• Treaty
  • All states of Central Asia have signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and signed the Central Asian Nuclear Weapon Free Zone treaty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, the Republic of China adheres to the principles of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and has stated that it does not intend to produce nuclear weapons, on the official basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Republic of China ratified the Geneva Protocol on August 7, 1929 and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1970 before PRC entered UN. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, or the Nuclear Weapon Ban Treaty, is the first legally binding international agreement to comprehensively prohibit nuclear weapons, with the goal of leading towards their total elimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • For those nations that are party to it, the treaty prohibits the development, testing, production, stockpiling, stationing, transfer, use and threat of use of nuclear weapons, as well as assistance and encouragement to the prohibited activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • For nuclear armed states joining the treaty, it provides for a time-bound framework for negotiations leading to the verified and irreversible elimination of its nuclear weapons programme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclear-weapon-ban treaty, according to its proponents, will constitute an "unambiguous political commitment" to achieve and maintain a nuclear-weapon-free world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proponents of the ban treaty believe that it will help "stigmatize" nuclear weapons, and serve as a "catalyst" for elimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around two-thirds of the world's nations have pledged to work together "to fill the legal gap" in the existing international regime governing nuclear weapons, and view a nuclear-weapon-ban treaty as one option for achieving this objective. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 contains only partial prohibitions, and nuclear-weapon-free zone treaties prohibit nuclear weapons only within certain geographical regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The preamble of the treaty explains the motivation by the "catastrophic consequences" of a use of nuclear weapons, by the risk of their sheer existence, by the suffering of the hibakusha (the surviving victims of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and the victims of nuclear tests, by "the slow pace of nuclear disarmament" and by "the continued reliance on nuclear weapons in military and security concepts" like deterrence. (wikipedia.org)
  • It expresses compliance with existing law: the UN charter, international humanitarian law, international human rights law, the very first UN resolution adopted on 24 January 1946, the NPT, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and its verification regime, as well as nuclear-weapon-free zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Article 4 sets out general procedures for negotiations with an individual nuclear armed state becoming party to the treaty, including time limits and responsibilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • If that state has eliminated its nuclear weapons before becoming a party to the treaty, an unspecified "competent international authority" will verify that elimination, and the state must also conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA to provide credible assurance that it has not diverted nuclear material and has no undeclared nuclear material or activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Israel has also refused to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) despite international pressure to do so, saying that would be contrary to its national security interests. (wikipedia.org)
  • As thermonuclear weapons represent the most efficient design for weapon energy yield in weapons with yields above 50 kilotons of TNT (210 TJ), virtually all the nuclear weapons of this size deployed by the five nuclear-weapon states under the Non-Proliferation Treaty today are thermonuclear weapons using the Teller-Ulam design. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament, the Italian government argued that multilateral activity like the MLF as excluded from any agreement on non-proliferation, but found that the Soviet Union required that MLF be terminated as part of their negotiations on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the United States all but killed the agreement on 17 December 1964 with National Security Action Memorandum No. 322. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germany is among the powers which possess the ability to create nuclear weapons but has agreed not to do so (under the terms of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as reaffirmed by the Two Plus Four Treaty). (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of the accession negotiations of West Germany to the Western European Union at the London and Paris Conferences, the country was forbidden (by Protocol No III to the revised Treaty of Brussels of 23 October 1954) to possess Nuclear, Biological or Chemical weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty , considering both to be flawed and discriminatory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Israel's
