• poliovirus
  • The cells, which appear to senesce after approximately 40 passages, are susceptible to herpes simplex, reovirus 3, vesicular stomatitis (Ogden strain), and vaccinia, but resist adenovirus 5, coxsackievirus A9 and B5, and poliovirus 2. (fsu.edu)
  • As a member of the Jonas Salk research team, Youngner contributed in the development of polio vaccine, including techniques for large scale production of poliovirus and the rapid color test measurement of polio virus in living tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • He continued his work on virus replication using poliovirus and pursued training in enzymology with Jerard Hurwitz at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in 1964/1965. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polio conjures up a nightmarish vision, in part due to the rapid and unexpected onset of paralysis, the inability to predict who might succumb, and the absence of any cure for the potentially life-long poliovirus-associated paralysis. (jneurosci.org)
  • After smallpox, poliovirus (PV) has been on the road to potentially becoming the second major human virus to be eradicated from the planet. (jneurosci.org)
  • Despite the enormous effort in eradicating poliovirus reaching every nation, there are still a surprisingly large number of mysteries related to the basic underlying mechanisms of PV infection and spread to the brain, and particularly to spinal cord motor neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • infection
  • It replicates very rapidly in mice of all strains so far tested, produces a stable infection with a continuously high level of infective virus in the blood for the remainder of the animal's life, yet causes no harm to its host. (springer.com)
  • Using multiple models of CMV infection in the developing mouse brain, we show that subcutaneous low-dose VCD suppresses CMV by reducing the level of virus available for entry into the brain and by acting directly within the brain to block virus replication and dispersal. (jneurosci.org)
  • The long-term paralysis that occurs in ∼1% of patients is the result of PV infection and irreversible killing of motor neurons in the anterior horn, resulting in flaccid paralysis of denervated muscles, or less commonly killing of motor neurons in the bulbar region of the brainstem, affecting muscles innervated by cranial nerves and thus interfering with breathing, speaking, or swallowing. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since little can be done to cure paralytic poliomyelitis, most efforts focus on prevention of infection, first by immunization and second by improving sanitation in regions at risk. (jneurosci.org)
  • To obtain a better understanding of the immunopathology of RV infection, the degree of antigenicity of the structural proteins in humans were examined for both cellular and humoral immune responses. (ubc.ca)
  • vitro
  • When cells that expanded in vitro were transplanted into recipient animals, they morphologically and functionally differentiated into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes with reconstitution of hepatocyte and bile duct structures. (rupress.org)
  • The in vitro translation products directed by cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) RNA were analyzed in both rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract cell-free translation systems. (ubc.ca)
  • 3) immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products with CNV polyclonal antisera and (4) in vitro translation of size-fractionated CNV virion RNA. (ubc.ca)
  • The size, number, and genomic locations of the CNV in vitro translation products reported here are in agreement with those predicted from nucleotide sequence data (Rochon & Tremaine, 1989). (ubc.ca)
  • The natural template for the expression of downstream cistrons in the CNV genome was investigated by in vitro translation of sucrose fractionated CNV virion RNA as well as in vitro translation of messenger-sense synthetic transcripts. (ubc.ca)
  • These studies indicate that in vitro, both subgenomic and genomic-length CNV RNA molecules may act as templates for the synthesis of the ca. 41,21 and 20 Mr proteins as well as the ca. 33 Mr protein. (ubc.ca)
  • Department of V^n.f Sd-Cnc-c The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) P'&- Abstract The in vitro translation products directed by cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) R N A were analyzed in both rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract cell-free translation systems. (ubc.ca)
  • 1983)omopgrond vandedoor hen verkregen resultaten teconcluderen dat het eiwit met een molecuul gewichtvan58.000,datzevinden bij in vitro translatievanRNA-2van grapevine fanleaf virus,het manteleiwit vanditvirusis. (exploredoc.com)
  • Deletion mutants of El were constructed from El cDNAs and expressed in in vitro, in COS cells and in E.coli. (ubc.ca)
  • 1969
  • In 1969, President Richard Nixon ended all offensive (i.e., non-defensive) aspects of the U.S. bio-weapons program. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1969, the USBWL (U.S. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE LABORATORIES) ceased to exist when President Richard Nixon [stopped] all offensive BW studies and directed the destruction of all stock piles of BW agents and munitions. (blogspot.com)
