• vaccinia vaccine
  • Additional reduction of overall vaccinia adverse events might be achievable through study of cardiac and dermatological risk factors, a better understanding of vaccinia host-pathogen interaction, and development of a less reactogenic vaccinia vaccine," the researchers conclude. (bio-medicine.org)
  • dead link] Safety Surveillance Study of ACAM2000 Vaccinia Vaccine - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Wyeth package insert / U.S. Food and Drug administration Metzger W, Mordmueller BG (2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain military recruits continue to receive vaccinia vaccine owing to the concern for bioterrorism. (medscape.com)
  • diseases
  • A greater than 92% decline in cases and a 99% or greater decline in deaths due to diseases prevented by vaccines recommended before 1980 were shown for diphtheria, mumps, pertussis, and tetanus. (roguemedic.com)
  • Declines were 80% or greater for cases and deaths of most vaccine-preventable diseases targeted since 1980 including hepatitis A, acute hepatitis B, Hib, and varicella. (roguemedic.com)
  • In early 20th-century America, where epidemics of potentially lethal diseases such as smallpox often ran rampant, compulsory vaccination made a great deal of sense as it protected large segments of the population. (si.edu)
  • For some diseases, vaccines may be available in more than one form (live attenuated and inactivated [killed] poliovirus vaccines, whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some vaccines are recommended for use in all persons (typically infants and young children, since most communicable diseases primarily strike them) and others are recommended for specific persons or groups who are at increased risk of contracting the particular disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since the time of ancient Egypt, smallpox has proven to be one of the most devastating diseases to humankind. (healthline.com)
  • There are some diseases that we really do need vaccines for. (blogspot.com)
  • There are a number of diseases about which we hear very little in this country but prospects for actually eliminating/eradicating any of them are slim," said Dr. D. A. Henderson, author of "Smallpox: the Death of a Disease," who led the WHO's initiative to eradicate the virus. (go.com)
  • Other diseases, he said, present challenges not faced with smallpox. (go.com)
  • Some, because there is an animal reservoir, like plague, or long-term carriers of the disease who can excrete the organism -- tuberculosis and leprosy -- or diseases for which the vaccine is inadequate to accomplish what we would like to achieve -- diphtheria and, to some degree, polio. (go.com)
  • Smallpox is thought to be one of the most dangerous diseases that could be used in bioterrorism. (uiowa.edu)
  • For more information about National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases smallpox research, visit the institute online at www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/bioterrorism.htm . (uiowa.edu)
  • His laboratory was close to an infectious diseases unit and this enabled him to provide confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of diseases that included poliomyelitis, diarrhoea, smallpox and AIDS. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1894 a small frame building was erected to handle the continuing smallpox epidemic, while other infectious diseases were treated in private hospitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endemic
  • 10 Although Marius provides no clinical description of the disease concerned, there is little doubt that smallpox had already become endemic in some areas of Europe by this time. (nih.gov)
  • 5 Central and southern Africa probably became endemic for smallpox about this time or soon thereafter. (nih.gov)
  • rubella
  • Vaccines currently recommended for use in all infants and children in the United States are DTP/DTaP (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis [or acellular pertussis] vaccine), IPV (inactivated poliovirus vaccine), MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine), Hib vaccine ( Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine), hepatitis B vaccine, and varicella ( chicken pox ) vaccine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • epidemic
  • Smallpox has the potential to spread rapidly - an epidemic could conceivably start with one infected individual. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Jesty inoculated his wife and two young sons with cowpox, in a successful effort to immunize them to smallpox, an epidemic of which had arisen in their town. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1958 - A CDC team traveled overseas, for the first time, to Southeast Asia to respond to an epidemic of cholera and smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this smallpox epidemic the city's first public hospital was built in 1839 to care for homeless and impoverished Detroit residents. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis
