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  • monoclonal antibodies
  • This discovery led her to develop methods to generate anti-HIV human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the blood cells of HIV-infected individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies, which are drugs of the same family as natalizumab, have also raised high levels of interest and research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alemtuzumab, daclizumab and CD20 monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, ocrelizumab and ofatumumab have all shown some benefit and are under study as potential treatments for MS. Nevertheless, their use has also been accompanied by the appearance of potentially dangerous adverse effects, most importantly opportunistic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • While monoclonal antibodies are probably going to have some role in the treatment of the disease in the future, it is believed that it will be small due to the risks associated to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme-linke
  • Lunde MN, Ottesen EA (1980) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting IgM and IgE antibodies in human schistosomiasis. (springer.com)
  • The common tests used for detecting and quantifying ANAs are indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kaposi's
  • In 1981, Zolla-Pazner participated in the description of the immunologic abnormalities of patients presenting with Kaposi's sarcoma, which was associated with the then-mysterious illness that later became known as AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Viral hepatitis, including so called serum hepatitis, which is a relatively common disease, has not been heretofore easily detected by a sensitive test which is both specific and reproducible for quickly determining whether or not the serum from a patient or a donor contains hepatitis associated antigens or antibodies. (google.com)
  • These tests have been adapted to the determination of small concentrations of various components of blood serum and other biological fluids. (google.com)
  • The ANA test detects the autoantibodies present in an individual's blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ENAs consist of ribonucleoproteins and non-histone proteins, named by either the name of the donor who provided the prototype serum (Sm, Ro, La, Jo), or the name of the disease setting in which the antibodies were found (SS-A, SS-B, Scl-70). (wikipedia.org)
  • polymyositis
  • Study authors suggest that patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis are tested for toxoplasmosis, particularly when steroids and immune-suppressants are being considered, as appropriate anti-protozoal therapy produces clinical benefit. (roadback.org)
  • Study authors state that because such cases have only been solved, after death by post-mortem testing, that any patient presenting with polymyositis and myocarditis of unknown origin, should be tested for toxoplasma gondii and that both PCR testing and endomyocardial or skeletal muscle tissue biopsies can confirm the diagnosis. (roadback.org)
  • Anti-Ro antibodies are also found less frequently in other disorders including autoimmune liver diseases, coeliac disease, autoimmune rheumatic diseases, cardiac neonatal lupus erythematosus and polymyositis. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Serological testing revealed elevated toxoplasma gondii titers, but she experienced rapid improvement with 4 weeks of combination antibiotics and steroids, after which all clinical signs and symptoms resolved. (roadback.org)
  • She proposed quantifying the antibodies directed at the second and third variable loops (V2 and V3) of the HIV envelope protein gp120, as observed in the Phase 3 RV144 clinical HIV vaccine trial, which involved 16,402 participants in Thailand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunologic and clinical parameters can be helpful in determining which HIV-infected persons are at particular risk for having PCP and, therefore, which are most likely to benefit from prophylaxis against PCP. (cdc.gov)
  • In recent years a number of clinical diagnostic tests have been developed which employ radioisotope labeled materials. (google.com)
  • A positive ANA test is seldom useful if other clinical or laboratory data supporting a diagnosis are not present. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 2. A test apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a cap is provided to fit over the opening of said ball-release piece. (google.com)
  • 3. A test apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said receptacle tray has a series of wells arranged in rows parallel to each other. (google.com)
  • 4. A test apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said ball holder is a hollow tube with a closed second end. (google.com)
  • 5. A test apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said ball-release piece has a beveled open end with a series of nibs spaced along the inner circumferential edge of said beveled opening. (google.com)
  • 6. A test apparatus according to claim 5, wherein said ball-release piece has a flange portion arranged to fit snugly over one end of said ball holder. (google.com)
  • 7. A test apparatus according to claim 5 wherein said nibs of said ball-release piece are arranged to release one of said coated balls when said ball-release piece is pressed on its extended exterior surface at said opening. (google.com)
  • 8. A test apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said wells are hemispherical in shape. (google.com)
  • 9. A test apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said balls are polystyrene balls. (google.com)
  • 10. A test apparatus according to claim 1 wherein said wells are contoured to provide coverage of one of said coated balls with a minimum of a blood sample and to prevent the entrapment of air between said ball and the well. (google.com)
  • 2. An immobilized immunoadsorbent as set forth in claim 1 wherein said antibodies are bound to said polymer by imidocarbonate linkage. (google.es)
  • ELISA
  • McLaren ML, Lillywhite JE, Dunne DW, Doenhoff MJ (1981 Serodiagnosis of human Schistosoma mansoni infections: enhanced sensitivity and specificity in ELISA using a fraction containing S. mansoni egg antigens w1 and a1. (springer.com)
  • infections
  • She was also responsible for the description of immunologic abnormalities in the first patients with AIDS-related Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infections and for identifying similar immunologic abnormalities in apparently healthy gay men who later developed AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • Antibodies to V3 were subsequently identified as an additional correlate of protection exerting immune pressure on viruses infecting individuals who had received the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field trial set up to test the Salk vaccine was, according to O'Neill, "the most elaborate program of its kind in history, involving 20,000 physicians and public health officers, 64,000 school personnel, and 220,000 volunteers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developing, testing, and manufacturing sufficient quantities of a vaccine is a process that takes many months. (wikipedia.org)
  • complement
  • However, in those who tested positive for IgM immunofluorescent antibodies, these patients also tested positive on both the Sabin-Feldman dye test and complement fixation antibody test. (roadback.org)