  • After all, the National FFA had just voted in 1969 to allow females to enter what was then known as The Future Farmers of America. (issuu.com)
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Although recombinant viruses are highly efficient gene delivery and expression vectors, they are currently limited to the delivery of nucleic acids and their safety profiles have not yet been established for medical use in humans. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Most non-viral delivery systems operate at the following levels: loading of the delivery vector with a substance of interest (e.g. proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, pharmaceutical or other therapeutic drugs), endocytosis, and in the case of gene delivery, nuclear targeting and entry. (allindianpatents.com)
  • rubella virus
  • A serological survey, with the hemagglutination inhibition test and comprising 1,552 sera from female children and teenagers living in Angola, was made to determine the rate of immune response against rubella virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Elucidation of antigenic epitopes on the rubella virus. (ubc.ca)
  • Rubella virus (RV), a positive-stranded RNA virus, is the only member of the genus Rubivirus within the Togaviridae family. (ubc.ca)
  • 1975
  • David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist, university administrator, and 1975 Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1975 the U.S. ratified both the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)-international treaties outlawing biological warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • It causes no clinical disease in mice but can significantly alter their response to other infective agents and to the development of tumours. (springer.com)
  • Improvement was observed in all cases, and complete clinical and parasitologic cure was obtained in 16 (80%), although the healing response was often delayed, and viable parasites were demonstrated up to 15 weeks after injection of the drug. (ajtmh.org)
  • Although clinical rubella is a relatively mild disease, RV remains an important human pathogen because of its teratogenic effects in utero which can result in new born infants with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). (ubc.ca)
  • human
  • Hayflick L. The establishment of a line (WISH) of human amnion cells in continuous cultivation. (atcc.org)
  • Induction of prostaglandin H synthase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human amnionic WISH cells by various stimuli occurs through distinct intracellular mechanisms. (atcc.org)
  • Rapid and transient induction of cyclo-oxygenase 2 by epidermal growth factor in human amnion-derived WISH cells. (atcc.org)
  • THOV, DHOV and Bourbon virus can infect humans, and have occasionally been associated with human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two cases of human disease associated with THOV occurred in 1966, and a Russian laboratory accident in the 1980s showed that DHOV can also cause disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of brain defects and neurological dysfunction in developing human babies. (jneurosci.org)
  • We studied the anti-CMV actions of valnoctamide (VCD), a psychiatric sedative that appears to lack teratogenicity and toxicity, in the newborn mouse brain, a developmental period that parallels that of an early second-trimester human fetus. (jneurosci.org)
  • VCD also blocks CMV replication in human fetal brain cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • proteins
  • They discovered the mechanism of proteolytic cleavage of viral polyprotein precursors, pointing to the importance of proteolytic processing in the synthesis of eukaryotic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In wheat germ extracts, four proteins of ca. 41, 33, 21 and 20 Mr were produced. (ubc.ca)
  • Hybrid-arrested translation (HART) studies using synthetic CNV antisense RNA corresponding to the entire CNV genome demonstrated that the four major proteins synthesized from CNV virion RNA in wheat germ extracts are virus-specific translation products. (ubc.ca)
  • influenza
  • Julius S. Youngner (24 October 1920 - 27 April 2017) was an American Distinguished Service Professor in the School of Medicine and Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics at University of Pittsburgh responsible for advances necessary for development of a vaccine for poliomyelitis and the first intranasal equine influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • A consequence of being transmitted by blood-sucking vectors is that the virus must spread systemically in the vertebrate host - unlike influenza viruses, which are transmitted by respiratory droplets and are usually confined to the respiratory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two viruses were originally considered to be bunyaviruses, but characterisation in the 1980s and early 1990s revealed similarities with influenza viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thogotovirus glycoprotein is not similar to the influenza virus glycoproteins (haemagglutinin and neuraminidase), and instead shows some similarities with the gp64 glycoprotein of baculoviruses, which infect insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thogotovirus glycoprotein is classified as a class III or γ penetrene, lacking the fusion peptide present in influenza haemagglutinin (a class I or α penetrene). (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of action of ML is completely different from the equivalent protein in influenza viruses (NS1). (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The data and observations in Lo's reports, all of which have been published in the JOURNAL, indicate that M. incognitus may be pathogenic to humans, particularly to AIDS patients. (ajtmh.org)
