• Department of Defe
  • As you know, concerns have been raised about the Department of Defense s (DOD) anthrax immunization program since the Department began vaccinating the first of 2.4 million active duty and reserve members. (whale.to)
  • In the U.S., the principal purchasers of the vaccine are the Department of Defense and Department of Health and Human Services. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immunization program of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is broad-ranging, protecting the forces from an array of pathogenic threats. (hcvets.com)
  • He accuses the Department of Defense of slipping this experimental vaccine past the Food and Drug Administration and involving unwitting troops in a human test that Matsumoto repeatedly equates with Nazi experimentation and the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study. (slate.com)
  • On the eve of the Persian Gulf War in October 1990, the Department of Defense did not have enough anthrax vaccine for its troops, and the DoD's pressing deployment plans created a time crunch-ideally, the vaccine requires six shots over 18 months to develop a full antibody response. (slate.com)
  • 2001
  • Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax exposures in the following weeks, concern that smallpox could be used as a biologic weapon has increased. (aafp.org)
  • Many large institutions, such as the WHO and the CDC, have created databases and modern computer systems (public health informatics) that can track and monitor emerging outbreaks of illnesses such as influenza, SARS, HIV, and even bioterrorism, such as the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the 2001 anthrax attacks following the terrorist attacks on September 11, BioPort worked with the U.S. government to supply anthrax countermeasures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measles
  • Vaccines may contain living, weakened (attenuated) organisms (measles), killed whole organisms (whole cell pertussis, influenza), portions of organisms (subunit influenza), purified components of organisms (acellular pertussis, pneumococcal polysaccharide), or they may be manufactured artificially (hepatitis B produced by recombinant DNA technology). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vaccines currently recommended for use in all infants and children in the United States are DTP/DTaP (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis [or acellular pertussis] vaccine), IPV (inactivated poliovirus vaccine), MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine), Hib vaccine ( Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine), hepatitis B vaccine, and varicella ( chicken pox ) vaccine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The diseases which are "protected against" by the use of live vaccines include measles, rubella, tuberculosis, polio and yellow fever. (blogspot.com)
  • Drs Kalokerinos and Mendelsohn say that the measles vaccine itself carries a high risk of producing encephalitis, as well as other serious conditions such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, which is almost always fatal, involving as it does a hardening of the brain substance. (blogspot.com)
  • To start, Dr Humphries belabors the fact that measles deaths declined prior the introduction of the measles vaccine and implies that the vaccine was therefore unnecessary. (veteranstoday.com)
  • While measles case-fatality rates were indeed falling in high income countries like the US and UK from the 1900s until the 1960s due to improvements in living conditions and medical care, the disease incidence remained virtually unchanged until the introduction of the vaccine. (veteranstoday.com)
  • Before the introduction of the measles vaccine in the US in the 1960s, for example, there were 4 000 cases of measles encephalitis a year (many of which led to irreversible neurological complications such as blindness, deafness and mental disability), 150 000 cases of respiratory complications a year, and 48 000 measles-related hospitalizations per year (which placed huge financial and emotional burdens on families). (veteranstoday.com)
  • If we consider that nutrition and living conditions were not very terribly different in the 1960s compared to today, and take an average of 500 measles deaths a year from that period, the measles vaccine possibly prevented up to 23 500 measles deaths from 1968 until 2014 in the US alone. (veteranstoday.com)
  • Furthermore, it is pity that Dr Humphries does not discuss at all the dramatic role the measles vaccine played in reducing infant mortality and blindness in developing nations in Africa and Asia. (veteranstoday.com)
  • spores
  • The study field sites were four wool-sorting mills in the northeastern United States where employees were sometimes exposed to anthrax spores in the course of their work. (wikipedia.org)
  • When anthrax is used as a biological weapon, people become infected by breathing the spores released in the air. (midtermpapers.com)
  • U.S. officials say that as many as 12 countries including Russia, Iraq, and North Korea, have established capabilities to produce and load deadly anthrax spores into weapons (D.Funk, Army Times, 3-19-98). (midtermpapers.com)
  • The most likely routes of exposure are handling infected animal products (usually imported from regions in which anthrax is common), inhaling spores from contaminated animal products or eating undercooked meat from an infected animal. (harpocratesspeaks.com)
  • And then there's weaponized anthrax, something that is fairly easily accomplished thanks to how stable the bacterial spores are. (harpocratesspeaks.com)
  • Anthrax is spread by contact with the spores of the bacteria, which are often from infectious animal products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutaneous anthrax is typically caused when B. anthracis spores enter through cuts on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name "vaccines", in honor of Jenner's groundbreaking discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its early days, the center was small and research and surveillance programs were still geared towards insect-transmitted diseases such as malaria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Matsumoto's contention, as he first reported in a 1999 Vanity Fair article that triggered a congressional hearing, is that the U.S. military's anthrax vaccine causes a constellation of autoimmune diseases and symptoms such as lupus, rashes, hair loss, and aching joints that fall under the rubric known as Gulf War Syndrome. (slate.com)