  • It is unknown if Israel's reported thermonuclear weapons are in the megaton range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Israel's nuclear-capable ballistic missiles are believed to be buried so far underground that they would survive a nuclear attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1986, Mordechai Vanunu, a former technician at Dimona, fled to the United Kingdom and revealed to the media some evidence of Israel's nuclear program and explained the purposes of each building, also revealing a top-secret underground facility directly below the installation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Samson Option The Samson Option is the name that some military analysts and authors have given to Israel's deterrence strategy of massive retaliation with nuclear weapons as a "last resort" against a country whose military has destroyed much of Israel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his 2008 book The Culture of War, Martin van Creveld, a professor of military history at Israel's Hebrew University, wrote that since Gates admitted that Israel had nuclear weapons, any talk of Israel's nuclear weapons in Israel can lead to "arrest, trial, and imprisonment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The counter-proliferation, preventive strike Begin Doctrine added another dimension to Israel's existing nuclear policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Israel's first Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion was "nearly obsessed" with obtaining nuclear weapons to prevent the Holocaust from recurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amid the flurry of threats and warnings this week, Israel's army chief, Lt. Gen. Benny Gantz, had a word of caution, telling a parliamentary committee that attacking Syrian weapons arsenals could have unforeseen consequences and drag Israel "into a broader offensive than planned. (cbsnews.com)
  • Along with its other sources of power and influence, the right-wing Israel lobby needs a large majority of the U.S. public to believe in the myth of Israel's insecurity as the God's honest truth. (truth-out.org)
  • Israeli
  • Although no official statistics exist, estimates of Israeli nuclear weapons range from 75 to as many as 400. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Israeli Air Force has F-15I and F-16I Sufa fighter aircraft are capable of delivering tactical and strategic nuclear weapons at long distances using conformal fuel tanks and supported by their aerial refueling fleet of modified Boeing 707's. (wikipedia.org)
  • This admission was in contrast to the long-running Israeli government policy of deliberate ambiguity on whether it has nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other CW agent production is believed to exist within a well-developed Israeli chemical industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commentators also have employed the term to refer to situations where non-nuclear, non-Israeli actors, have threatened conventional weapons retaliation, such as Yasser Arafat and Hezbollah. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has made it difficult for anyone outside the Israeli government to describe the country's true nuclear policy definitively, while still allowing Israel to influence the perceptions, strategies and actions of other governments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus Israeli commentators talk about "doomsday weapons" and the Samson Option. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although nuclear weapons were viewed as the ultimate guarantor of Israeli security, as early as the 1960s the country avoided building its military around them, instead pursuing absolute conventional superiority so as to forestall a last resort nuclear engagement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Arab forces were overwhelming Israeli forces and Prime Minister Golda Meir authorized a nuclear alert and ordered 13 atomic bombs be readied for use by missiles and aircraft. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a 2004 article he recommends Israel use the Samson Option threat to "support conventional preemptions" against enemy nuclear and non-nuclear assets because "without such weapons, Israel, having to rely entirely upon non-nuclear forces, might not be able to deter enemy retaliations for the Israeli preemptive strike. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Israeli intelligence community believes the Syrian government retains several tons of chemical weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to security analyst Zuhair Diab, Israeli nuclear weapons were a primary motivation for the Syrian chemical weapons program. (wikipedia.org)
  • That year Hemed Gimmel funded six Israeli physics graduate students to study overseas, including one to go to the University of Chicago and study under Enrico Fermi, who had overseen the world's first artificial and self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time Israeli scientists were also observing France's own nuclear program, and were the only foreign scientists allowed to roam "at will" at the nuclear facility at Marcoule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the relationships between Israeli and French Jewish and non-Jewish researchers, the French believed that cooperation with Israel could give them access to international Jewish nuclear scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Israeli officials are most worried about the possibility that the weapons could fall into the hands of Islamic militants from Lebanon's Hezbollah or other groups should the regime fall. (cbsnews.com)
  • Israeli Defense Minister Ehud Barak disclosed over the weekend that he had asked the military to prepare for a possible attack on targets in Syria to secure strategic weapons in the event the Assad regime collapses. (cbsnews.com)
  • There is concern that Hezbollah might launch a counterstrike if Israel were to attack a convoy transporting weapons from Syria to Hezbollah's base in neighboring Lebanon, an Israeli security official said. (cbsnews.com)
  • arsenals