  • malaria
  • According to the author, many have uncritically blamed malaria eradication as a major culprit in the population explosion. (ajtmh.org)
  • His present purpose is to make estimates of what the population growth would have been in the absence of malaria eradication and so derive the total contribution to population growth made by the postwar anti-malaria campaigns in British Guiana and Ceylon. (ajtmh.org)
  • Newman concludes that malaria eradication contributed to the postwar acceleration of population growth about 60 percent in Ceylon, and about 40 percent in British Guiana. (ajtmh.org)
  • Despite the wealth of data on births, deaths, population, and the prevalence of malaria in British Guiana and Ceylon, the author fails to quantify the extension of insecticides in time and place. (ajtmh.org)
  • Data from three nonimmune North Americans who acquired malaria in a highly endemic area of Colombia, and data from a field trial with infected natives in the same area, indicated the presence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the area. (ajtmh.org)
  • This IHA test detected antibody titers of 1:16 or greater in 98% of slide-proved cases of malaria and in less than 1% of serum from persons without a history of malaria. (ajtmh.org)
  • In August 1966 a stained blood film from a California man suspected of having malaria revealed the presence of erythrocytic parasites of unusual morphology. (ajtmh.org)
  • Two outbreaks of Plasmodium vivax malaria have occurred recently in southern California, and Anopheles hermsi , a newly described species closely related to A freeborni , has been implicated as the vector. (ajtmh.org)
  • Salk
  • The Salk vaccine is based upon formalin inactivated wild type virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February, 1965, Baltimore was recruited by Renato Dulbecco to the newly established Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla as an independent research associate. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also met his future wife, Alice Huang, who began working with Baltimore at Salk in 1967. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intramuscular immunization with inactivated PV (Salk vaccine) is the safest vaccine approach, but requires skilled health professionals for administration, making it problematic in isolated communities lacking medical expertise. (jneurosci.org)
  • Vaccine
  • Infectivity Stability of Live Measles-Virus Vaccine. (atcc.org)
  • Youngner was an important early pioneer in vaccine development, testing, and government licensing of drugs before allowing them to market. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was critical of Cutter Laboratories virus manufacturing prior to deaths resulting from Cutter inactivated vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working on polio prevention, he was responsible for three key advancements in poliomyelitis vaccine development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This advance in production of virus raw material directly led to vaccine viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oral (Sabin) vaccine made from attenuated replication-competent PV is easily administered, particularly in regions of the world with a paucity of health care experts, and has played a key role in controlling PV infections in both large urban populations and also in remote villages. (jneurosci.org)
  • The potential use of the defined epitopes in the development of subunit vaccine is discussed. (ubc.ca)
  • California
  • The APM cell line was established at The Naval Biosciences Laboratory ( NBL ) in Oakland, California from the skin of an African water mongoose ( Atilax paludinosus ). (fsu.edu)
  • Photo showing polio patients at Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center in California in 1953. (jneurosci.org)
  • When I was State President of the California Association of the FFA back in 1970 a young woman in a blue and gold jacket was a rare sighting. (issuu.com)
  • 1947
  • After completing a Sc.D. degree in microbiology at the University of Michigan, Youngner stayed on as a faculty member, and left in 1947 to join the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Bethesda. (wikipedia.org)
  • In British Guiana, large scale spraying of insecticides first began in 1947. (ajtmh.org)
  • polymorphism
  • Genetic mapping and diagnosis of haemophilia A achieved through a BclI polymorphism in the factor VIII gene. (atcc.org)
  • Restriction site polymorphism in the phosphoglycerate kinase gene on the X chromosome. (atcc.org)
  • The principal conclusions to be drawn from the study are that there is extensive polymorphism in many of the genetically determined characters of this parasite, multiple infections with >1 genetically distinct parasite are common, and there are geographical variations in the frequencies with which variant forms of certain markers occur. (ajtmh.org)
