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  • vaccinations
  • Since 2002, smallpox vaccinations have again been administered to some military personnel and health care workers, and they continue to be recommended for laboratory workers who work with nonattenuated orthopoxviruses ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • People no longer receive routine smallpox vaccinations. (healthline.com)
  • However, there is an ongoing controversy regarding the continued storage of the smallpox virus by labs in the US and Russia, as any accidental or deliberate release could create a new epidemic for persons born after or in the late 1980s due to the cessation of vaccinations against the smallpox virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is attributed both to waning cross-protective immunity among those vaccinated before 1980 when mass smallpox vaccinations were discontinued, and to the gradually increasing proportion of unvaccinated individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Vaccines are among the most effective and inexpensive ways to fight infectious diseases and help people stay healthy. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Globally, one-in-five children has not been fully immunized against common, vaccine-preventable diseases. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • A greater than 92% decline in cases and a 99% or greater decline in deaths due to diseases prevented by vaccines recommended before 1980 were shown for diphtheria, mumps, pertussis, and tetanus. (roguemedic.com)
  • Declines were 80% or greater for cases and deaths of most vaccine-preventable diseases targeted since 1980 including hepatitis A, acute hepatitis B, Hib, and varicella. (roguemedic.com)
  • As vaccines become more accessible, there is a corresponding decline in the prevalence of these diseases. (action.org)
  • For some diseases, vaccines may be available in more than one form (live attenuated and inactivated [killed] poliovirus vaccines, whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some vaccines are recommended for use in all persons (typically infants and young children, since most communicable diseases primarily strike them) and others are recommended for specific persons or groups who are at increased risk of contracting the particular disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since the time of ancient Egypt, smallpox has proven to be one of the most devastating diseases to humankind. (healthline.com)
  • There are some diseases that we really do need vaccines for. (blogspot.com)
  • There are a number of diseases about which we hear very little in this country but prospects for actually eliminating/eradicating any of them are slim," said Dr. D. A. Henderson, author of "Smallpox: the Death of a Disease," who led the WHO's initiative to eradicate the virus. (go.com)
  • Other diseases, he said, present challenges not faced with smallpox. (go.com)
  • Some, because there is an animal reservoir, like plague, or long-term carriers of the disease who can excrete the organism -- tuberculosis and leprosy -- or diseases for which the vaccine is inadequate to accomplish what we would like to achieve -- diphtheria and, to some degree, polio. (go.com)
  • The targeted organism must not have a non-human reservoir (or, in the case of animal diseases, the infection reservoir must be an easily identifiable species, as in the case of rinderpest), and/or amplify in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, two diseases have been successfully eradicated-one specifically affecting humans (smallpox), and one affecting a wide range of ruminants (rinderpest). (wikipedia.org)
  • His laboratory was close to an infectious diseases unit and this enabled him to provide confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of diseases that included poliomyelitis, diarrhoea, smallpox and AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccinia Vaccine
  • dead link] Safety Surveillance Study of ACAM2000 Vaccinia Vaccine - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Wyeth package insert / U.S. Food and Drug administration Metzger W, Mordmueller BG (2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional reduction of overall vaccinia adverse events might be achievable through study of cardiac and dermatological risk factors, a better understanding of vaccinia host-pathogen interaction, and development of a less reactogenic vaccinia vaccine," the researchers conclude. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Certain military recruits continue to receive vaccinia vaccine owing to the concern for bioterrorism. (medscape.com)
  • Measles
  • Measles vaccine was added later. (action.org)
  • Vaccines may contain living, weakened (attenuated) organisms (measles), killed whole organisms (whole cell pertussis, influenza), portions of organisms (subunit influenza), purified components of organisms (acellular pertussis, pneumococcal polysaccharide), or they may be manufactured artificially (hepatitis B produced by recombinant DNA technology). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vaccines currently recommended for use in all infants and children in the United States are DTP/DTaP (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis [or acellular pertussis] vaccine), IPV (inactivated poliovirus vaccine), MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine), Hib vaccine ( Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine), hepatitis B vaccine, and varicella ( chicken pox ) vaccine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During the 20th century, there were a series of campaigns to eradicate rinderpest, a viral disease which infected cattle and other ruminants and belonged to the same family as measles, primarily through the use of a live attenuated vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measles vaccine is effective at preventing the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • A few days later, the characteristic smallpox rash appears as flat, red spots (lesions). (dreddyclinic.com)
  • The way the lesions are distributed is a hallmark of smallpox and a primary way of diagnosing the disease. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Chickenpox lesions are much more superficial than are those of smallpox and occur primarily on the trunk, rather than on the face, arms and hands. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • In smallpox, on the other hand, all of the lesions in a given area are at the same stage. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • The photo of case-patient 1's skin lesions was taken on ≈day 8 of illness (courtesy of R. Reddy). (cdc.gov)
  • Malignant smallpox lesions did not develop into pustules or pus-filled bumps on the skin. (healthline.com)
  • The history of the vaccinia virus is that of smallpox, a serious illness characterized by the eruption of small pocklike lesions throughout the skin and internal organs. (medscape.com)
