• 2001
  • Since the 2001 anthrax attacks, and the consequent expansion of federal bio-defense expenditures, USAMRIID has been joined at Fort Detrick by sister bio-defense agencies of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (NIAID's Integrated Research Facility) and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center and the National Bioforensic Analysis Center). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax exposures in the following weeks, concern that smallpox could be used as a biologic weapon has increased. (aafp.org)
  • Many large institutions, such as the WHO and the CDC, have created databases and modern computer systems (public health informatics) that can track and monitor emerging outbreaks of illnesses such as influenza, SARS, HIV, and even bioterrorism, such as the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the 2001 anthrax attacks following the terrorist attacks on September 11, BioPort worked with the U.S. government to supply anthrax countermeasures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Department of Defe
  • As you know, concerns have been raised about the Department of Defense s (DOD) anthrax immunization program since the Department began vaccinating the first of 2.4 million active duty and reserve members. (whale.to)
  • In the U.S., the principal purchasers of the vaccine are the Department of Defense and Department of Health and Human Services. (wikipedia.org)
  • He accuses the Department of Defense of slipping this experimental vaccine past the Food and Drug Administration and involving unwitting troops in a human test that Matsumoto repeatedly equates with Nazi experimentation and the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study. (slate.com)
  • On the eve of the Persian Gulf War in October 1990, the Department of Defense did not have enough anthrax vaccine for its troops, and the DoD's pressing deployment plans created a time crunch-ideally, the vaccine requires six shots over 18 months to develop a full antibody response. (slate.com)
  • spores
  • The study field sites were four wool-sorting mills in the northeastern United States where employees were sometimes exposed to anthrax spores in the course of their work. (wikipedia.org)
  • When anthrax is used as a biological weapon, people become infected by breathing the spores released in the air. (midtermpapers.com)
  • U.S. officials say that as many as 12 countries including Russia, Iraq, and North Korea, have established capabilities to produce and load deadly anthrax spores into weapons (D.Funk, Army Times, 3-19-98). (midtermpapers.com)
  • The most likely routes of exposure are handling infected animal products (usually imported from regions in which anthrax is common), inhaling spores from contaminated animal products or eating undercooked meat from an infected animal. (harpocratesspeaks.com)
  • And then there's weaponized anthrax, something that is fairly easily accomplished thanks to how stable the bacterial spores are. (harpocratesspeaks.com)
  • Anthrax is spread by contact with the spores of the bacteria, which are often from infectious animal products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutaneous anthrax is typically caused when B. anthracis spores enter through cuts on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Researchers at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick are studying the long-term effects of repeated administration of multiple vaccines. (washingtonpost.com)
  • This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name "vaccines", in honor of Jenner's groundbreaking discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its early days, the center was small and research and surveillance programs were still geared towards insect-transmitted diseases such as malaria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Matsumoto's contention, as he first reported in a 1999 Vanity Fair article that triggered a congressional hearing, is that the U.S. military's anthrax vaccine causes a constellation of autoimmune diseases and symptoms such as lupus, rashes, hair loss, and aching joints that fall under the rubric known as Gulf War Syndrome. (slate.com)
  • Organizationally, the medical defense research effort was pursued first (1956-1969) by the U.S. Army Medical Unit (USAMU) and later, after the discontinuation of the offensive program, by the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). (wikipedia.org)
  • Family physicians must learn to screen potential vaccinees for contraindications (e.g., immunodeficiency, immunosuppression, certain skin and eye diseases, pregnancy, lactation, allergy to the vaccine or its components, moderate or severe intercurrent illness) and to treat vaccine-associated adverse reactions. (aafp.org)
  • Immunizations protect you or your child from dangerous diseases. (alberta.ca)
  • When immunization rates drop below a certain level, preventable diseases show up again. (alberta.ca)
  • The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • It develops vaccines and antibody therapeutics for infectious diseases, oncology and autoimmune disorders, and provides medical devices for biodefense purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite scientific consensus that recommended vaccines are safe and effective, unsubstantiated scares regarding their safety still occur, resulting in outbreaks and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • veterinary
  • His laboratory notebooks, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, in fact show Pasteur used the method of rival Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint (1847-1890), a Toulouse veterinary surgeon, to create the anthrax vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beginning in 1934 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, north of Pretoria, he prepared an attenuated anthrax vaccine, using the method developed by Pasteur. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological warfare
  • In 1951, due to biological warfare concerns arising from the Korean War, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), a hands-on two-year postgraduate training program in epidemiology, with a focus on field work. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States officially began its biological warfare offensive program in 1941. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. biological defense research program exists today, conducting research to develop physical and medical countermeasures to protect service members and civilians from the threat of modern biological warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measles
  • Drs Kalokerinos and Mendelsohn say that the measles vaccine itself carries a high risk of producing encephalitis, as well as other serious conditions such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, which is almost always fatal, involving as it does a hardening of the brain substance. (blogspot.com)
  • Chickenpox
