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  • 1974
  • In 1974, the effects of temperature on membrane behavior had led to the proposal of "clusters of lipids" in membranes and by 1975, data suggested that these clusters could be "quasicrystalline" regions within the more freely dispersed liquid crystalline lipid molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Studies of the physical properties and phase behavior of lipids have shown that lipids can also play dynamic roles and can respond to changes in their environment by undergoing phase transitions, alterations in lipid- lipid and lipid-protein interactions, and by release or uptake of cations or protons. (springer.com)
  • Unperturbed cells express very little TF PCA despite the fact that TF, an integral membrane protein, is on the cell surface where it can bind zymogen factor VII (FVII) as well as activated FVII (FVIIa). (ahajournals.org)
  • Identification, purification, and partial characterization of a novel M r 28,000 integral membrane protein from erythrocytes and renal tubules. (springer.com)
  • In some cases, the hydrated region can extend much further, for instance in lipids with a large protein or long sugar chain grafted to the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ypk1 is a central regulator of pathways and processes required for plasma membrane lipid and protein homeostasis, and requires phosphorylation on its T-loop by eisosome-associated protein kinase Pkh1 (mammalian ortholog is PDK1) and a paralog (Pkh2). (mdpi.com)
  • Purification and partial characterization of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis. (naver.com)
  • The plasma membranes of cells contain combinations of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organised in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • organization
  • These microdomains were attributed to the physical properties and organization of lipid mixtures by Stier & Sackmann and Israelachvili et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • erythrocyte membrane
  • It was concluded from these observations that the majority of the aminophospholipids (PE and PS) should be located at the inner aspect of the erythrocyte membrane. (springer.com)
  • Since then, such studies, involving a great variety of different probes, have been extended to many other membrane systems but, unfortunately, not always as successful as in case of the erythrocyte membrane. (springer.com)
  • S.E. Gordesky, G.V. Marinetti and R. Love, The reaction of chemical probes with the erythrocyte membrane, J. Membr. (springer.com)
  • Electrophoretic analysis of the major polypeptides of the human erythrocyte membrane. (springer.com)
  • cell
  • In my own work I have a strong preference for Ca 2+ ionophores because they rapidly induce the maximum expression of cell surface TF PCA without destroying plasma membrane integrity. (ahajournals.org)
  • The cell membrane has been the focus of much recent biochemical and biophysical research, primarily because of its role in cellular phenomena. (springer.com)
  • The cell membranes of almost all living organisms and many viruses are made of a lipid bilayer, as are the membranes surrounding the cell nucleus and other sub-cellular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a typical mammalian cell (diameter ~10 micrometers) were magnified to the size of a watermelon (~1 ft/30 cm), the lipid bilayer making up the plasma membrane would be about as thick as a piece of office paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method is also efficient for transdermal drug delivery and the transport of drugs, oligonucleotides, antibodies, and plasmids across cell membranes (Neumann et al. (biology-online.org)
  • Conjugation with lipoamino acids (LAA) confers an amphipathic character to the peptide, which improved interaction between the peptide and the lipid bilayer of the cell membranes, increasing permeability. (frontiersin.org)
  • Daptomycin causes rapid depolarization of the bacterial cell membrane, resulting in cell death in the absence of lysis ( 10 , 66 ). (asm.org)
  • The complex and energy consuming machineries needed to regulate and maintain this state imply that membrane asymmetry is a key property for proper function of the membrane and, in turn, the survival of the cell. (we-heraeus-stiftung.de)
  • Although more common in plasma membrane, lipid rafts have also been reported in other parts of the cell, such as the Golgi apparatus and lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • At gap junctions, the intercellular space is between 2 and 4 nm and unit connexons in the membrane of each cell are aligned with one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • When different connexins join together to form one connexon, it is called a heteromeric connexon Two hemichannels, joined together across a cell membrane comprise a Gap Junction channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cell's ability to dynamically form microfilaments provides the scaffolding that allows it to rapidly remodel itself in response to its environment or to the organism's internal signals, for example, to increase cell membrane absorption or increase cell adhesion in order to form cell tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other enzymes or organelles such as cilia can be anchored to this scaffolding in order to control the deformation of the external cell membrane, which allows endocytosis and cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • raft
  • The connections between these events are reviewed along with evidence that lipid raft association may also contribute to TF encryption. (ahajournals.org)
  • The extraction would take advantage of lipid raft resistance to non-ionic detergents, such as Triton X-100 or Brij-98 at low temperatures (e.g., 4 °C). When such a detergent is added to cells, the fluid membrane will dissolve while the lipid rafts may remain intact and could be extracted. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • Explanation of 'the complicated and visible with the simple and invisible' is particularly challenging for the thylakoid membranes of higher plant chloroplasts which form an elaborate continuous three-dimensional network comprised of regular cylindrical, tightly stacked membranes, the grana thylakoids that are interconnected with single stroma thylakoids whose outer membrane surface face the stroma. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • One common example of such a modification in nature is the lipopolysaccharide coat on a bacterial outer membrane, which helps retain a water layer around the bacterium to prevent dehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells and organelles establish different lipid compositions and properties in the outer and inner lipid leaflet. (we-heraeus-stiftung.de)
  • processes
  • Inparticular, the documented chemical rate enhancementswithin lipid assemblies suggest that energy-dependentsynthetic reactions could lead to the growth andincreased abundance of certain amphiphilic assemblies.We further propose that selective processes might acton such assemblies, as suggested by our computersimulations of mutual catalysis among amphiphiles. (springer.com)
  • Many of these processes are mediated by extensive and intimate interactions of actin with cellular membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • permeability
  • However, endomorphins are poorly suited to clinical applications because of low membrane permeability and a susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. (frontiersin.org)
  • biophysical
  • However, membrane microdomains were postulated in the 1970s using biophysical approaches by Stier & Sackmann and Klausner & Karnovsky. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • The first of these, a derivative of the Danielle model, (2) requires that the lipid component of the membrane be a bilayer in structure and contribute to the membrane its basic barrier properties. (springer.com)
  • Taken together,these concepts provide a theoretical framework, andsuggest experimental tests for a Lipid World model forthe origin of life. (springer.com)
  • Until recently, this apparently crucial property could hardly be addressed in model membrane studies since asymmetric models were available only to a very limited extent. (we-heraeus-stiftung.de)
  • Rietveld & Simons related lipid rafts in model membranes to the immiscibility of ordered (Lo phase) and disordered (Ld or Lα phase) liquid phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • M.S. Bretscher, Phosphatidylethanolamine: Differential labeling in intact cells and ghosts of human erythrocytes by a membrane-impermeable reagent, J. Mol. (springer.com)
  • These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chains
  • Due to the rigid nature of the sterol group, cholesterol partitions preferentially into the lipid rafts where acyl chains of the lipids tend to be more rigid and in a less fluid state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lateral
  • The differentiation of the continuous thylakoid membrane into stacked grana thylakoids interconnected by single stroma thylakoids is a morphological reflection of the non-random distribution of photosystem II/light-harvesting complex of photosystem II, photosystem I and ATP synthase, which became known as lateral heterogeneity. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The lipid bilayer is very thin compared to its lateral dimensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • As an extensionof this notion, we propose here a `Lipid World'scenario as an early evolutionary step in theemergence of cellular life on Earth. (springer.com)
  • The recently characterized pannexin family, which was originally thought to form inter-cellular channels (with an amino acid sequence similar to innexins), in fact functions as a single-membrane channel that communicates with the extracellular environment, and has been shown to pass calcium and ATP. (wikipedia.org)