• Israeli
  • Although no official statistics exist, estimates of Israeli nuclear weapons range from 75 to as many as 400. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, Israel is believed to have an offshore nuclear second-strike capability, using submarine-launched nuclear-capable cruise missiles, which can be launched from the Israeli Navy's Dolphin-class submarines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Israeli Air Force has F-15I and F-16I Sufa fighter aircraft are capable of delivering tactical and strategic nuclear weapons at long distances using conformal fuel tanks and supported by their aerial refueling fleet of modified Boeing 707's. (wikipedia.org)
  • This admission was in contrast to the long-running Israeli government policy of deliberate ambiguity on whether it has nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other CW agent production is believed to exist within a well-developed Israeli chemical industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Israeli nuclear program represents a serious impediment to nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation and, with India and Pakistan, is a potential nuclear flashpoint. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
  • prospects of meaningful non-proliferation are a delusion so long as the nuclear weapons states insist on maintaining their arsenals,) Citizens concerned about sanctions against Iraq, peace with justice in the Middle East, and nuclear disarmament have an obligation to speak out forcefully against the Israeli nuclear program. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
  • The Israeli nuclear program began in the late 1940s under the direction of Ernst David Bergmann, 'the father of the Israeli bomb,' who in 1952 established the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
  • Israel had been an active participant in the French Nuclear weapons program from its inception, providing critical technical expertise, and the Israeli nuclear program can be seen as an extension of this earlier collaboration. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
  • 3) There is substantial credible speculation that Israel may have exploded at least one, and perhaps several, nuclear devices in the mid 1960s in the Negev near the Israeli-Egyptian border, and that it participated actively in French nuclear tests in Algeria. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
  • Commentators also have employed the term to refer to situations where non-nuclear, non-Israeli actors, have threatened conventional weapons retaliation, such as Yasser Arafat and Hezbollah. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has made it difficult for anyone outside the Israeli government to describe the country's true nuclear policy definitively, while still allowing Israel to influence the perceptions, strategies and actions of other governments. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, over the years, some Israeli leaders have publicly acknowledged their country's nuclear capability: Ephraim Katzir in 1974, Moshe Dayan in 1981, Shimon Peres in 1998, and Ehud Olmert in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus Israeli commentators talk about "doomsday weapons" and the Samson Option. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although nuclear weapons were viewed as the ultimate guarantor of Israeli security, as early as the 1960s the country avoided building its military around them, instead pursuing absolute conventional superiority so as to forestall a last resort nuclear engagement. (wikipedia.org)
  • brought to power a government that was even more committed than Labor to the Samson Option and the necessity of an Israeli nuclear arsenal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a 2004 article he recommends Israel use the Samson Option threat to "support conventional preemptions" against enemy nuclear and non-nuclear assets because "without such weapons, Israel, having to rely entirely upon non-nuclear forces, might not be able to deter enemy retaliations for the Israeli preemptive strike. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cold Start" was developed with the help of external strategists, borrowing heavily from Israeli tactics, notably from the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The Israeli intelligence community believes the Syrian government retains several tons of chemical weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Syria sought to develop nuclear weapons with help from North Korea, but its plutonium production reactor was destroyed by the Israeli Air Force in 2007 (see Operation Orchard). (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the Israeli occupation of the Golan Heights during the 1967 Six-Day War, and South Lebanon in 1978, the Syrian government has regarded Israeli military power as a threat to Syrian security. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to security analyst Zuhair Diab, Israeli nuclear weapons were a primary motivation for the Syrian chemical weapons program. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Israeli Institute for Biological Research (IIBR), located in the town of Ness Ziona near Tel Aviv, hosts the bulk of Israeli research related to biological weapons . (nti.org)
  • That year Hemed Gimmel funded six Israeli physics graduate students to study overseas, including one to go to the University of Chicago and study under Enrico Fermi, who had overseen the world's first artificial and self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time Israeli scientists were also observing France's own nuclear program, and were the only foreign scientists allowed to roam "at will" at the nuclear facility at Marcoule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the relationships between Israeli and French Jewish and non-Jewish researchers, the French believed that cooperation with Israel could give them access to international Jewish nuclear scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactor
  • Construction of the facility began in 1958 and its heavy-water nuclear reactor went active sometime between 1962-1964. (wikipedia.org)
  • Israel claims that the nuclear reactor and research facility is for research purposes into atomic science. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dimona reactor became critical sometime between 1962 and 1964, and with the plutonium produced there the Israel Defense Forces most probably had their first nuclear weapons ready before the Six-Day War. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dimona reactor was overflown by unidentified jet aircraft before the Six Day War in 1967. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was France, however, which provided the bulk of early nuclear assistance to Israel culminating in construction of Dimona, a heavy water moderated, natural uranium reactor and plutonium reprocessing factory situated near Bersheeba in the Negev Desert. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