  • The company also manufactures pharmaceuticals for adults and children with acute blood disorders, people undergoing certain liver transplants, palliative care for chemo or radiation therapy patients, hemophilia B and a varicella (Chickenpox) vaccine for high risk patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • rubella
  • From "Science" magazine in America (26-3-1977): "The HEW reported in 1970 that as much as 26% of children receiving rubella vaccination, in national testing programs, developed arthralgia or arthritis. (blogspot.com)
  • humans
  • This study concluded that the vaccine provided protection to humans against anthrax penetrating the skin. (whale.to)
  • Anthrax vaccines were developed in the Soviet Union in the 1930s and available for use in humans by 1940. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccine efficacy of AVA in humans was initially established by Philip S. Brachman of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) in a controlled study undertaken between 1954 and 1959. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthrax among humans is most common in Africa and central and southern Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1870s
  • Medicine was heavily professionalized in the 20th century, and new careers opened to women as nurses (from the 1870s) and as physicians (especially after 1970). (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • We are pleased to be here today to discuss the results of our ongoing examination of the safety and efficacy of the anthrax vaccine, which is being done at your request. (whale.to)
  • My testimony presents preliminary findings on (1) the short- and long-term safety of the vaccine, (2) the efficacy of the vaccine, and (3) problems the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found in the vaccine production facility in Michigan that could compromise the safety, efficacy, and quality of the vaccine. (whale.to)
  • Also, some active duty military personnel expressed concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of the anthrax vaccine after the FDA found problems during the inspection of the facility that was manufacturing the anthrax vaccine. (whale.to)
  • Prior to the time of licensing, no human efficacy testing of the MDPH vaccine was performed. (whale.to)
  • However, a study was done on the efficacy of the original vaccine. (whale.to)
  • The vaccine was judged to have a 92.5% vaccine efficacy against all types of anthrax experienced. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • The potency of AVA vaccine lots is routinely determined both by the survival rates of parenterally challenged guinea pigs and their anti-PA antibody titres as measured by an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • While these studies identified varying rates of adverse reactions, they did not question the safety of the vaccine. (whale.to)
  • It is important to keep a good record, including a list of any reactions to the vaccines. (alberta.ca)
  • magnitude
  • The magnitude of the problems and the gravity of the scenarios associated with release of these organisms have been vividly portrayed by two epidemics of smallpox in Europe during the 1970s and by an accidental release of aerosolized anthrax from a Russian bioweapons facility in 1979. (cdc.gov)
  • Lansing
  • I did find that according to the Michigan Department of Public Health in Lansing, Michigan there are no references for using the vaccine for inhaled anthrax (Joyce, AGWVA). (midtermpapers.com)
  • At the time, the Michigan Department of Public Health, though its Michigan Biologics Products Institute, owned an anthrax vaccine manufacturing facility in Lansing, Michigan. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestinal
  • For intestinal infection, the risk of death is 25 to 75%, while respiratory anthrax has a mortality of 50 to 80%, even with treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • hepatitis
  • The U.S. population was infected in 1978 with the hepatitis B vaccine. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Dr. Wolf Szmuness, the ex-roommate of Pope John Paul II, was the mastermind behind the November/78 to October/79 and March/80 to October/81 experimental hepatitis B vaccine trials conducted by the Centers for Disease Control in New York, San Francisco and four other American cities. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • inspection
  • To lower the risk of nosocomial infections, the CDC began a national program of hospital inspection in 1970 known as the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system, or NNIS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • infection
  • Human infection with anthrax usually results from contact with infected animals or products. (midtermpapers.com)
  • Data collected from the participating hospitals show that infection control programs can siginificantly improve patient safety, lower infection rates, and lower patient mortality. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • immunity
  • Doesn t it make you feel cozy inside that President Obama gave immunity to the Swine live-attenuated virus vaccine makers? (flybynews.com)
  • virulence
  • A persistent problem with Pasteur's vaccine was achieving the correct balance between virulence and immunogenicity during preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • biodefense
  • The United States biological defense program - in recent years also called the National Biodefense Strategy - began as a small defensive effort that paralleled the country's offensive biological weapons development and production program, active between 1943 and 1969. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, these U.S. biodefense programs - military and civilian - have raised concerns that the U.S. may be pursuing research that is outlawed by the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) of 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • mill workers
  • After a 1962 study on the vaccine s effects in mill workers, its manufacturing process was changed, and the Michigan Department of Public Health (MDPH) took over as the vaccine s producer. (whale.to)
  • Approval of the vaccine was based on a placebo-controlled study in mill workers (PDF) and a couple studies conducted by the CDC. (harpocratesspeaks.com)
  • animal
  • Although it is not currently in any FDA-licensed vaccines and has caused autoimmunity in some animal experiments, it is, as we learn two-thirds of the way into the narrative, in a flu vaccine that's licensed in Europe -and, according to Chiron Corporation, the vaccine's maker, has been safely injected into more than ten million people. (slate.com)
  • By the time World War I began, attempts to use anthrax were directed at animal populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • cases
  • In many cases when you get a vaccine, you get a tiny amount of a weakened or dead form of the organism that causes the disease. (alberta.ca)
  • Between 1973 and 1984 one quarter of all reported cases of paralytic polio occurred soon after vaccination, with 94% of these after the first dose of oral vaccine. (blogspot.com)
  • It is the most common form (>90% of anthrax cases). (wikipedia.org)