  • Genetic
  • Chromosomal translocations are of importance in genetic control of insect pests. (ajtmh.org)
  • Of particular interest have been the Y-autosome translocations because of the prospects of using such translocations in genetic control of this important vector species. (ajtmh.org)
  • Success of a genetic control program in a sexually reproducing species depends largely on the mating competitiveness of the released individuals. (ajtmh.org)
  • Virosomes are reconstituted envelopes without the infectious nucleocapsids and the genetic material that can be derived from a variety of viruses. (allindianpatents.com)
  • antigen
  • The major problems in this technique included harvesting the correct stage of plasmodia for antigen, using the French pressure cell, and storing the labile disrupted preparation. (ajtmh.org)
  • In CRS patients E2 was the dominant antigen to which both cellular and humoral immune responses were elicited. (ubc.ca)
  • VIROLOGY
  • He is considered "one of the seminal figures in contemporary virology and it's been that way for more than 50 years" by Arthur S. Levine, senior vice chancellor for the health sciences at University of Pittsburgh. (wikipedia.org)
  • dead link] In 1949, Youngner moved to the University of Pittsburgh to pursue virology at and, subsequently, to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine for the rest of his career. (wikipedia.org)
  • He took the Cold Spring Harbor course on animal virology in 1961 and he moved to Richard Franklin's lab at the Rockefeller Institute at New York City which was one of the few labs pioneering molecular research on animal virology. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • As in all orthomyxoviruses, the largest three segments (1-3) encode the three subunits of the RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Intraspecific site and genome length variations were present in the mtDNA of 5 colonies of A. freeborni and 3 colonies of A. hermsi , but no species-specific differences were observed. (ajtmh.org)
  • 1968
  • In 1968, he was recruited by Nobel laureate Salvador Luria to the Department of Biology at MIT as an Associate Professor of Microbiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • They became a couple, and married in October 1968. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1965
  • The minutes of the 1964 annual council meeting were approved as published in the March, 1965, issue of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. (ajtmh.org)
  • 1999
  • In addition to the Nobel Prize, he has received a number of awards, including the U.S. National Medal of Science in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • endemic
  • PV remains endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and is most problematic in Nigeria where civil unrest and suspicion about immunization safety and intent have complicated and arrested critical vaccination programs. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is concluded that tests for suspected chloroquineresistance in P. falciparum in native populations of endemic areas are best done in the younger age-groups. (ajtmh.org)
  • poliomyelitis
  • Many countries have not seen a case of poliomyelitis in a decade or longer, raising our confidence in the eventual elimination of this pathogen. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1963
  • citation needed] After his PhD, Baltimore returned to MIT for postdoctoral research with James Darnell in 1963. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryo
  • Established by George Todaro and Howard Green in 1962 from disaggregated Swiss mouse ( Mus musculus ) embryo tissue, the 3T3 cell line is a standard fibroblast cell line used in a wide spectrum of research and industrial biomedical applications. (fsu.edu)
  • Quantitative study of the lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus in mouse embryo cultures. (springer.com)
  • cells
  • APM mongoose cells exhibit fibroblast morphology and, similar to other fibroblast lines, are among the easiest cells to grow in culture. (fsu.edu)
  • In addition, the cells are negative for reverse transcriptase, indicating the lack of integral retrovirus genomes. (fsu.edu)
  • In addition, 3T3 cells are negative for the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase, indicating the lack of integral retrovirus genomes. (fsu.edu)
  • The markers 6q+ and 15q+ occurred in most cells. (atcc.org)
  • Youngner demonstrated the separation of monkey kidney cells using the pancreatic enzyme trypsin, a technique previously proven by the Rockefeller Institute could be applied to high titer virus stocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells could be clonally propagated in culture where they continuously produced hepatocytes and cholangiocytes as descendants while maintaining primitive stem cells. (rupress.org)
  • These data indicate that self-renewing pluripotent stem cells persist in the developing mouse liver and that such cells can be induced to become cells of other organs of endodermal origin under appropriate microenvironment. (rupress.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) * certainly exist in bone marrow where they self-renew and differentiate along all hematopoietic lineages. (rupress.org)
