• antigen
  • For example, the available idiotypic repertoire can be studied using immunization with antigen, but this approach only provides information concerning the antigensensitive B-cell clones, and thus does not permit the evaluation of the complete representation of a given idiotope in the whole antibody pool. (springer.com)
  • It has been known for more than 100 years that the persistence of high antibody titers (Fig. 1) can be lifelong after viral infections and that delayed-type hypersensitivity can be demonstrated for a long time by challenging with a protein antigen after prior infection with tubercle bacilli. (springer.com)
  • This phenomenon allows the immune system to produce various antibody types against the same antigen, but having different effector functions. (childrenshospital.org)
  • vitro
  • Neutralizing antibodies against epidermal growth factor and ErbB-2/neu receptor tyrosine kinases down-regulate vascular endothelial growth factor production by tumor cells in vitro and in vivo: angiogenic implications for signal transduction therapy of solid tumors. (springer.com)
  • responses
  • Gupta SC, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel RM (1986) Primary antibody responses to a well-defined and unique hapten are not enhanced by preimmunization with carrier: analysis in a viral model. (springer.com)
  • Early work using nude mice for studying T-cell differentiation and the role of T cells in antibody- and cell-mediated responses was soon overwhelmed by oncologic studies when it was established that many human tumors could be grown in nude mice and that the tumors showed only minor changes in their growth patterns and morphology. (springer.com)