• 1980s
  • Through captive breeding and re-introduction programs, that number increased to more than 400 sheep in several different bands by the late 1980s. (sfgate.com)
  • In the late 1980s the World Sheep Convention and Show was held in Launceston, Tasmania. (wikipedia.org)
  • The government offered a number of subsidies during the 1970s to assist farmers after the United Kingdom joined the European Economic Community and by the early 1980s government support provided some farmers with 40 percent of their income. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of cotton, tea, and tobacco virtually collapsed during the late 1970s and early 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the current wave of emigration began in the late 1970s, and by the 1980s Oaxaca ranked 8th in the number of people leaving for the US from Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • local breeds
  • Although introgression of genes for specific traits or characteristics from local breeds to commercial breeds has been very limited so far, Notter (1999) suggested that, as in plants, useful genes may exist in lowly productive types and recommended systematic programmes for genetic resources conservation, evaluation and use. (fao.org)
  • Development efforts have commonly concentrated on the promotion of exotic breeds and crossbreeding than on improving local breeds. (grain.org)
  • This shortcut bypassed the poor and often caused the disappearance of local breeds. (grain.org)
  • Opportunities to work with local communities to improve their livelihoods and security through enhancing local breeds have not been given attention that is urgently needed. (grain.org)
  • Preventing further losses and conserving local breeds is not a romantic or nostalgic adventure - it is a must. (grain.org)
  • These 'international' breeds have been steadily pushing aside local breeds, which is why 38% of European breeds are now facing extinction 4 . (grain.org)
  • Over the past few decades, the improvement of local breeds by crossing them with such international breeds has met limited success in the South (see box over page). (grain.org)
  • commercial breeds
  • The meat has a more complex flavour than most commercial breeds, highly prized since the time of George III. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in addition to in situ conservation, methods or techniques to maintain live animals outside their production or natural environment (ex situ live) or through cryopreservation of germplasm (ex situ) are set up to preserve (germplasm of) rare breeds as well as the more widely used commercial breeds. (fao.org)
  • 1986
  • In 1986 the breed was being commercialised and the Australian Carpet Wool Industry established. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, five subpopulations of Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep occur at Lee Vining Canyon, Wheeler Crest, Mount Baxter, Mount Williamson, and Mount Langley in Mono and Inyo counties, three of which are reintroduced subpopulations established from sheep obtained from the Mount Baxter subpopulation from 1979 to 1986 (Wehausen et al. (fws.gov)
  • meat
  • This breed is raised primarily for meat. (wikipedia.org)
  • meat ( mutton mutton, flesh of mature sheep prepared as food (as opposed to the flesh of young sheep, which is known as lamb). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This was mainly due to the timing of the show however, as most of the traditional meat breeds entered were overfat in the heavier classes and the Elliottdale lays down its fat more evenly and had better confirmation than other breeds in the lighter classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This breed is raised primarily for meat, but their fleece is becoming increasingly popular for handspinning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally used for both milk and meat in the Netherlands, they declined significantly in use until listed as critically rare by the Dutch Rare Breed Survival trust in the mid-1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is reflected in a wide array of activities, including research and control of infectious agents in meat and milk, rabies vaccination campaigns (both of wildlife and domestic animals), monitoring arboviruses and Lyme borreliosis in populations in wildlife, and hydatid disease control programs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Watchlist
  • In 2017, the Rare Breeds Survival Trust listed the Jacob in Category 6 ("Other UK Native Breeds") of its watchlist, in which categories 1-5 are for various degrees of conservation risk, and category 6 is for breeds which have more than 3000 breeding females registered in the herd-book. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cattle
  • Campbell Island cattle were a feral breed of domestic cattle (Bos taurus) found on Campbell Island, New Zealand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cattle were introduced to Campbell Island in 1902, along with sheep and other livestock, as part of an ill-fated attempt to establish farming there. (wikipedia.org)
  • A small herd of about 20 animals persisted until the 1970s, after which a programme of eradicating introduced livestock was implemented, with the cattle being exterminated by about 1984. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the seven year drought of the 1950s begin, Myrtle and Charlie, phased out Herefords and begin breeding Charolais, Brangus and Charbray cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the rest of New Zealand, sheep farming is the major rural activity, with beef cattle farming in the hills and high country, and dairying increasing in Canterbury, Otago and Southland. (wikipedia.org)
  • There were 38.5 million sheep and 4.39 million beef cattle in New Zealand in June 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of sheep saw a substantial fall from the 70.3 million in 1982, while beef cattle numbers declined by about ten percent over the same period. (wikipedia.org)
  • bighorn
  • 1999-04-21 04:00:00 PDT SIERRA NEVADA -- In an unusual move, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service extended emergency protection yesterday to the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, a rare wild ungulate that only exists in a few remote enclaves in the High Sierra. (sfgate.com)
