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  • antigen
  • For example, the available idiotypic repertoire can be studied using immunization with antigen, but this approach only provides information concerning the antigensensitive B-cell clones, and thus does not permit the evaluation of the complete representation of a given idiotope in the whole antibody pool. (springer.com)
  • It has been known for more than 100 years that the persistence of high antibody titers (Fig. 1) can be lifelong after viral infections and that delayed-type hypersensitivity can be demonstrated for a long time by challenging with a protein antigen after prior infection with tubercle bacilli. (springer.com)
  • This phenomenon allows the immune system to produce various antibody types against the same antigen, but having different effector functions. (childrenshospital.org)
  • vitro
  • Neutralizing antibodies against epidermal growth factor and ErbB-2/neu receptor tyrosine kinases down-regulate vascular endothelial growth factor production by tumor cells in vitro and in vivo: angiogenic implications for signal transduction therapy of solid tumors. (springer.com)
  • receptor
  • Inhibiting the insulin receptor with neutralizing antibodies or antisense oligonucleotides had no effect on EPC outgrowth. (springer.com)
  • 1 In contrast, targeting the human insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor with neutralizing antibodies significantly suppressed insulin-induced outgrowth of EPCs from both healthy controls and patients with type 2 diabetes. (springer.com)