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  • endemic among
  • The armies, composed of the most rapidly moving travelers who had ever moved between the steppes of East Asia (where bubonic plague was and remains endemic among small rodents), managed to keep the chain of infection without a break until they reached, and infected, peoples and rodents who had never encountered it. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the Vietnam War, plague was endemic among the native population, but U.S. soldiers escaped relatively unaffected. (sc-ems.com)
  • Yersinia
  • Plague is a zoonotic infection caused by Yersinia pestis , a Gram-negative bacillus, which has been the cause of three great pandemics of human disease in the common era: in the 6th, 14th, and 20th centuries. (sc-ems.com)
  • Against the assumptions of historians and scientists for over a century and what continues to be inscribed in medical and history texts alike, the Black Death was not the same disease as that rat-based bubonic plague whose agent (Yersinia pestis) was first cultured at Hong Kong in 1894. (academicroom.com)
  • attacks
  • During the Battle of Bataan in the Philippines in March 1942, the Japanese considered releasing 200 pounds of plague-carrying fleas-about 150 million insects-in each of ten separate attacks, but the Americans surrendered before the plan was implemented. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to biological and chemical attacks during World War I, the Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, is signed. (whyfiles.org)
  • Six different plague attacks were conducted in China during the war, between the start of aggression and the end of the war. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the Middle Ages, victims of the bubonic plague were used for biological attacks, often by flinging fomites such as infected corpses and excrement over castle walls using catapults. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service took part in conducting chemical and biological attacks on enemy nationals during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II and the use of such weapons in warfare were generally prohibited by international agreements signed by Japan, including the Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907), which banned the use of "poison or poisoned weapons" in warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • fleas
  • I understood that the mission was to spread contaminated fleas in the enemy's base and contaminate them with plague. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using airdropped wheat, corn, scraps of cotton cloth and sand infested with plague infected fleas, an outbreak was started that resulted in a hundred deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be best prepared to treat soldiers who are plague victims of endemic or biological agent attack by an enemy, military physicians must understand the natural mechanisms by which plague spreads between species, the pathophysiology of disease in fleas and humans, the minimal diagnostic information necessary to begin treatment with effective antibiotics, and the proper use and capabilities of the presently available plague vaccine. (sc-ems.com)
  • victims
  • Biological weapons (often termed "bio-weapons", "biological threat agents", or "bio-agents") are living organisms or replicating entities ( viruses , which are not universally considered "alive") that reproduce or replicate within their host victims. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest documented incident of the intention to use biological weapons is recorded in Hittite texts of 1500-1200 BC, in which victims of tularemia were driven into enemy lands, causing an epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • This excellent protection of troops was largely due to our understanding of the rodent reservoirs and flea vectors of disease, the pathophysiology of the various clinical forms of plague, the widespread use throughout the war of a plague vaccine, and prompt treatment of plague victims with effective antibiotics. (sc-ems.com)
  • epidemic
  • p. 97-98) In 1942 a Soviet defector to Germany claimed that Soviet biological weapons were field tested during combat in Mongolia (/Manchuria) and that there was a major plague epidemic at that time. (wordpress.com)
  • These refer, respectively, to plague that is normally present in an animal community at all times but that occurs in only a small number of animals and in a mildly virulent form, and to widespread plague infections leading to death within an animal community (ie, equivalent to an epidemic in a human population). (sc-ems.com)
  • Procopius gave us the first identifiable description of epidemic plague in his account of the plague of the Byzantine empire during the reign of Justinian I (AD 541 542), 5 which we now consider to be the first great pandemic of the common era. (sc-ems.com)
  • bacterial
  • By the late 1960s, according to George Christopher and co-authors at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, the "U.S. military had developed a biological arsenal that included numerous bacterial pathogens, toxins, and fungal plant pathogens that could be directed against crops to induce crop failure and famine. (whyfiles.org)
  • The Kaimingjie germ weapon attack was a Japanese biological warfare bacterial germ strike against Kaimingjie, an area of the port of Ningbo in the Chinese province of Zhejiang in October 1940, during the Second Sino-Japanese War. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the 20th century, the use of biological agents took three major forms: Deliberate contamination of food and water with poisonous or contagious material Use of microbes, biological toxins, animals, or plants (living or dead) in a weapon system Use of biologically inoculated fabrics and persons In the 20th century, sophisticated bacteriological and virological techniques allowed the production of significant stockpiles of weaponized bio-agents: Bacterial agents: Anthrax, Brucella, Tularemia, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 Some scholars believe that this was the bubonic plague, but others suggest that it may have been due to other bacterial or viral diseases. (sc-ems.com)