  • Among those species are the Asian argali, the Barbary sheep, or aoudad, of North Africa, and the North American bighorn bighorn or Rocky Mountain sheep, wild sheep, Ovis canadensis, of W North America, formerly plentiful in mountains from SW Canada to N Mexico. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A 2016 genetics study confirmed significant divergence between the three subspecies of North America's bighorn sheep: Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and desert bighorn sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep were listed as a federally endangered subspecies in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep are gregarious, with group size and composition depending on gender and season. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group of stakeholders drafted the Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep Recovery Plan, and CDFW formed the Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep Recovery Program to work toward the goals of the Recovery Plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, fourteen Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep were flown to Big Arroyo in Sequoia National Park via helicopter to establish a population on the western side of the Sierra Crest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergency Rule To List the Sierra Nevada Distinct Population Segment of California Bighorn Sheep as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. (fws.gov)
  • SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), exercise our authority to emergency list the Sierra Nevada distinct population segment of California bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana), occupying the Sierra Nevada of California, as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). (fws.gov)
  • The Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep is known from five disjunct subpopulations along the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada totaling about 100 animals. (fws.gov)
  • Because these threats constitute an emergency posing a significant risk to the well-being of the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, we find that emergency listing is necessary. (fws.gov)
  • A proposed rule to list the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep as endangered is published concurrently with this emergency rule in this same issue of the Federal Register in the proposed rule section. (fws.gov)
  • Background The bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a large mammal (family Bovidae) originally described by Shaw in 1804 (Wilson and Reeder 1993). (fws.gov)
  • However, recent genetic studies question the validity of some of these subspecies and suggest a need to re-evaluate overall bighorn sheep taxonomy. (fws.gov)
  • For example, Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep appear to be more closely related to desert bighorn sheep than the O. c. californiana found in British Columbia (Ramey 1991, 1993). (fws.gov)
  • Regardless, the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep meets our criteria for consideration as a distinct vertebrate population segment (as discussed below) and is treated as such in this emergency rule. (fws.gov)
  • 1987). The Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep is similar in appearance to other desert associated bighorn sheep. (fws.gov)
  • In comparison to many other desert bighorn sheep, the horns of the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep are generally more divergent as they coil out from the base (Wehausen 1983). (fws.gov)
  • species
  • The measure extends full protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act for 240 days, allowing wildlife managers to employ controversial measures to save the animals, such as capturing many for breeding programs and killing mountain lions that have been preying on them. (sfgate.com)
  • It is also possible that the breed shares some ancestry, together with the Cretan Hound, from the smaller and more slender Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis) and perhaps even the Southern sub-species Canis simensis citernii, rather than the larger and heavier Grey wolf (Canis lupus) ancestral species. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are few terrestrial species, but relatively many breeding seabirds and marine animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some sub-species and breeds are endemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the ten thousand years of agricultural history, 40 animal species have been domesticated and many thousand breeds have been developed. (grain.org)
  • A "breed" is usually a group of animals with definable and identifiable external characteristics that distinguish it from other groups within the same species. (grain.org)
  • Livestock keepers in the South usually keep a mix of species breeds that are adapted to local conditions. (grain.org)
  • animals
  • The first animals to arrive were blackbuck antelope and auodad sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deer-farm stock was bred from the recovered wild animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • By that time, Jacobs were often kept as ornamental animals grazed in parks, which probably kept the breed extant. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1970s about 250 animals remained, occupying only two small areas of their former vast range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Global diversity in domestic animals is considered to be under threat. (fao.org)
  • In farm animals, trends in within-breed diversity are as important as between-breed diversity to be able to cope with changing requirements and future demands in breeding and selection. (fao.org)
  • The combination of intensive selection and the use of techniques like artificial insemination have made it possible to produce large populations of genetically similar, high-performing animals of the same breed, but at the expense of their genetic diversity. (grain.org)
  • It has been predicted that by 2015 the genetic diversity within this breed will correspond to that of only 66 animals. (grain.org)
  • The dogs we have as pets have been bred to be gentle companion animals to humans. (sandiegozoo.org)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease ( Aphthae epizooticae ) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals , including domestic and wild bovids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has very severe implications for animal farming , since it is highly infectious and can be spread by infected animals comparatively easily through contact with contaminated farming equipment, vehicles, clothing, feed and by domestic and wild predators . (wikipedia.org)
