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  • soil
  • At Rockefeller, Kligler conducted research commissioned by the Board of Directors on soil contamination, rural sanitation and intestinal bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • Antibiotic resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which can cause untreatable infections, may be tracked with genomic sequencing techniques. (pbs.org)
  • While the Center for Disease Control responded rapidly, as did the Pennsylvania Health Department, it wasn't until nearly a year later that Joseph McDade made the discovery that a previously identified bacterium was the cause of the outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have also been suggestions that choking during swallowing, eating or drinking, which allows infected fluid enter into the lungs, is another method which the bacterium can use to cause infection. (carabinshaw.com)
  • On January 18, 1977, the cause was identified as a previously unknown bacterium later named Legionella . (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • This test detects the presence of Legionella antigen in urine. (mn.us)
  • The chemical composition of these side chains both with respect to components as well as arrangement of the different sugars determines the nature of the somatic or O antigen determinants, which are essential means of serologically classifying many Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1977
  • In January 1977, the Legionella bacterium was finally identified and isolated and was found to be breeding in the cooling tower of the hotel's air conditioning system, which then spread it through the building. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • Adding an antibacterial agent to the automobiles' windshield system's reservoir is also recommended Legionellae have been discovered in up to 40% of freshwater environments and have been in up to 80% of freshwater sites by PCR hybridization assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • aerobic
  • Legionella organisms' dependence on L-cysteine and their unique fatty acids and isoprenoid ubiquinone distinguish them from other aerobic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • This group has published guidelines about the actions to be taken to limit the number of colony forming units (i.e., the "aerobic count") of micro-organisms per mL at 30 °C (minimum 48 hours incubation): Almost all natural water sources contain Legionella and their presence should not be taken as an indication of a problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • biofilm
  • Researchers stated that "it was identified as Legionella based on sequencing, cellular fatty acid analysis, biochemical reactions, and biofilm characterization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amoebae are often part of biofilms, and once Legionella and infected amoebae are protected within a biofilm, they are particularly difficult to destroy. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • The European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) was established in 1986 within the European Union framework to share knowledge and experience about potential sources of Legionella and their control. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are used to treat respiratory tract infections caused by macrolide-resistant bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Legionella organisms are found in many types of water systems and reproduce in high numbers in warm water (95-115oF), such as certain plumbing systems, hot water tanks, cooling towers, large air conditioning systems, and whirlpool spas. (mn.us)
  • exposure
  • The length of time between exposure to the bacteria and the appearance of symptoms is generally two to ten days, but can rarely extend to as much as 20 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • agar
  • Plated acidification or using BCYE agar increases the level of selectivity and allows easier access to collecting a Legionella sample from an infected human's sputum. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • The bacteria typically grows in hot water systems that maintain water temperatures between 70 - 120°F, but growth in cold water systems can also occur if temperatures reach this range. (gaiconsultants.com)
  • The bacteria grows best at warm temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sources where temperatures allow the bacteria to thrive include hot water tanks, cooling towers, and evaporative condensers of large air conditioning systems, such as those commonly found in hotels and large office buildings. (wikipedia.org)
  • fountains
  • The mayor's office assures us that "New York City's drinking water supply and other water features, like fountains, showerheads, and pools, are safe" and "unaffected by legionella. (villagevoice.com)
  • Malta requires twice yearly testing for Legionella bacteria at cooling towers and water fountains. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Controlling the growth of Legionella in ornamental fountains is touched on in many of the listed guidelines,[citation needed] especially for solar water heating systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • cooling towers
  • To prevent the bacteria from taking hold and spreading from its source to patients' rooms, hospitals regularly clean and maintain ventilation systems and position cooling towers so that potentially infected air can't circulate. (pbs.org)
  • De Blasio said the city has ordered the managers of all buildings with the large cooling towers that can harbor Legionella bacteria to disinfect them by August 19. (villagevoice.com)
  • The mayor's office on Monday announced that by Friday, "all sites will submit long-term plans as to how they will maintain the cooling towers to protect against any future growth of legionella. (villagevoice.com)
  • The City of Garland, Texas requires yearly testing for legionella bacteria at cooling towers at apartment buildings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many other governmental agencies, cooling tower manufacturers, and industrial trade organizations have developed design and maintenance guidelines for preventing or controlling the growth of Legionella in cooling towers. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • A characteristic that was found about Legionella clemsonensis is that it has a single, polar flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2011 study by Lin, Stout and Yu found Copper-Silver ionization to be the only Legionella control technology which has been validated through a 4-step scientific approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Its virulence depends on the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system (T4SS), which is essential to establish a replication permissive vacuole known as the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV). (jove.com)
  • An outbreak caused by Legionella micdadei in early 1988 in the UK became known as Lochgoilhead fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • Here we demonstrate protocols for analyzing L. pneumophila virulence in the G. mellonella model, including how to grow infectious L. pneumophila , pretreat the larvae with inhibitors, infect the larvae and how to extract infected cells for quantification and immunofluorescence microscopy. (jove.com)
  • systems
  • The bacteria can grow in building cooling and plumbing systems, and it presents significant health, legal, and financial risks if it is not managed properly. (gaiconsultants.com)
  • The guidance now also recommends that routine testing for legionella bacteria in wet cooling systems be carried out at least quarterly, and more frequently when a system is being commissioned, or if the bacteria have been identified on a previous occasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • cases
  • This is evident, as the treatment dosage is much too low to fight infection, and in DPB cases with the occurrence of the macrolide-resistant bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, macrolide therapy still produces substantial anti-inflammatory results. (wikipedia.org)