  • By scratching the fluid from cowpox lesions into the skin of healthy individuals, he was able to immunize those people against smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • In the past, smallpox was sometimes confused with chickenpox - a childhood infection that's seldom deadly. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • We report on a cluster of 4 cases of vaccinia virus infection in Maryland, USA, likely acquired at a martial arts gym. (cdc.gov)
  • Although there is no drug to treat Guinea worm disease and no vaccine to prevent infection, the disease can be prevented by avoiding drinking unsafe water. (thegospelcoalition.org)
  • The characteristic pockmarks on 8000-year-old mummies possibly indicate smallpox infection. (medscape.com)
  • With abilities to cause serious disease, they are more commonly found in a latent stage, and their mode of infection is mainly mechanical, though documented cases exist of vertical transmission through pollen and seed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Encephalitis, an infection of the brain tissue itself, can occur in rare cases, and is usually restricted to infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, there was a reduction of milk yield of about 30-35% which was followed by mastitis that was a consequence of a secondary bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smallpox vaccine is believed to prevent infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20th century
  • Also in the 20th century, smallpox claimed the lives of 300-500 million people, and hundreds of years before that it had nearly wiped out indigenous peoples in the Americas, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • In 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO), in an unprecedented effort, targeted smallpox for eradication from the planet by the end of the 20th century. (medscape.com)
  • hepatitis
  • In the last twenty years of the twentieth century, many new or improved vaccines were developed and introduced, including vaccines directed against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal meningitis, pertussis, typhoid, and varicella ( chicken pox ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Flewett's interests included influenza, coxsackie A and coxsackie B viruses, the major and minor variants of smallpox virus, and hepatitis B virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune Response
  • When a person is vaccinated, their body produces an immune response to the vaccine in the same way that it would after being infected by a disease - but without the person suffering symptoms of the disease. (health.gov.au)
  • Some vaccines may also contain a small amount of an aluminium salt, which helps to produce a better immune response. (health.gov.au)
  • Vaccines and toxoids may also contain adjuvants, substances that enhance the immune response, as well as preservatives. (encyclopedia.com)
  • scabs
  • Efforts to prevent the spread of smallpox via inoculation were described as far back as the 6th century BC, when the Chinese inhaled powder derived from smallpox scabs to protect people from developing smallpox. (medscape.com)
  • disease
  • Smallpox is a very serious disease that is fatal in about 1 in 3 patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This disease is caused by Vibrio cholerae , which can live in the intestines where antibodies - produced by vaccines that are injected - cannot get to it. (s-cool.co.uk)
  • Vaccine-Preventable Disease Table Working Group. (roguemedic.com)
  • Although a worldwide immunization program eradicated smallpox disease decades ago, small quantities of smallpox virus officially still exist in two research laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia, and in Russia. (nih.gov)
  • Although smallpox vaccines have been developed and procured for the SNS, they cannot completely prevent disease or attenuate the illness if given too late following exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Smallpox is a relatively old disease. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Immunisation means both receiving a vaccine and becoming immune to a disease, as a result of being vaccinated. (health.gov.au)
  • The oldest reference to the disease is in Egyptian records of 3700 B.C. Since that time, smallpox has killed hundreds of millions of people. (cure-guide.com)
  • The only possible causes of smallpox disease now would be laboratory accidents, a mass release during wartime, or through terrorist acts. (cure-guide.com)
  • However, in severe cases of the disease, fever begins again on day 11 with a rampant worsening of symptoms. (cure-guide.com)
  • The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) kept a stockpile of the drug to use in case of emergency. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the reasons smallpox was so dangerous and deadly is because it's an airborne disease. (healthline.com)
  • Christine G. Casey, M.D., of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and colleagues examined the vaccine safety profile among civilians who received smallpox vaccine between January 24 and October 31, 2003. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers evaluated adverse events reported via the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The disease was certified eradicated in 1980 by the WHO. (blogspot.com)
  • Smallpox was the first disease for which a vaccine was developed. (go.com)
  • But replicating the success of the smallpox effort with any other disease has yet to happen. (go.com)
  • Some cases have received publicity, but the disease tends not to be well known here. (go.com)
  • The Spanish are believed to have introduced smallpox to the New World, where the disease quickly spread to the native populations, causing major political consequences. (medscape.com)
  • This being the case the main people in danger of contracting the disease are veterinarians, milk attendants, and other people that are in close proximity of the infected animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ACIH's aim is to promote disease prevention in developing countries, and the body has organised international conferences on vaccines and other topics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information on the case was forwarded via telegram to D.A. Henderson, who led the World Health Organization's campaign to eradicate the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • No other vaccine-preventable disease causes as many deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • It is during the second week that most deaths from smallpox occur. (cure-guide.com)
  • This comprehensive smallpox vaccine safety monitoring and response system can serve as an effective model for vaccine campaigns that may occur in response to public health emergencies. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Moderate severity acne is said to occur when a higher number of inflammatory papules and pustules occur on the face compared to mild cases of acne and are found on the trunk of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • safety of vaccines