  • For the United States, the MLF was an attempt to balance the desire from other members to play a role in nuclear deterrence with their interest in bringing all existing and potential Western nuclear arsenals under the umbrella of a more cohesive NATO alliance. (wikipedia.org)
  • thermonuclear weapons
  • By 2002 it was estimated that the number had increased to between 75 and 200 thermonuclear weapons, each in the multiple-megaton range. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modern design of all thermonuclear weapons in the United States is known as the Teller-Ulam configuration for its two chief contributors, Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam, who developed it in 1951 for the United States, with certain concepts developed with the contribution of John von Neumann. (wikipedia.org)
  • bombs
  • Israel is also reported to possess a wide range of different systems, including neutron bombs, tactical nuclear weapons, and suitcase nukes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such processes have resulted in a body of unclassified knowledge about nuclear bombs that is generally consistent with official unclassified information releases, related physics, and is thought to be internally consistent, though there are some points of interpretation that are still considered open. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two nuclear bombs used in 1945 killed approximately 200,000 people, and were of modest nuclear capacity (15-20 kiloton). (reviewofreligions.org)
  • After the tragedy of nuclear bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Life Span Study followed up 93,741 atomic bomb survivors for 60 years. (reviewofreligions.org)
  • bomb
  • The largest nuclear explosion in history was the 1961 Soviet "Tsar Bomba" test, which measured more than 50 megatons (3,800 times more powerful than the Hiroshima bomb). (ctbto.org)
  • The USSR also agreed to supply a sample atomic bomb and to provide technical assistance in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. (globalsecurity.org)
  • A study into the secret program concluded that at the time of Chang's defection, Taiwan was one or two years away from being able to complete a nuclear bomb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their mission was to set up and remote detonate a nuclear bomb on a mountaintop as a warning to belligerent surrounding states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HAARP can deliver a very large amount of energy, comparable to a nuclear bomb, anywhere in the world. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • The HAARP has subsequently become a target for those who have suggested that it could be used to test the ability "to deliver very large amount of energy, comparable to a nuclear bomb, anywhere on earth", "changing weather patterns", "blocking all global communications", "disrupting human mental processes" and mind control, and "x-raying the earth. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • The first of China's nuclear weapons tests took place in 1964, and its first hydrogen bomb test occurred in 1967. (wikipedia.org)
  • A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though large quantities of vague data have been officially released, and larger quantities of vague data have been unofficially leaked by former bomb designers, most public descriptions of nuclear weapon design details rely to some degree on speculation, reverse engineering from known information, or comparison with similar fields of physics (inertial confinement fusion is the primary example). (wikipedia.org)
  • Models in Hiroshima museum depicting the scene after the nuclear bomb was dropped. (reviewofreligions.org)
  • The devastating aftermath in Hiroshima after the nuclear bomb was dropped. (reviewofreligions.org)
  • uranium
  • The province of British Columbia also bans mining for uranium, and the construction of nuclear power plants within its territorial limits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weapons-grade" uranium is also used in submarine and icebreaker propulsion. (ctbto.org)
  • Weapons-grade" uranium (also used in submarine and icebreaker propulsion) is defined as uranium enriched to at least 90 percent U-235. (ctbto.org)
  • By contrast, low enriched uranium (LEU), which is used as fuel in the majority of nuclear power plants, generally contains only 3 to 5 percent U-235. (ctbto.org)
  • In 1951 Peking signed a secret agreement with Moscow through which China provided uranium ores in exchange for Soviet assistance in the nuclear field. (globalsecurity.org)
  • citation needed] The Republic of China's nuclear power plants use imported enriched uranium and are subject to International Atomic Energy Agency inspection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Construction of uranium-enrichment plants in Baotou and Lanzhou began in 1958, and a plutonium facility in Jiuquan and the Lop Nur nuclear test site by 1960. (wikipedia.org)
  • The means to create nuclear weapons came from the existence of uranium. (ratical.org)
  • umbrella
  • The de-militarization of Japan and the protection of the United States' nuclear umbrella have led to a strong policy of non-weaponization of nuclear technology, but in the face of nuclear weapons testing by North Korea, some politicians and former military officials in Japan are calling for a reversal of this policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, Japan has backed incremental disarmament efforts while continuing to rely on the U.S. nuclear umbrella. (armscontrol.org)
  • Strong ties, culturally, economic, and political tie the U.S with many European nations and the umbrella of NATO not only offered protection for these European countries, but also put them within the USSR's attack possibilities in a nuclear war. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Soviet officials assured China that it was under the Soviet nuclear umbrella, the disagreements widened the emerging Sino-Soviet split. (wikipedia.org)