  • Study authors discuss the aggressive nature of toxoplasma gondii and its ability to revert to dormant cysts, but with the capability to reactivate later when immunologic function is compromised and, in this case, a complement deficiency due to lupus. (roadback.org)
  • I. A steric and kinetic model for formation of a complex from a human antibody, quinidine as a haptene and platelets and for fixation of complement by the complex. (springer.com)
  • Antibodies are produced against the RBCs, which leads to complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Results showed that 50% of patients were positive on the Sabin-Feldman dye test, yet only 24% were positive on indirect immunofluorescent testing. (roadback.org)
  • Related to these investigations is the recent development of a test against JC virus antibodies which might help to predict what patients are at a greater risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy when taking natalizumab. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • In some individuals, antibodies to human antigens are produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • He continued to conduct research and publish books, including Man Unfolding (1972), The Survival of the Wisest (1973), World Population and Human Values: A New Reality (1981), and Anatomy of Reality: Merging of Intuition and Reason (1983). (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Other activities carried out by the IPCS include the development of know-how for coping with chemical accidents, coordination of laboratory testing and epidemiological studies, and promotion of research on the mechanisms of the biological action of chemicals. (inchem.org)
  • Apparatus
  • Although there have been methods for determining the presence of antigenically active macromolecules such as intact viruses, virus capsids, subunits, bacteria, membranes, cell walls, hormones, etc., there has been a lack of a simple yet sensitive test method and apparatus for determining the presence of these materials. (google.com)
  • high
  • The antibodies are usually directed against high-incidence antigens, therefore they also commonly act on allogenic RBCs (RBCs originating from outside the person themselves, e.g. in the case of a blood transfusion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies with high activity at physiological temperature (approximately 37 °C) are termed warm autoantibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • samples
  • Eighteen years later, molecular biologists at Tulane University in New Orleans test samples of his remains and find evidence of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • positive
  • Tests in 1989 found that he was HIV-positive, and there has been speculation that he was infected by a prostitute who was infected by Arvid Noe, but as of 1997, this had not been proven. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnosis
  • Tests for the diagnosis of immediate hypersensitivity to drugs and identification of drug allogenic determinants. (springer.com)
  • present
  • To determine the autoantibody or autoantibodies present in a patient, the Coombs test, also known as the antiglobulin test, is performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • Later in 1981, the CDC would retroactively identify him as the first patient of the AIDS epidemic in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • AIHA) occurs when antibodies directed against the person's own red blood cells (RBCs) cause them to burst (lyse), leading to an insufficient number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • technique
  • This RIA technique must include some procedure for separating antibody-bound tracer from the unbound tracer after completion of the immune reaction, whereby the radioactivity of the separated components can be determined by scintillation counting. (google.com)
  • Comparison
  • Comparison of the immunologic pattern of HBV seromarkers and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates among exposed and non-exposed babies who received either standard 200 iu or 100 iu HBIG in resource low settings. (omicsonline.org)
  • found
  • The presence of both antibodies is found in 30-60% of Sjögren's syndrome, anti-Ro antibodies alone are found in 50-70% of Sjögren's syndrome and 30% of SLE with cutaneous involvement, and anti-La antibodies are rarely found in isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • Binding of quinine- and quinidine-dependent drug antibodies to platelets is mediated by the Fab domain of the immunoglobulin G and is not Fc dependent. (springer.com)
  • Fab-mediated binding of drug- dependent antibodies to platelets in quinidine- and quinine-induced thrombocytopenia. (springer.com)
  • 1983
  • He continued to conduct research and publish books, including Man Unfolding (1972), The Survival of the Wisest (1973), World Population and Human Values: A New Reality (1981), and Anatomy of Reality: Merging of Intuition and Reason (1983). (wikipedia.org)
  • rituximab
  • Alemtuzumab, daclizumab and CD20 monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, ocrelizumab and ofatumumab have all shown some benefit and are under study as potential treatments for MS. Nevertheless, their use has also been accompanied by the appearance of potentially dangerous adverse effects, most importantly opportunistic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989
  • Tests in 1989 found that he was HIV-positive, and there has been speculation that he was infected by a prostitute who was infected by Arvid Noe, but as of 1997, this had not been proven. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Each of these antibody subtypes binds to different proteins or protein complexes within the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • She proposed quantifying the antibodies directed at the second and third variable loops (V2 and V3) of the HIV envelope protein gp120, as observed in the Phase 3 RV144 clinical HIV vaccine trial, which involved 16,402 participants in Thailand. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Yet, they may be justified to an offbeat or undisciplined genetically stubborn immunologic or inflammatory feedback to an environmental antigenic trigger, perchance a virus or bacterium (Haas-Beckert & Heyman, 2010). (casaelviejocactus.com)
  • blood cells
  • This discovery led her to develop methods to generate anti-HIV human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from the blood cells of HIV-infected individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIHA) occurs when antibodies directed against the person's own red blood cells (RBCs) cause them to burst (lyse), leading to an insufficient number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies, also known as SS-A and SS-B, respectively, are commonly found in primary Sjögren's syndrome, an autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine the autoantibody or autoantibodies present in a patient, the Coombs test, also known as the antiglobulin test, is performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • While monoclonal antibodies are probably going to have some role in the treatment of the disease in the future, it is believed that it will be small due to the risks associated to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • Eighteen years later, molecular biologists at Tulane University in New Orleans test samples of his remains and find evidence of HIV. (wikipedia.org)