  • fleece
  • In the early 1970s, Dr. Glenn Spurlock of Davis, California crossed Tunis sheep and Barbados Blackbelly sheep, and the California Red is consequently a dual-purpose breed with many of the qualities of its forebears, the out-of season breeding qualities and fleece of the Tunis and the heat tolerance and carcase quality of the Blackbelly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Portland is a small sheep, with a cream fleece and golden tan face and legs. (wikipedia.org)
  • flock
  • Carl is concerned about the future of the breed and specifically his flock as he reaches an age he will need to retire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fancy's Family Farm, a community farm on the Isle of Portland is home to the only flock of the Portland Sheep breed on the island. (wikipedia.org)
  • A breed society was formed in 1969, and a flock book was published from 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Book of Genesis (Genesis 30:31-43), Jacob took every speckled and spotted sheep from his father-in-law's (Laban's) flock and bred them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mary Cavendish, dowager Duchess of Devonshire, who had a flock of Jacob sheep at Chatsworth House in Derbyshire, was the first president of the society. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The Jacob was introduced to Israel in 2016, when a small flock of about 120 head was shipped there from Canada by a couple who believes the breed is the same one mentioned in Genesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • There it was primarily used for the production of sheep milk as well as lamb and mutton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some strategies focus primarily on preservation of germplasm of rare breeds, but in general there is consensus that ex situ collections should be established for all breeds with the aim to capture as much allelic or genetic diversity in conservation programmes as possible. (fao.org)
  • closely
  • In 2009, a study which used endogenous retrovirus markers to investigate the history of sheep domestication found the Jacob to be more closely linked to sheep from Africa and South-west Asia than to other British breeds,:4 though all domestic breeds can be traced back to an origin the Fertile Crescent. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Outcrossing with other types of Welsh Mountain sheep may also have occurred, and this would have increased the genetic diversity of the breed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The domestic dog represents one of the most beautiful genetic sculptures shaped by nature and man. (mercola.com)
  • There is worldwide consensus on the global decline in domestic animal diversity and the need to conserve genetic diversity. (fao.org)
  • Dorset
  • The Portland is a sheep breed that takes its name from the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once common all over Dorset, the breed was once one of the rarest in Britain and is still at risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • As one of the very old tan-faced breeds native to heathlands, the Portland was a primary contributor to the Dorset breed. (wikipedia.org)
  • farmers
  • cows and sheep are rarely housed or fed large quantities of grain, with most farmers using grass based supplements such as hay and silage during feed shortages. (wikipedia.org)
  • relatively
  • International" or "modern" high-performing breeds are those produced through very intensive selection for one or few production traits in a relatively short period. (grain.org)
  • large
  • The Jacob was kept for centuries as a "park sheep", to ornament the large estates of landowners. (wikipedia.org)
  • conservation
  • A small effective population size in rare or endangered breeds requires monitoring of within-breed diversity and conservation programmes to maintain within-breed diversity. (fao.org)
  • In general, in situ conservation or conservation by utilization is preferred as a mechanism to conserve breeds. (fao.org)
  • Conservation without further development of the breed or without expected future use is not a desirable strategy. (fao.org)
  • diseases
  • However, disease played the largest role in the decline of the subspecies with domestic sheep transmitting virulent diseases, in particular pneumonia from Pasteurella, beginning in the 1870s. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • Alopekis morphology suggests a natural - archaic dog type, ancestral / archetypical to the subsequent central European small Spitz/ Nordic and Terrier breeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balwen Welsh Mountain sheep originate from one small area of Wales - the Tywi valley. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1985
  • The Balwen Welsh Mountain Breed Society was formed in 1985, and numbers are gradually increasing further. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The effect of the Elliottdale gene (El) is similar to the Drysdale, Tukidale and Carpetmaster genes (N series genes) in the Romney breed, and is at a different locus on the chromozone. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • The breed is mentioned by several ancient Greek and classical writers such as Aristotle, Xenophon, and Aristophanes, and is depicted in many archaeological finds such as pottery, carvings, statuettes, sculpture, tomb monuments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several of the sheep were purchased by a member of the Elliott Research Station team, Carl Terrey. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 It has been bred in the British Isles for several hundred years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several authors also emphasized the reduction in effective population sizes of widely used domestic animal breeds (e.g. (fao.org)
  • Zealand
  • The breed was developed in Australia from a mutant Romney ram rather than in New Zealand. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1970s and 80s there was a huge industry carrying out live deer recovery from forested areas of New Zealand. (wikipedia.org)