  • However, it remains unclear how the liver is regenerated and what cells are involved in such regeneration. (rupress.org)
  • Of major importance in understanding proliferative processes in the liver is to recognize that fully differentiated hepatocytes themselves possess great growth potential and that stem cells may not be required for liver regeneration ( Michalopoulos and DeFrances, 1997 ). (rupress.org)
  • Instead, the tumor cells invade deep into the brain itself, causing disruption in brain circuits, blood vessel and blood flow changes, and tissue swelling. (frontiersin.org)
  • The invasive tumor cells can be found far from the main tumor mass even in the more histologically benign forms ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The plasmodia were freed from red blood cells with distilled water and then disrupted in a French pressure cell. (ajtmh.org)
  • infectious
  • Youngner survived many infections as a young child which left him with a lifelong interest in infectious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to viral systems virosomes are safe, since the infectious nucleocapsid of the virus has been removed. (allindianpatents.com)
  • ATCC
  • A copy of the permit or documentation that a permit is not required must be sent to ATCC in advance of shipment. (atcc.org)
  • relation
  • Results of in vivo cross-neutralization tests showed some relation to those of the immunodiffusion studies. (ajtmh.org)
  • research
  • Alice S. Huang also moved to MIT to continue her research on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the course of its 27-year history, the program weaponized and stockpiled the following seven bio-agents (and pursued basic research on many more): Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) Francisella tularensis (tularemia) Brucella spp (brucellosis) Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever) Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) Botulinum toxin (botulism) Staphylococcal enterotoxin B Throughout its history, the U.S. bioweapons program was secret. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chief of the CWS, Amos Fries, decided that such a program would not be "profitable" for the U.S. Japan's Shiro Ishii began promoting biological weapons during the 1920s and toured biological research facilities worldwide, including in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the U.S. was spending very little time on biological weapons research, its future allies and enemies in the upcoming second World War were researching the potential of biological weapons as early as 1933. (wikipedia.org)
  • The British, and the research undertaken by the WBC, pressured the U.S. to begin biological weapons research and development and in November 1942 U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt officially approved an American biological weapons program. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to the information provided by the WBC, Roosevelt ordered Stimson to form the War Research Service (WRS). (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In rabbit reticulocyte lysates, one major protein of ca. 33 Mr was produced. (ubc.ca)
  • In addition, immunoprecipitation experiments provided further evidence that the ca. 41 Mr protein is the viral coat protein. (ubc.ca)
  • These virosomes arq functional, in that their membrane fusion activity closely mimics the well-defined low-pH-dependent membrane fusion activity of the intact virus, which is solely mediated by tthe viral fusion protein. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The development of new/novel, more efficiently loaded vesicles that retain the advantageous fusion properties of virosomes, as well as methods of making, loading, and delivering them would thus be a highly desirable goal in the field of therapeutic drug, protein and gene delivery. (allindianpatents.com)
  • One of the problems in current virosome technology is the lack of methods for the efficient entrapment of a solute, e.g. protein, nucleic acid, or pharmaceutical drug. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The virus consists of a host derived lipid bilayer membrane, membrane glycoprotein spikes, and the C protein which together with viral RNA forms the icosahedral nucleocapsid. (ubc.ca)
  • infections
  • Inapparent virus infections of experimental animals and tissue culture systems present to the investigator a problem which it is impossible to overcome completely. (springer.com)
  • Reassortment of segments between strains has been observed in both ticks and mammals experimentally infected with more than one thogotovirus, but its significance in natural infections is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • rodents
  • In rodents, liver weight returns to normal within a few weeks even after loss of up to two-thirds of total liver mass ( Fausto and Webber, 1994 ). (rupress.org)
  • immunity
  • Ironically, associated with increased sophistication in clean water supplies and sewage disposal in cities, the immunity that had previously been generated from early contact with the virus was delayed until a later stage of development, leading to mass outbreaks of paralytic polio. (jneurosci.org)
  • cell
