tonic influence of a NO-cGMP-mediated positive inotropism. (biologists.org)
  • studies
  • Several studies have demonstrated a dissociation between cGMP concentrations and contractile state, because low concentrations of acetylcholine induced a negative inotropic effect even in the absence of any change in cGMP concentration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Another
  • Until Griffith's experiment, bacteriologists believed that the types were fixed and unchangeable, from one generation to another. (wikibooks.org)