  • NATO
  • 69 nations did not vote, among them all of the nuclear weapon states and all NATO members except the Netherlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • NATO doctrine about Nuclear Escalation in the cold war. (wikipedia.org)
  • NATO, is an alliance of nations that via three permanent members (USA, UK, and France) is a nuclear alliance. (wikipedia.org)
  • NATO members get the safety of Nuclear weapons being shared to its members from one of the 3 permanent members. (wikipedia.org)
  • NATO policy would amalgamate from the U. S's initial nuclear strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • Russia lacked ICBM's or long range missiles to directly threaten the U.S. In contrast, the U.S. had stationed bombers within NATO countries in Europe that could deliver nuclear payloads to designated targets within the Soviet Union if they attempted to start a war. (wikipedia.org)
  • NATO created policies to counter-attack the USSR as well as how to deal with them without a nuclear trigger in changing how conventional warfare would be conducted. (wikipedia.org)
  • After abortive proposals to establish a multilateral program with NATO Allies in the 1950s and 1960s, Italy launched an indigenous nuclear weapons program, including testing a ballistic missile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, Italy does not produce or possess nuclear weapons but takes part in the NATO nuclear sharing program. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time as working with the United States, Italy explored working within the NATO Multilateral Force (MLF) concept to develop a European nuclear force. (wikipedia.org)
  • MLF was a concept promoted by the United States to place all NATO nuclear weapons not operated by their own services under a joint control, with dual-key control by American and European forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italy had long argued for nuclear cooperation, with Minister of Defence Paolo Emilio Taviani saying on 29 November 1956 that the Italian government was trying to persuade their "Allies to remove the unjustified restrictions regarding the access of NATO countries to new weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under MLF, the United States proposed that various NATO countries operate UGM-27 Polaris IRBM on seaborne platforms, principally nuclear submarines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particularly, they addressed the eagerness of Germany's NATO allies, the United States and United Kingdom, to seek restrictions on long-range strategic weapons while modernizing their short-range and tactical nuclear systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soviets
  • In mid-October 1957 the Chinese and Soviets signed an agreement on new technology for national defense that included provision for additional Soviet nuclear assistance as well as the furnishing of some surface-to-surface and surface-to-air missiles. (globalsecurity.org)
  • It would attempt to force the soviets into a war of attrition to force a stalemate and swiftly bring an end to any possibly conflict before nuclear means could become an option. (wikipedia.org)
  • plutonium
  • As Dr. Gordon Edwards has noted, "Plutonium is the primary explosive in most nuclear weapons. (ratical.org)
  • A 2011 report by the International Panel on Fissile Material estimates "the global stockpile of separated plutonium at 485 ± 10 metric tons, of which, roughly half was produced for use in weapons. (ratical.org)
  • About 98% of plutonium is held by states with nuclear weapons, and the remaining 2% is mostly held by Japan, which has over 10 tons of plutonium. (ratical.org)
  • 1945
  • Like the German nuclear weapons program, it suffered from an array of problems, and was ultimately unable to progress beyond the laboratory stage before the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrender in August 1945. (wikipedia.org)
  • strategic
  • As scientists become confident that weapons will function reliably according to their specifications, militaries are able to incorporate them into their strategic doctrines. (ctbto.org)
  • The decision to develop an independent strategic nuclear force was made no later than early 1956 and was to be implemented within the Twelve-Year Science Plan presented in September 1956 to the Eighth Congress of the CCP. (globalsecurity.org)
  • He continued, "Anyway, I was a Minuteman missile crewmember in the 455th/91st Strategic Missile Wing at Minot from December 1963 through November 1967. (theufochronicles.com)
  • offensive
  • However, the Republic of China government has stated that any such materials are only for defensive research purposes and that it does not have any intention of producing offensive chemical weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • North Korea
  • Israel is one of three nations not to have signed the NPT (others are India and Pakistan, both of which have acknowledged having nuclear weapons), and alongside North Korea which left the NPT. (wikipedia.org)
  • IAEA
  • Ironically, the headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency is located in Vienna, and the IAEA maintains nuclear laboratories both in Vienna and Seibersdorf. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IAEA has also established programs to assist nuclear energy projects in developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Article 3 requires parties that do not possess nuclear weapons to maintain their existing IAEA safeguards and, if they have not already done so, to accept safeguards based on the model for non-nuclear-weapon states under the NPT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Officially