  • Family physicians must learn to screen potential vaccinees for contraindications (e.g., immunodeficiency, immunosuppression, certain skin and eye diseases, pregnancy, lactation, allergy to the vaccine or its components, moderate or severe intercurrent illness) and to treat vaccine-associated adverse reactions. (aafp.org)
  • Immunizations protect you or your child from dangerous diseases. (alberta.ca)
  • When immunization rates drop below a certain level, preventable diseases show up again. (alberta.ca)
  • For some diseases, vaccines may be available in more than one form (live attenuated and inactivated [killed] poliovirus vaccines, whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some vaccines are recommended for use in all persons (typically infants and young children, since most communicable diseases primarily strike them) and others are recommended for specific persons or groups who are at increased risk of contracting the particular disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • It develops vaccines and antibody therapeutics for infectious diseases, oncology and autoimmune disorders, and provides medical devices for biodefense purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite scientific consensus that recommended vaccines are safe and effective, unsubstantiated scares regarding their safety still occur, resulting in outbreaks and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases later shown to be caused by contaminated vaccine included erysipelas, tuberculosis, tetanus, and syphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • Ten million courses (60 million doses) of the vaccine have been purchased for the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile in anticipation of the need for mass vaccinations owing to a future bio-terrorist anthrax attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine harmed "possibly tens of thousands" of troops, he warns, and millions of doses now are being prepared for public use. (slate.com)
  • Booster shots (the later doses of any vaccines that need to be repeated over time) occur throughout life. (alberta.ca)
  • The contract will supply around 29.4 million doses of the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • veterinary
  • His laboratory notebooks, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, in fact show Pasteur used the method of rival Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint (1847-1890), a Toulouse veterinary surgeon, to create the anthrax vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Austrian-South African immunologist Max Sterne (1905-1997) developed an attenuated live animal vaccine in 1935 that is still employed and derivatives of his strain account for almost all veterinary anthrax vaccines used in the world today. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beginning in 1934 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, north of Pretoria, he prepared an attenuated anthrax vaccine, using the method developed by Pasteur. (wikipedia.org)
  • varicella
  • In the last twenty years of the twentieth century, many new or improved vaccines were developed and introduced, including vaccines directed against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal meningitis, pertussis, typhoid, and varicella ( chicken pox ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The company also manufactures pharmaceuticals for adults and children with acute blood disorders, people undergoing certain liver transplants, palliative care for chemo or radiation therapy patients, hemophilia B and a varicella (Chickenpox) vaccine for high risk patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adjuvants
  • Adjuvants are the neglected stepchild of the vaccine business: There's something almost alchemical about the nonspecific way in which they work, and scant effort has gone into making a more powerful adjuvant than alum. (slate.com)
  • Vaccines and toxoids may also contain adjuvants, substances that enhance the immune response, as well as preservatives. (encyclopedia.com)
  • strain
  • With little help from colleagues, Sterne performed small-scale experiments which isolated the "Sterne strain" (34F2) of anthrax which became, and remains today, the basis of most of the improved livestock anthrax vaccines throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Vollum strain was the same one weaponized by the old U.S. biological warfare program. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the late 1980s, military researchers demonstrated that a single dose of a vaccine made from protective antigens and squalene prevented a particularly nasty anthrax strain from harming guinea pigs and mice. (slate.com)
  • 1960s
  • The current vaccine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was formulated in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • This study concluded that the vaccine provided protection to humans against anthrax penetrating the skin. (whale.to)
  • Anthrax vaccines were developed in the Soviet Union in the 1930s and available for use in humans by 1940. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine efficacy of AVA in humans was initially established by Philip S. Brachman of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) in a controlled study undertaken between 1954 and 1959. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthrax among humans is most common in Africa and central and southern Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • We are pleased to be here today to discuss the results of our ongoing examination of the safety and efficacy of the anthrax vaccine, which is being done at your request. (whale.to)
  • My testimony presents preliminary findings on (1) the short- and long-term safety of the vaccine, (2) the efficacy of the vaccine, and (3) problems the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found in the vaccine production facility in Michigan that could compromise the safety, efficacy, and quality of the vaccine. (whale.to)
  • Also, some active duty military personnel expressed concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of the anthrax vaccine after the FDA found problems during the inspection of the facility that was manufacturing the anthrax vaccine. (whale.to)
  • Prior to the time of licensing, no human efficacy testing of the MDPH vaccine was performed. (whale.to)
  • However, a study was done on the efficacy of the original vaccine. (whale.to)