  • Cell biologists hypothesize that the ability of fibroblasts to grow so readily outside of the body is associated with their central role in the healing of wounds, which necessitates their proliferation when confronted with injury or other less than optimal conditions. (fsu.edu)
  • However, examination in greater detail strongly indicated that fully differentiated hepatocytes but not progenitors divided intensively after cell transplantation. (rupress.org)
  • There he made fundamental discoveries on virus replication and its effect on cell metabolism, including the first description of an RNA replicase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Younger
  • Younger was born in 1920 in Manhattan, New York, where his father was a businessman. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain cancer includes a diverse set of intracranial neoplasms and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in patients younger than 35 years ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Restriction
  • Comparison of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Anopheles freeborni and A. hermsi , 2 morphologically indistinguishable mosquito species in the North American A. maculipennis complex, revealed restriction enzyme site variation in both DNA families. (ajtmh.org)
  • distinct
  • In doing so, he discovered a distinct class of viruses, later name retroviruses, that use an RNA template to catalyze the synthesis of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • the genus also contains the species Dhori virus (DHOV) and its subtype Batken virus, as well as the species or strains Araguari virus, Aransas Bay virus (ABV), Bourbon virus, Jos virus (JOSV) and Upolu virus (UPOV), which have yet to be confirmed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). (wikipedia.org)
  • It also has some similarity with the haemagglutinin of Quaranfil virus, the type species of a new genus of tick-transmitted orthomyxoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Bhanja virus was isolated from his serum, and diagnostic rises in complement-fixing and neutralizing antibody were demonstrated. (ajtmh.org)
  • Anopheles
  • The presence of good quality salivary gland chromosomes in Anopheles albimanus facilitated the detection of radiation-induced chromosomal translocations and location of the break-points in precise regions of the salivary chromosomes. (ajtmh.org)
  • The sexual vigor of male Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes carrying an Y-autosome translocation was evaluated in the laboratory and found to be equal to that of wild type males. (ajtmh.org)
  • 1997
  • Similar to the US, Tajikistan had not had a reported case of polio in over a decade from 1997 on. (jneurosci.org)
  • mice
  • However, no doubt because of the permanence of the infected state, the virus survives in wild mice and is easily transmitted inadvertently by experimental procedures. (springer.com)
  • A plasma lactic dehydrogenase-elevating virus associated with scrapie-infected mice. (springer.com)
  • The effect of tumours, of leukaemia, and of some viruses associated with them, on the plasma lactic dehydrogenase activity of mice. (springer.com)
  • VCD during the first 3 weeks of life restored timely acquisition of neurological milestones in neonatal male and female mice and rescued long-term motor and behavioral outcomes in juvenile male mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • In infected mice, subcutaneous VCD reaches the brain and suppresses viral replication within the CNS, rescuing the animals from CMV-induced brain defects and neurological problems. (jneurosci.org)
  • rapidly
  • If the ideal virus is one which replicates rapidly and continuously without killing its host and is easily transmitted, LDV must be almost perfect. (springer.com)
  • There is great promise that ongoing advances in the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) combined with rapidly expanding knowledge of brain tumor patho-biology will provide new, more effective therapies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Like viruses, virosomes are rapidly internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (allindianpatents.com)
  • biological warfare
  • The United States' first interest in any form of biological warfare came at the close of World War I. The only agent the U.S. tested was the toxin ricin, a product of the castor plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Established within the Federal Security Agency, the WRS' stated purpose was to promote "public security and health", but, in reality, the WRS was tasked with coordinating and supervising the U.S. biological warfare program. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • These data suggest that VCD during critical periods of neurodevelopment can effectively suppress CMV replication in the brain and safely improve both immediate and long-term neurological outcomes. (jneurosci.org)
  • immune responses
  • Knowledge which had been acquired primarily in the last 3 years concerning immune responses in schistosomiasis was reviewed and discussed by a group of investigators whose training was primarily in immunology. (ajtmh.org)
  • Despite
  • Despite the World War I-era interest in ricin, as World War II erupted, the United States Army still maintained the position that biological weapons were, for the most part, impractical. (wikipedia.org)