  • The Republic of China was able to acquire nuclear technology from abroad (including a research reactor from Canada and low-grade plutonium from the United States) allegedly for a civilian energy system, but in actuality to develop fuel for nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the assistance provided, most significant to China's future strategic nuclear capability were an experimental nuclear reactor, facilities for processing uranium, a cyclotron, and some equipment for a gaseous diffusions plant. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The Syria file at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) remains open, amid Syria's failure to respond to the IAEA's questions about the destroyed facility, that the IAEA concluded was "very likely" a nuclear reactor, including the whereabouts of the reactor's nuclear fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant, relating to reactor refueling procedures, in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1999, India was estimated to have 800 kg of separated reactor-grade plutonium , with a total amount of 8,300 kg of civilian plutonium, enough for approximately 1,000 nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • thermonuclear weapons
  • By 2002 it was estimated that the number had increased to between 75 and 200 thermonuclear weapons, each in the multiple-megaton range. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modern design of all thermonuclear weapons in the United States is known as the Teller-Ulam configuration for its two chief contributors, Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam, who developed it in 1951 for the United States, with certain concepts developed with the contribution of John von Neumann. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bomb
  • The largest nuclear explosion in history was the 1961 Soviet "Tsar Bomba" test, which measured more than 50 megatons (3,800 times more powerful than the Hiroshima bomb). (ctbto.org)
  • A study into the secret program concluded that at the time of Chang's defection, Taiwan was one or two years away from being able to complete a nuclear bomb. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a 1924 article, Winston Churchill speculated about the possible military implications: "Might not a bomb no bigger than an orange be found to possess a secret power to destroy a whole block of buildings-nay to concentrate the force of a thousand tons of cordite and blast a township at a stroke? (wikipedia.org)
  • Their mission was to set up and remote detonate a nuclear bomb on a mountaintop as a warning to belligerent surrounding states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The USSR also agreed to supply a sample atomic bomb and to provide technical assistance in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The HAARP can deliver a very large amount of energy, comparable to a nuclear bomb, anywhere in the world. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • The HAARP has subsequently become a target for those who have suggested that it could be used to test the ability "to deliver very large amount of energy, comparable to a nuclear bomb, anywhere on earth", "changing weather patterns", "blocking all global communications", "disrupting human mental processes" and mind control, and "x-raying the earth. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • While American experts had predicted that the Soviet Union would not have nuclear weapons until the mid-1950s, the first Soviet bomb was detonated on August 29, 1949, shocking the entire world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first of China's nuclear weapons tests took place in 1964, and its first hydrogen bomb test occurred in 1967. (wikipedia.org)
  • A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though large quantities of vague data have been officially released, and larger quantities of vague data have been unofficially leaked by former bomb designers, most public descriptions of nuclear weapon design details rely to some degree on speculation, reverse engineering from known information, or comparison with similar fields of physics (inertial confinement fusion is the primary example). (wikipedia.org)
  • I believe he will bomb the sites that they think is providing Nukes for destruction of Isreal and the world. (activistchat.com)
  • Gulf Cooperation Council members � Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Oman � are getting ready for what many now assume will be retaliation from Iran if Israel follows through with threats to bomb Iran's nuclear facilities this year. (activistchat.com)
  • Russia
  • On 14 September 2013, the United States and Russia announced an agreement for the elimination of Syria's chemical weapon stockpiles by June 2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • Russia lacked ICBM's or long range missiles to directly threaten the U.S. In contrast, the U.S. had stationed bombers within NATO countries in Europe that could deliver nuclear payloads to designated targets within the Soviet Union if they attempted to start a war. (wikipedia.org)
  • A surprise attack would be launched to cripple the attacked country, in this case Russia, from retaliating with nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new joint report by NTI and the Russian-based Center for Energy and Security Studies highlights key projects the United States and Russia can take on to innovate and build trust in the nuclear sphere. (nti.org)
  • In order of acquisition of nuclear weapons these are: the United States, Russia (the successor state to the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, France, and China. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of Russia and the United States (which have subjected their nuclear forces to independent verification under various treaties) these figures are estimates, in some cases quite unreliable estimates. (wikipedia.org)
  • North Korea
  • The de-militarization of Japan and the protection of the United States' nuclear umbrella have led to a strong policy of non-weaponization of nuclear technology, but in the face of nuclear weapons testing by North Korea, some politicians and former military officials in Japan are calling for a reversal of this policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1954
  • Mao Zedong decided to begin a Chinese nuclear-weapons program during the First Taiwan Strait Crisis of 1954-1955 over the Quemoy and Matsu Islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce nuclear weapons
