• monoclonal antibodies
  • This discovery led her to develop methods to generate anti-HIV human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the blood cells of HIV-infected individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies, which are drugs of the same family as natalizumab, have also raised high levels of interest and research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alemtuzumab, daclizumab and CD20 monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, ocrelizumab and ofatumumab have all shown some benefit and are under study as potential treatments for MS. Nevertheless, their use has also been accompanied by the appearance of potentially dangerous adverse effects, most importantly opportunistic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • While monoclonal antibodies are probably going to have some role in the treatment of the disease in the future, it is believed that it will be small due to the risks associated to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Her lab also described how antibodies to V2 and V3 could bind and neutralize viruses from all over the globe, despite extreme variations in amino acid sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, the present invention relates to antibodies that specifically bind to a tumor-derived Oncoimmunin-myeloid (OI-M) factor that induces differentiation of myeloid cells. (google.com)
  • Complement fragments, such as C3a, C4a and C5a, activate granular leukocytes (e.g., neutrophils), while other components of the system (C6, C7, C8, C9) either can form the membrane attack complex (MAC) or can bind the antibody, aiding phagocytosis by macrophages (C3b). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme-linke
  • Lunde MN, Ottesen EA (1980) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting IgM and IgE antibodies in human schistosomiasis. (springer.com)
  • The common tests used for detecting and quantifying ANAs are indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Zolla-Pazner's work has influenced our understanding of how the immune system responds to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and, in particular, how antibodies against the viral envelope develop in the course of infection, targeting specific regions-especially the "hypervariable" loops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zolla-Pazner's work helped establish the central role of antibodies in protection from HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her research indicated that high levels of antibodies to V2 correlated with a reduced rate of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • She initiated systemic testing to enumerate CD4 and CD8 cells and antibodies in order to diagnose HIV infection and follow the effects of treatment with antiretroviral drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Building on her correlation of levels of V2 antibodies with reduced infection rates in the RV144 vaccine trial, Zolla-Pazner and her colleagues have spent the last 10 years developing "designer vaccines," i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of these recombinant vaccine constructs in both rabbits and nonhuman primates have demonstrated that they induce antibodies that react with the envelopes of diverse viruses within the various subgroups of HIV and have biologic activities that have been associated with protection from infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with positive heterophile tests should not be monitored with serial testing because the heterophile test may remain positive for as much as 1 year after infection. (medscape.com)
  • Serial specific Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody testing is usually not necessary in patients with acute infection. (medscape.com)
  • The children's blood was tested after their deaths and revealed an HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are found in many disorders including autoimmunity, cancer and infection, with different prevalences of antibodies depending on the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the first series of AIDS cases in the United States were published in the New England Journal of Medicine and the Lancet in December 1981, Leibowitch noticed the similarity between the cases described in the United States and the historic case of a multiple-opportunistic infection syndrome in a Portuguese resident in Paris who had spent time in Angola and Mozambique between 1973 -76. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 2. A test apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a cap is provided to fit over the opening of said ball-release piece. (google.com)
  • 3. A test apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said receptacle tray has a series of wells arranged in rows parallel to each other. (google.com)
  • 4. A test apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said ball holder is a hollow tube with a closed second end. (google.com)
  • 5. A test apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said ball-release piece has a beveled open end with a series of nibs spaced along the inner circumferential edge of said beveled opening. (google.com)
  • 6. A test apparatus according to claim 5, wherein said ball-release piece has a flange portion arranged to fit snugly over one end of said ball holder. (google.com)
  • 7. A test apparatus according to claim 5 wherein said nibs of said ball-release piece are arranged to release one of said coated balls when said ball-release piece is pressed on its extended exterior surface at said opening. (google.com)