  • Shortly afterwards, in December 1962, Italian Minister of Defence Giulio Andreotti officially asked the United States for assistance in developing nuclear propulsion for its fleet. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1983
  • notable among these are Brisbane, capital of Queensland, which has been nuclear weapon free since 1983, and the South and North Sydney councils. (wikipedia.org)
  • stockpiles
  • On 14 September 2013, the United States and Russia announced an agreement for the elimination of Syria's chemical weapon stockpiles by June 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • JERUSALEM (CBS/AP) - Israelis rushed to get government-issue gas masks Wednesday, the latest sign of mounting fears that Syria's chemical weapons stockpiles could be used against them as the crisis there deepens. (cbsnews.com)
  • deterrence
  • He argues in the Final Report of Project Daniel and elsewhere that the effective deterrence of the Samson Option would be increased by ending the policy of nuclear ambiguity. (wikipedia.org)
  • allegedly
  • The use of chemical weapons in warfare during the Great War was allegedly in violation of clause IV.2 'Declaration concerning the Prohibition of the Use of Projectiles with the Sole Object to Spread Asphyxiating Poisonous Gases' of the 1899 Hague Declarations, and more explicitly in violation of the 1907 Hague Convention on Land Warfare, which explicitly forbade the use of "poison or poisoned weapons" in warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • peaceful
  • The same technology used to make LEU for peaceful purposes can be configured to make HEU for weapons. (ctbto.org)
  • Japan also has bilateral cooperative agreements on peaceful uses of nuclear energy with Australia, Canada, China, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. (armscontrol.org)
  • Furthermore, the "inalienable right" of a peaceful use of nuclear energy is emphasized. (wikipedia.org)
  • possibility
  • Hikosaka pointed out the huge energy contained by nuclei and the possibility that both nuclear power generation and weapons could be created. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physicists around the world immediately realized that chain reactions could be produced and notified their governments of the possibility of developing nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nishina told Yasuda about the possibility of building nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The possibility of Warsaw pact nations under the USSR attacking Western Europe ensured all possible conflicts of nuclear escalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until a few days ago, the possibility of getting dragged into Syria's civil war was not a major issue in Israel, whose leaders have had a laser-like focus on the potential threat posed by Iran's suspect nuclear program. (cbsnews.com)
  • Soviet Union
  • Thus, there are no technologies to create a weapon or enrich the particles, but in Tajikistan, during the Soviet Union, such initiatives were brought to life, but with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the facilities were dismantled and moved to the Russian Federation. (wikipedia.org)
  • After Estonia seceded from the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, Estonia became a nuclear-free country. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the Cold War, nuclear weapons were deployed in Germany by both the United States (in West Germany) and the Soviet Union (in East Germany). (wikipedia.org)
  • energy
  • Former International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Mohamed ElBaradei regarded Israel as a state possessing nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nishina had established his own Nuclear Research Laboratory to study high-energy physics in 1931 at RIKEN Institute (the Institute for Physical and Chemical Research), which had been established in 1917 in Tokyo to promote basic research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear fission is a process in which a neutron collides with an atom's nucleus, splitting the atom into two smaller atoms and releasing a significant amount of energy. (ctbto.org)
  • In 1967, a nuclear weapons program began under the auspices of the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) at the Chungshan Institute of Science and Technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1955 it adopted the Atomic Energy Basic Law, which limits the use of nuclear energy to nonmilitary areas. (armscontrol.org)
  • They timed their statements to coincide with their resignations from responsible positions in General Electric's nuclear energy division, and later established themselves as consultants on the nuclear power industry for state governments, federal agencies, and overseas governments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic principle of the Teller-Ulam configuration is the idea that different parts of a thermonuclear weapon can be chained together in "stages", with the detonation of each stage providing the energy to ignite the next stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • see German nuclear energy project. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1957 the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) was created to promote the use of nuclear energy in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • superpowers
  • Despite the termination of Soviet assistance, China committed itself to continue nuclear weapons development to break "the superpowers' monopoly on nuclear weapons," to ensure Chinese security against the Soviet and United States threats, and to increase Chinese prestige and power internationally. (globalsecurity.org)