  • Several additional measures have been adopted to strengthen the NPT and the broader nuclear nonproliferation regime and make it difficult for states to acquire the capability to produce nuclear weapons, including the export controls of the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the enhanced verification measures of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Additional Protocol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The decision to enter into a development program designed to produce nuclear weapons and ballistic missile delivery systems was, in large part, a function of the 1953 technology transfer agreements initiated with the USSR. (globalsecurity.org)
  • stockpiles
  • During this period, in addition to the American and Soviet nuclear stockpiles, other countries developed nuclear weapons, though none engaged in warhead production on nearly the same scale as the two superpowers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1976
  • However, after the International Atomic Energy Agency found evidence of the Republic of China's efforts to produce weapons-grade plutonium, Taipei agreed in September 1976 under U.S. pressure to dismantle its nuclear weapons program. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, as early as 1976, the CIA believed that Israel possessed 10 to 20 nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1976 Gregory Minor, Richard Hubbard and Dale Bridenbaugh "blew the whistle" on safety problems at nuclear power plants in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • superpowers
  • Despite the termination of Soviet assistance, China committed itself to continue nuclear weapons development to break "the superpowers' monopoly on nuclear weapons," to ensure Chinese security against the Soviet and United States threats, and to increase Chinese prestige and power internationally. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Soviets
  • In mid-October 1957 the Chinese and Soviets signed an agreement on new technology for national defense that included provision for additional Soviet nuclear assistance as well as the furnishing of some surface-to-surface and surface-to-air missiles. (globalsecurity.org)
  • It would attempt to force the soviets into a war of attrition to force a stalemate and swiftly bring an end to any possibly conflict before nuclear means could become an option. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite their wartime military alliance, the United States and Britain had not trusted the Soviets enough to keep knowledge of the Manhattan Project safe from German spies: there were also concerns that, as an ally, the Soviet Union would request and expect to receive technical details of the new weapon. (wikipedia.org)
  • triad
  • It is also noteworthy that since the dawn of the Atomic Age, the delivery methods of most states with nuclear weapons has evolved with some achieving a nuclear triad, while others have consolidated away from land and air deterrents to submarine-based forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • deterrent
  • New Zealand was the first Western-allied nation to legislate towards a national nuclear free zone by effectively renouncing the nuclear deterrent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early in 2011, China published a defense white paper, which repeated its nuclear policies of maintaining a minimum deterrent with a no-first-use pledge. (wikipedia.org)
  • atomic
  • Former International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Mohamed ElBaradei regarded Israel as a state possessing nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the German nuclear weapons program, it suffered from an array of problems, and was ultimately unable to progress beyond the laboratory stage before the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrender in August 1945. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ironically, the headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency is located in Vienna, and the IAEA maintains nuclear laboratories both in Vienna and Seibersdorf. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The Republic of China's nuclear power plants use imported enriched uranium and are subject to International Atomic Energy Agency inspection. (wikipedia.org)
  • H. G. Wells was inspired to write about atomic weapons in a 1914 novel, The World Set Free, which appeared shortly before the First World War. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1955 it adopted the Atomic Energy Basic Law, which limits the use of nuclear energy to nonmilitary areas. (armscontrol.org)
  • During the United Nation's first General Assembly in London in January 1946, they discussed the future of Nuclear Weapons and created the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Nuclear Notebook, the total number of nuclear weapons worldwide is estimated at 9,220 in 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • plutonium
  • Construction of uranium-enrichment plants in Baotou and Lanzhou began in 1958, and a plutonium facility in Jiuquan and the Lop Nur nuclear test site by 1960. (wikipedia.org)
  • offensive chemical
  • However, the Republic of China government has stated that any such materials are only for defensive research purposes and that it does not have any intention of producing offensive chemical weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Israel has signed but not ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also speculations that a chemical weapons program might be located at the Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) in Ness Ziona. (wikipedia.org)
  • Israel insisted the material was non-toxic, was to have been used to test filters that protect against chemical weapons, and that it had been clearly listed on the cargo manifest in accordance with international regulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1955, Prime Minister Ben Gurion ordered the weaponisation and stockpiling of chemical weapons in case of a war with Egypt. (radioislam.org)
