• soluble guanyly
  • Inhalational anesthetics do not inhibit nitrovasodilator-induced cyclic GMP formation, suggesting a lack of interference with soluble guanylyl cyclase activation. (asahq.org)
  • increases
  • For example, with primary monocytes in culture, it has been shown that increases in either cAMP or cGMP can promote the development of an intermediate cell that has a phenotype with characteristics of both a dendritic cell and a macrophage ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • High levels of NO induce large increases in cGMP and a negative inotropic effect mediated by a PKG-dependent reduction in myofilament responsiveness to Ca 2+ . (ahajournals.org)
  • cells
  • Initially discovered in the cells that make up the retina of the eye, CNG channels have been found in many different cell types across both the animal and the plant kingdoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monocytes are peripheral immune cells that have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types depending on the combination of cytokines and stimuli to which they are exposed. (pnas.org)
  • The differentiated cell types range from professional antigen-presenting dendritic cells to osteoclasts to various macrophage populations found throughout the body ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • stimulates
  • By the end of the decade, the presence of two types of intramembrane receptors was understood: Rs (which stimulates cyclase[disambiguation needed]) and Ri (which inhibits cyclase). (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • The understanding of the concept of second messengers, and in particular the role of cyclic nucleotides and their ability to relay physiological signals to a cell, has its origins in the research of glycogen metabolism by Carl and Gerty Cori, for which they were awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, when arteries were incubated with superoxide dismutase plus sepiapterin, endothelium-dependent relaxations to A23187, as well as cGMP production, were significantly augmented. (ahajournals.org)
  • 21 However, the hypothesis that cGMP-mediated processes are the only mechanisms responsible for the NO-mediated contractile effects has subsequently been challenged. (ahajournals.org)
  • synthase
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin is a key cofactor required for activation of NO synthase and production of NO. 1 2 3 4 Existing evidence suggests that tetrahydrobiopterin may function as an allosteric and/or reducing cofactor. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 5 More recent findings 6 demonstrated that tetrahydrobiopterin is needed for formation and stabilization of active dimeric NO synthase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although the coronary endothelium is responsible for the bulk of the endogenous, physiological production of NO in the heart, 10 11 NO can also be produced within the cardiac myocytes themselves (ie, autocrine production) by the constitutive NO synthase NOS-3. (ahajournals.org)
  • gene
  • It is now possible to analyze hormonal effects on gene expression and to study which few nucleotides of the 3×109 in each haploid genome confer the response. (wordpress.com)
  • calcium
  • Incubation of arteries in calcium-free medium almost abolished the synergistic effect of tetrahydrobiopterin and superoxide dismutase on cGMP production. (ahajournals.org)
  • therapeutic
  • 3. The therapeutic composition of claim 1, further comprising a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The biological activities of these thymones to stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes and the formations of cyclic nucleotides are basic hormonal functions for the therapeutic enhancement of the immune system in patients who have immune deficiencies from diverse causes. (google.com)
  • cyclase
  • We examined the subcellular mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of NO on cardiac contraction and investigated whether NO modulates contraction exclusively via guanylyl cyclase (GC) activation or whether some contribution occurs via cGMP/PKG-independent mechanisms, in indo 1-loaded adult cardiac myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • either
  • Superoxide dismutase alone did not affect either relaxation to A23187 or production of cGMP. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 Until recently, it was generally accepted that NO induced negative inotropic effects in cardiac preparations, mediated principally through cGMP-related mechanisms, specifically via the reduction of Ca 2+ influx through L-type Ca 2+ channels, either through activation of cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase 14 15 16 or PKG and/or phosphatases. (ahajournals.org)
  • mechanisms
  • 1 2 Furthermore, NO and NO donors have been shown to elicit a wide range of effects on myocardial contractility, 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 but the specific nature of the subcellular mechanisms underlying the diverse effects in heart is largely unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell
  • CNG channels are nonselective cation channels that are found in the membranes of various tissue and cell types, and are significant in sensory transduction as well as cellular development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) vaso-occlusion constitutes a complex multifactorial process characterized by oxidative stress and recurrent ischemia-reperfusion injury in a vicious circle contributing to reduced blood flow and results, eventually, in complete obstruction of the microcirculation and organic dysfunction [ 3 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Another
  • Until Griffith's experiment, bacteriologists believed that the types were fixed and unchangeable, from one generation to another. (wikibooks.org)