  • Vaccines may contain living, weakened (attenuated) organisms (measles), killed whole organisms (whole cell pertussis, influenza), portions of organisms (subunit influenza), purified components of organisms (acellular pertussis, pneumococcal polysaccharide), or they may be manufactured artificially (hepatitis B produced by recombinant DNA technology). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the last twenty years of the twentieth century, many new or improved vaccines were developed and introduced, including vaccines directed against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal meningitis, pertussis, typhoid, and varicella ( chicken pox ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Flewett's interests included influenza, coxsackie A and coxsackie B viruses, the major and minor variants of smallpox virus, and hepatitis B virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • illness
  • In the unlikely event that an exposure to the smallpox virus occurs, vaccination within one to three days can keep the illness from being so severe. (healthline.com)
  • A second variety, variola minor, produced less severe illness and was associated with case-fatality rates of 1% or less. (nih.gov)
  • 1980 - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report published the first report on the newly recognized toxic shock syndrome, an illness associated with tampon use. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Smallpox is a very serious disease that is fatal in about 1 in 3 patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although Dryvax is known to be an effective vaccine for the prevention of smallpox, very little is known about the ability of the body to develop defenses to prevent disease (immune responses) with this vaccine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Vaccine-Preventable Disease Table Working Group. (roguemedic.com)
  • Smallpox is a relatively old disease. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Immunisation means both receiving a vaccine and becoming immune to a disease, as a result of being vaccinated. (health.gov.au)
  • When a person is vaccinated, their body produces an immune response to the vaccine in the same way that it would after being infected by a disease - but without the person suffering symptoms of the disease. (health.gov.au)
  • One of the reasons smallpox was so dangerous and deadly is because it's an airborne disease. (healthline.com)
  • Christine G. Casey, M.D., of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and colleagues examined the vaccine safety profile among civilians who received smallpox vaccine between January 24 and October 31, 2003. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The researchers evaluated adverse events reported via the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) kept a stockpile of the drug to use in case of emergency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease was certified eradicated in 1980 by the WHO. (blogspot.com)
  • Smallpox was the first disease for which a vaccine was developed. (go.com)
  • But replicating the success of the smallpox effort with any other disease has yet to happen. (go.com)
  • Some cases have received publicity, but the disease tends not to be well known here. (go.com)
  • The Spanish are believed to have introduced smallpox to the New World, where the disease quickly spread to the native populations, causing major political consequences. (medscape.com)
  • It does not make sense to give a vaccine with substantial risks against a disease that does not exist," advisory committee chairman Dr. Brian Strom of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine had cautioned earlier. (sptimes.com)
  • The biggest hurdle to eradicating disease isn't access to vaccines -- it's getting people to take them. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Smallpox is now a disease of historical interest only, its eradication having been certified by the World Health Assembly on May 8, 1980. (nih.gov)
  • 7 In the Anglo-Saxon world, by the 10th century, the word poc or pocca , a bag or pouch, described an exanthematous disease, possibly smallpox, and English accounts began to use the word pockes . (nih.gov)
  • This being the case the main people in danger of contracting the disease are veterinarians, milk attendants, and other people that are in close proximity of the infected animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ACIH's aim is to promote disease prevention in developing countries, and the body has organised international conferences on vaccines and other topics. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 20th century, there were a series of campaigns to eradicate rinderpest, a viral disease which infected cattle and other ruminants and belonged to the same family as measles, primarily through the use of a live attenuated vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information on the case was forwarded via telegram to D.A. Henderson, who led the World Health Organization's campaign to eradicate the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy affecting primarily motor neurons, which in severe cases can progress to complete paralysis and even death. (roguemedic.com)
  • I had a very severe case of the chicken pox. (blogspot.com)
  • But in many cases this caused severe disfigurement or loss of function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mastitis occurs in approximately fifty percent of the infected animals, in severe cases the reduction in milk production can be permanent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large nodules were previously referred to as cysts, and the term nodulocystic has been used in the medical literature to describe severe cases of inflammatory acne. (wikipedia.org)