  • Nishina had established his own Nuclear Research Laboratory to study high-energy physics in 1931 at RIKEN Institute (the Institute for Physical and Chemical Research), which had been established in 1917 in Tokyo to promote basic research. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no evidence of Taiwan possessing any chemical, biological or nuclear weapons, although it has pursued nuclear weapons in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2013, the OPCW-UN Joint Mission destroyed all of Syria's declared chemical weapons manufacturing and mixing equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several months later, Syria disclosed that it maintained a ricin chemical weapons program, which the Syrian government claims has fallen into the hands of Syrian Opposition forces in the east of the country. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following month Syria, further disclosed that it had 4 more previously hidden chemical weapons production sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the fact that Syrian officials did not explicitly declare the chemical weapons capability, they implied it through speeches and in addition warned of retaliations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internal Syrian chemical weapons capability may have been developed alongside indirect Russian, German, Chinese and Indian technical and logistical support. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the Syrian Civil War, in August 2012, the Syrian military restarted chemical weapons testing at a base on the outskirts of Aleppo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical weapons were a major point of discussion between the Syrian government and world leaders, with military intervention being considered by the West as a potential consequence of the use of such weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2007 Syrian arms depot explosion, there were suggestions that the incident involved a secret chemical weapons facility. (wikipedia.org)
  • In September 2013 Syria joined the Chemical Weapons Convention (formally acceding on 14 October), and agreed to the destruction of its chemical weapons, under the supervision of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, as required by the Convention. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2013, the OPCW found a total of 1,300 tons of chemical weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 16 October 2013, the OPCW and the United Nations formally established a joint mission to oversee the elimination of the Syrian chemical weapons program by mid-2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sources such as the United States and Human Rights Watch disagree, claiming there is no significant evidence the opposition has any significant chemical weapons capability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first prominent nuclear whistleblower was Karen Silkwood, who worked as a chemical technician at a Kerr-McGee nuclear fuel plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear weapons - unlike chemical weapons, biological weapons, anti-personnel landmines and cluster munitions - are not prohibited in a comprehensive and universal manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • China has acceded to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) in 1984 and ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • China signed the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) on January 13, 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to India's ex-Army Chief General Sunderji , a country having the capability of making nuclear weapons does not need to have chemical weapons, since the dread of chemical weapons could be created only in those countries that do not have nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pakistan
  • Pakistan's assumptions about "Cold Start" are: (1) offensive operations will commence without giving Pakistan time for diplomacy and (2) offensive operations will not cross the nuclear threshold or prompt Pakistan into crossing it. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The ability to hold limited portions of Pakistan with military might and use this for political leverage against Pakistan will be unacceptable, triggering a ground war as well as a possible nuclear exchange. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Pakistan believes that international pressure would result in a ceasefire after a maximum of three weeks of conflict, which should be enough time to gain some territory to be used in subsequent bargaining. (globalsecurity.org)
  • uranium
  • Possessing advanced nuclear technology and 'world class' nuclear scientists, Israel was confronted early with a major problem- how to obtain the necessary uranium. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
  • There was also an allegation that a U.S. corporation called Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) diverted hundreds of pounds of enriched uranium to Israel from the mid-50s to the mid-60s. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
  • The province of British Columbia also bans mining for uranium, and the construction of nuclear power plants within its territorial limits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weapons-grade" uranium is also used in submarine and icebreaker propulsion. (ctbto.org)
  • Weapons-grade" uranium (also used in submarine and icebreaker propulsion) is defined as uranium enriched to at least 90 percent U-235. (ctbto.org)
  • By contrast, low enriched uranium (LEU), which is used as fuel in the majority of nuclear power plants, generally contains only 3 to 5 percent U-235. (ctbto.org)
  • When the nucleus of uranium-235 absorbs a neutron, it undergoes nuclear fission, releasing energy and, on average, 2.5 neutrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • conventional
  • The gun-type weapon is produced through a rather simple process in which one mass of U-235 is 'shot' into another by conventional explosives, creating a critical mass. (ctbto.org)
  • It would escalate from conventional warfare to the use of tactical Nuclear weapons and then the possibility of going further and using intermediate nuclear weapons existed. (wikipedia.org)
  • NATO created policies to counter-attack the USSR as well as how to deal with them without a nuclear trigger in changing how conventional warfare would be conducted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Situated in a high conflict region, Israel possesses advanced conventional military capabilities, and has for decades maintained a policy of opacity (in Hebrew, amimut) regarding its WMD programs. (nti.org)
  • Designs concentrating on conventional weapons had been largely ignored, leaving their entry into the Vietnam War led by the Korean War -era Douglas A-1 Skyraider . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1956
  • The decision to develop an independent strategic nuclear force was made no later than early 1956 and was to be implemented within the Twelve-Year Science Plan presented in September 1956 to the Eighth Congress of the CCP. (globalsecurity.org)
  • maintains
  • Information about the facility remains highly classified and with respect to nuclear weapons the country maintains a policy known as nuclear ambiguity-refusing either to confirm or deny their possession. (wikipedia.org)
  • Israel is also generally understood to have nuclear weapons, but does not acknowledge it (Israel maintains a policy of deliberate ambiguity), and is not known definitively to have conducted a nuclear test. (wikipedia.org)
  • umbrella
  • Strong ties, culturally, economic, and political tie the U.S with many European nations and the umbrella of NATO not only offered protection for these European countries, but also put them within the USSR's attack possibilities in a nuclear war. (wikipedia.org)