  • 8. A test apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said wells are hemispherical in shape. (google.com)
  • 9. A test apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said balls are polystyrene balls. (google.com)
  • 10. A test apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said wells are contoured to provide coverage of one of said coated balls with a minimum of a blood sample and to prevent the entrapment of air between said ball and the well. (google.com)
  • 2. An immobilized immunoadsorbent as set forth in claim 1 wherein said antibodies are bound to said polymer by imidocarbonate linkage. (google.es)
  • autoimmune
  • Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies, also known as SS-A and SS-B, respectively, are commonly found in primary Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-Ro antibodies are also found less frequently in other disorders including autoimmune liver diseases, coeliac disease, autoimmune rheumatic diseases, cardiac neonatal lupus erythematosus and polymyositis. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • None of these patients had a ∑E response more than 3mm larger than the negative control by puncture test with the concentrate of the medium components extract. (drugs.com)
  • One of the 23 patients had a reaction with ∑E≥20mm when tested intradermally with a 1:100 (v/v) dilution of the concentrate of the medium components extracts. (drugs.com)
  • 5 Briefly, highly sensitive patients are skin tested to the reference preparation using an intradermal technique employing 3-fold extract dilutions. (drugs.com)
  • Related to these investigations is the recent development of a test against JC virus antibodies which might help to predict what patients are at a greater risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy when taking natalizumab. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Other activities carried out by the IPCS include the development of know-how for coping with chemical accidents, coordination of laboratory testing and epidemiological studies, and promotion of research on the mechanisms of the biological action of chemicals. (inchem.org)
  • human
  • Sterile, diluted mite extracts available for intradermal testing contain 0.9% sodium chloride, not more than 0.5% glycerin by volume, 0.03% albumin (human), not more than 0.003% sodium bicarbonate, and 0.4% phenol as a preservative. (drugs.com)
  • He continued to conduct research and publish books, including Man Unfolding (1972), The Survival of the Wisest (1973), World Population and Human Values: A New Reality (1981), and Anatomy of Reality: Merging of Intuition and Reason (1983). (wikipedia.org)
  • Apparatus
  • Although there have been methods for determining the presence of antigenically active macromolecules such as intact viruses, virus capsids, subunits, bacteria, membranes, cell walls, hormones, etc., there has been a lack of a simple yet sensitive test method and apparatus for determining the presence of these materials. (google.com)
  • present
  • To determine the autoantibody or autoantibodies present in a patient, the Coombs test, also known as the antiglobulin test, is performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ANA test detects the autoantibodies present in an individual's blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • Antibodies to V3 were subsequently identified as an additional correlate of protection exerting immune pressure on viruses infecting individuals who had received the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twenty-three individuals who were puncture test reactive (∑E≥40mm) to either D. farinae or D. pteronyssinus were tested with an extract of medium components at an estimated 1% carryover level. (drugs.com)
  • blood cells
  • AIHA) occurs when antibodies directed against the person's own red blood cells (RBCs) cause them to burst (lyse), leading to an insufficient number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • samples
  • Eighteen years later, molecular biologists at Tulane University in New Orleans test samples of his remains and find evidence of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • Later in 1981, the CDC would retroactively identify him as the first patient of the AIDS epidemic in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • name
  • The ENAs consist of ribonucleoproteins and non-histone proteins, named by either the name of the donor who provided the prototype serum (Sm, Ro, La, Jo), or the name of the disease setting in which the antibodies were found (SS-A, SS-B, Scl-70). (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • The field trial set up to test the Salk vaccine was, according to O'Neill, "the most elaborate program of its kind in history, involving 20,000 physicians and public health officers, 64,000 school personnel, and 220,000 volunteers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developing, testing, and manufacturing sufficient quantities of a vaccine is a process that takes many months. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Tests in 1989 found that he was HIV-positive, and there has been speculation that he was infected by a prostitute who was infected by Arvid Noe, but as of 1997, this had not been proven. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of both antibodies is found in 30-60% of Sjögren's syndrome, anti-Ro antibodies alone are found in 50-70% of Sjögren's syndrome and 30% of SLE with cutaneous involvement, and anti-La antibodies are rarely found in isolation. (wikipedia.org)