  • safety of vaccines
  • On behalf of organizations representing families, providers, researchers, patients, and consumers, we write to express our unequivocal support for the safety of vaccines. (roguemedic.com)
  • Henderson
  • Donald Henderson at Johns Hopkins University wrote of smallpox eradication that it 'was achieved by only the narrowest of margins' while progress 'wavered between success and disaster, often only to be decided by quixotic circumstance or extraordinary performances by field staff. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • He was one of the lead authors, with Frank Fenner and Henderson, of the WHO publication Smallpox and its Eradication, an exhaustive 1460-page volume which was published in January 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1988, Arita, together with Henderson and Fenner, was awarded the Japan Prize - considered the Japanese equivalent of the Nobel Prize - for his work on smallpox eradication. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1972
  • His efforts also led to the passage of the 1972 Colorado law requiring legal counsel for the child in all cases of suspected abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • 18th century
  • In Europe, as of the end of the 18th century, an estimated 400,000 persons died annually from smallpox, and survivors accounted for one third of all cases of blindness. (nih.gov)
  • During the 18th century alone, five reigning European monarchs died of smallpox, and the Austrian Hapsburg line of succession shifted four times in four generations. (nih.gov)
  • polio
  • In 2017 the world saw the fewest wild polio cases in history -a total of 17. (thegospelcoalition.org)
  • The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988 when there were about a third of a million cases worldwide. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • To be fair to Kano's former governor, only 23 percent of children across the whole of Nigeria were fully immunized in 2008, suggesting that general lack of information, fear of side effects, and the hassle of getting kids vaccinated probably played the larger part in low takeup of polio vaccine on the demand side (not to mention weaknesses in the vaccine delivery and administration system). (foreignpolicy.com)
  • In 2016, there were 37 cases of wild polio and 5 cases of vaccine-derived polio. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first polio vaccine was developed in the 1950s by Jonas Salk. (wikipedia.org)
  • syphilis
  • With the appearance of syphilis in Europe in the late 15th century, writers began to use the prefix small to distinguish variola, the smallpox, from syphilis, the great pox. (nih.gov)
  • concern
  • Concern about a possible bioterrorist attack using smallpox grew after the September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States and the subsequent mailing of deadly anthrax spores. (voanews.com)
  • mortality rate
  • Current estimates are that 120 million Americans are susceptible to smallpox, and given the 30 percent mortality rate found with smallpox, the effect of a terrorist attack could be profound. (uiowa.edu)
  • Smallpox (variola) occurred in two clinical varieties: variola major, with a mortality rate of up to 40 percent, and variola minor, also known as alastrim, with a mortality rate less than one percent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infant mortality rate increased again between the 1970 and 1980 due to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • In addition, we will try to determine whether certain genetic characteristics influence the size of the sore around the vaccination site, and use blood samples from subjects in the study to make a new form of antibody that could be given to people with vaccine side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • occur
  • This comprehensive smallpox vaccine safety monitoring and response system can serve as an effective model for vaccine campaigns that may occur in response to public health emergencies. (bio-medicine.org)
  • President Bush is expected to make a decision soon on a smallpox vaccination plan to protect Americans, should an attack ever occur. (voanews.com)
  • Moderate severity acne is said to occur when a higher number of inflammatory papules and pustules occur on the face compared to mild cases of acne and are found on the trunk of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intervention
  • An efficient and practical intervention (such as a vaccine or antibiotic) must be available to interrupt transmission of the infective agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Some vaccines may also contain a small amount of an aluminium salt, which helps to produce a better immune response. (health.gov.au)
  • Vaccines and toxoids may also contain adjuvants, substances that enhance the immune response, as well as preservatives. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Specializing in the study of virology, he helped developed Vaccinia immune globulin to counter the adverse effects of the smallpox vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • His patients who had contracted and recovered from the similar but milder cowpox (mainly milkmaids), seemed to be immune not only to further cases of cowpox, but also to smallpox. (wikipedia.org)