  • On behalf of organizations representing families, providers, researchers, patients, and consumers, we write to express our unequivocal support for the safety of vaccines. (roguemedic.com)
  • 1972
  • His efforts also led to the passage of the 1972 Colorado law requiring legal counsel for the child in all cases of suspected abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy affecting primarily motor neurons, which in severe cases can progress to complete paralysis and even death. (roguemedic.com)
  • I had a very severe case of the chicken pox. (blogspot.com)
  • But in many cases this caused severe disfigurement or loss of function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mastitis occurs in approximately fifty percent of the infected animals, in severe cases the reduction in milk production can be permanent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large nodules were previously referred to as cysts, and the term nodulocystic has been used in the medical literature to describe severe cases of inflammatory acne. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • 1980 - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report published the first report on the newly recognized toxic shock syndrome, an illness associated with tampon use. (wikipedia.org)
  • polio
  • This has increased over time to include nine antigens, including the injectable form of polio vaccine, in addition to the oral drops. (action.org)
  • With only three cases last year, eradicating polio in Pakistan in 2018 seems within reach. (action.org)
  • The first polio vaccine was developed in the 1950s by Jonas Salk. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • Therefore, more doses of vaccine are often needed. (health.gov.au)
  • Even better, the jet injector could hold 500 or more doses of vaccine, meaning that hundreds of doses could be delivered within an hour. (si.edu)
  • virus
  • It does not contain smallpox (variola) virus. (nih.gov)
  • Early results from laboratory studies suggest that the drug cidofovir may be an effective treatment against the smallpox virus. (nih.gov)
  • Stocks of smallpox virus, set aside for research purposes, are officially stored in two high-security World Health Organization (WHO) labs - one in the United States and one in Siberia. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • The variola virus causes smallpox. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Although extraordinarily large for a virus, 3 million smallpox bricks lined end to end would be no larger than the period at the end of a sentence. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • A Confederate doctor deliberately sold clothes contaminated with smallpox to Union soldiers during the American Civil War, and Japanese doctors exposed Chinese prisoners of war to aerosolized virus in germ warfare experiments during World War II (Tucker, 2001). (cure-guide.com)
  • Vaccinia virus is an orthopoxvirus used in the live vaccine against smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • Historical accounts show that when someone was infected with the smallpox virus, they had no symptoms for between seven and 17 days. (healthline.com)
  • Coughing, sneezing, or direct contact with any bodily fluids could spread the smallpox virus. (healthline.com)
  • There is no cure for the smallpox virus. (healthline.com)
  • Although the World Health Organization declared in 1980 that smallpox had been eradicated worldwide, there is concern that smallpox virus may exist outside the World Health Organization−designated repository laboratories and may be used as a bioweapon. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Vaccinia virus is the species now characterized as the constituent of smallpox vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • The effectiveness of vaccinia virus as a vaccine paramount was in this effort. (medscape.com)
  • As this transfer of human fluids came with its own set of complications, a safer manner of producing the vaccine was first introduced in Italy, The new method used cows to manufacture the vaccine using a process called "retrovaccination," in which a heifer was inoculated with humanized cowpox virus, and it was passed from calf to calf to produce massive quantities efficiently and safely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have not determined exactly when the change or mutation occurred, but the effects of vaccinia and cowpox virus as vaccine are nearly the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing for the virus in suspected cases is important for public health efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • Since 2000, vaccines available on Australia's National Immunisation Program have not contained thiomersal. (health.gov.au)
  • epidemic
  • Smallpox has the potential to spread rapidly - an epidemic could conceivably start with one infected individual. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Jesty inoculated his wife and two young sons with cowpox, in a successful effort to immunize them to smallpox, an epidemic of which had arisen in their town. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1958 - A CDC team traveled overseas, for the first time, to Southeast Asia to respond to an epidemic of cholera and smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • world
  • Nearly one-hundred years ago, 500 million people around the world were infected by influenza (H1N1) and between 50 and 100 million people died (today, we do have a vaccine for that). (huffingtonpost.com)
  • While there are a few people in affluent societies and troubled corners of the world who distrust vaccines, the history cannot be more clear: vaccines work. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • In 1980, the World Health Organization declared that smallpox had been eradicated. (nih.gov)
  • It is possible that smallpox has already made a comeback in this remote part of the world. (cure-guide.com)
  • After world health authorities declared smallpox had been eradicated from nature in 1980, Wyeth stopped making the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1966, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched an effort to eradicate smallpox on a global scale. (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • By 1980, almost two centuries after Jenner's discovery, there was no longer a single case of smallpox anywhere in the world. (carnegiecouncil.org)
  • Loco YaYa's Snafud World: Vaccines and Kids. (blogspot.com)
  • At its most prevalent point, smallpox existed everywhere in the world except Australia and a few islands, causing millions of deaths nearly worldwide. (medscape.com)
  • His laboratory in Birmingham was a World Health Organisation Reference and Research Centre for Rotavirus Infections from 1980 until his retirement in 1987. (wikipedia.org)