  • The vaccine was judged to have a 92.5% vaccine efficacy against all types of anthrax experienced. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • The potency of AVA vaccine lots is routinely determined both by the survival rates of parenterally challenged guinea pigs and their anti-PA antibody titres as measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). (wikipedia.org)
  • immunity
  • Immunization is the induction of immunity against an infectious disease by a means other than experiencing the natural infection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The rate of development of new vaccines has been accelerating as a result of improved knowledge of immunity and improvements in biotechnology. (encyclopedia.com)
  • disease
  • The anthrax vaccination prevents illness by stimulating the body's natural disease fighting abilities. (midtermpapers.com)
  • The most serious side effects of smallpox vaccine include progressive vaccinia, postvaccinial central nervous system disease, and eczema vaccinatum. (aafp.org)
  • The set earned Anthrax the interest of Island Records, which signed the band and put them to work with producer Carl Canedy on their second full-length album, Spreading the Disease . (encyclopedia.com)
  • In many cases when you get a vaccine, you get a tiny amount of a weakened or dead form of the organism that causes the disease. (alberta.ca)
  • Sometimes a vaccine does not completely prevent the disease, but it will make the disease much less serious if you do get it. (alberta.ca)
  • The risk of getting a disease is much greater than the risk of having a serious reaction to the vaccine. (alberta.ca)
  • In short, unless you work in a setting where exposure is likely (e.g., tanner, lab personnel working with anthrax, military, etc.), your risk for this disease is probably very, very low. (harpocratesspeaks.com)
  • The dependency on immunisation to give protection against disease misses the key factor in the equation - the individual's immune system. (blogspot.com)
  • Dr Robert Mendelsohn states after extensive research that "the use of either, live or killed virus, in vaccines will increase, not diminish, the possibility that your child will contract the disease. (blogspot.com)
  • Discoveries in the 18th and 19th centuries included Antoine Lavoisier's use of a guinea pig in a calorimeter to prove that respiration was a form of combustion, and Louis Pasteur's demonstration of the germ theory of disease in the 1880s using anthrax in sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Immunization policies consider epidemic potential, exposure risk (e.g., travel, occupation), and the potential for contingency work in unsanitary conditions. (hcvets.com)
  • Being vaccinated greatly increases your chances of surviving an exposure to anthrax. (midtermpapers.com)
  • reactions
  • While these studies identified varying rates of adverse reactions, they did not question the safety of the vaccine. (whale.to)
  • It is important to keep a good record, including a list of any reactions to the vaccines. (alberta.ca)
  • Lansing
  • I did find that according to the Michigan Department of Public Health in Lansing, Michigan there are no references for using the vaccine for inhaled anthrax (Joyce, AGWVA). (midtermpapers.com)
  • At the time, the Michigan Department of Public Health, though its Michigan Biologics Products Institute, owned an anthrax vaccine manufacturing facility in Lansing, Michigan. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • These two vaccines were made using different processes and have different data to support their safety. (whale.to)
  • Pasteur publicly claimed he had made the anthrax vaccine by exposing the bacilli to oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senior preventive-medicine officers from the five Armed Services develop vaccine recommendations for military trainees and other military personnel, with decisions made by the Army, Navy, and Air Force Surgeons General and the Coast Guard Director of Health & Safety. (hcvets.com)
  • In the United States , recommendations for vaccine use are made by the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, in conjunction with the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Practice, American College of Physicians (representing adult medicine specialists), and other professional organizations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • intestinal
  • For intestinal infection, the risk of death is 25 to 75%, while respiratory anthrax has a mortality of 50 to 80%, even with treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • protects
  • Immunization protects the personal health of United States military personnel and maintains their mission readiness. (hcvets.com)
  • The overwhelming view presented to the public by mainstream science and medicine as well as the media is that immunisation is a safe, scientific procedure which protects and safeguards health. (blogspot.com)
  • producer
  • After a 1962 study on the vaccine s effects in mill workers, its manufacturing process was changed, and the Michigan Department of Public Health (MDPH) took over as the vaccine s producer. (whale.to)
  • adult
  • Because the active and reserve components of the U.S. DoD consist of over 2.2 million people at any given time, the program immunizes a significant percentage of the U.S. adult population. (hcvets.com)
  • The vaccines you need as an adult depend not only on your age, lifestyle, overall health, pregnancy status, and travel plans but also on who you are in close contact with and what vaccines you had as a child. (alberta.ca)
  • soldiers
  • Military immunization requirements often exceed those provided to civilian adults, because of the travel and other occupational hazards confronted by soldiers, marines, sailors, airmen, and coast guardsmen. (hcvets.com)
  • In Vaccine A: The Covert Government Experiment That's Killing Our Soldiers-and Why GI's Are Only the First Victims , Gary Matsumoto struggles for nearly 300 pages to justify his book's subtitle. (slate.com)
  • virulence
  • A persistent problem with Pasteur's vaccine was achieving the correct balance between virulence and immunogenicity during preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • He makes the case that the military secretly spiked the vaccine with squalene, a fat naturally found in the body that, when injected as part of a vaccine, supercharges the immune system's ability to make antibodies. (slate.com)