  • Mortality
  • Mortality from endemic plague continues at low rates throughout the world despite the availability of effective antibiotics. (sc-ems.com)
  • northern France hardly mentioned the plague,' others following Huizinga's lead have argued that society became more violent precisely because of the plague, that the mass mortality cheapened life and thus increased warfare, crime, popular revolt, waves of flagellants, and persecutions against the Jews. (academicroom.com)
  • Imperial Japa
  • Airmen of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service were not included as war criminals because there was no positive or specific customary international humanitarian law that prohibited the unlawful conduct of aerial warfare either before or during World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1945
  • He was promoted to surgeon-general in March 1945 and in the same month planned to launch biological weapons against San Diego, California, by utilizing kamikaze planes (see Operation Cherry Blossoms at Night). (wikipedia.org)
  • bombs
  • The submarines were to surface near San Diego and launch the aircraft towards the target, either to drop the plague via balloon bombs, or to crash in enemy territory. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 400 villagers died of bubonic plague in China s eastern Zhejiang province after Japanese warplanes of medical Unit 731 dropped germ bombs. (timelinesdb.com)
  • A later attack in 1942 on the same area by the two units led to the development of their final delivery system: airdropped ceramic bombs. (wikipedia.org)
  • An American missionary Archie Crouch reported seeing Japanese planes drop odd bombs that spread what looked like wheat over the city of Ningbo and plague erupted just days later. (wordpress.com)
  • enemy
  • Biological weapons may be employed in various ways to gain a strategic or tactical advantage over the enemy, either by threats or by actual deployments. (wikipedia.org)
  • A better understanding of the preventive medicine aspects of the disease will aid in the prompt diagnosis and effective treatment necessary to survive an enemy attack of plague. (sc-ems.com)
  • Soviet
  • The United States accuses the Soviet Union of using a biological toxin against enemies in Laos, Cambodia and Afghanistan. (whyfiles.org)
  • p. 98) With both sides attempting biological warfare and with the level of technology at the time, it is unlikely that it will be possible to unravel the outcome of either the Japanese or Soviet efforts. (wordpress.com)
  • Joseph Stalin ordered a biological war laboratory to be built at the Leningrad Military Academy even though the Soviet Union had signed the 1925 Geneva Convention which outlawed the use of chemical and biological weapons during war. (eaec.org)
  • threat
  • The United States military s concern with plague is both as an endemic disease and as a biological warfare threat. (sc-ems.com)
  • HIV/AIDS AND THE THREAT OF BIOLOGICAL WARFARE have refueled interest in the Black Death among professional historians, biologists, and the public, not only for assessing the toxic effects of the bacillus but for understanding the psychological and longer-term cultural consequences of mass death. (academicroom.com)
  • soldiers
  • During World War I, the armament industry on both sides of conflict decided that the guns and cannons could not kill people fast enough, so they introduced chemical warfare and soldiers were suddenly dying in massive numbers as mustard gas swept over the battlefields. (eaec.org)
  • weapons
  • This type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare and chemical warfare , which together with biological warfare make up NBC, the military initialism for nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare using weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like some of the chemical weapons , biological weapons may also be useful as area denial weapons . (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological warfare and chemical warfare overlap to an extent, as the use of toxins produced by some living organisms is considered under the provisions of both the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention . (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of biological weapons is prohibited under customary international humanitarian law , as well as a variety of international treaties . (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological weapons allow for the potential to create a level of destruction and loss of life far in excess of nuclear, chemical or conventional weapons, relative to their mass and cost of development and storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the first few months at war with the United States following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan planned to use biological weapons against Americans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological weapons may seem a modern phenomenon, but they have a long, ugly history. (whyfiles.org)
  • Germany aims an ambitious biological weapons project at its enemies' livestock. (whyfiles.org)
  • biological weapons project in occupied China. (whyfiles.org)
  • A 1941 attack on Changteh kills at least 1,700 Japanese troops, demonstrating that biological weapons are tricky to use. (whyfiles.org)
  • U.S. surreptitiously tests dispersal of non-pathogenic agents (as stand-ins for biological weapons) in New York City, San Francisco and elsewhere. (whyfiles.org)
  • President Richard Nixon ends the U.S. biological weapons program, and pledges the nation will never use biological weapons under any circumstances. (whyfiles.org)
  • The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction is signed by more than 100 countries, going into effect in 1975. (whyfiles.org)
  • Iraq again rebuffs United Nations weapons inspectors, who may be closing in on secret biological weapons facilities. (whyfiles.org)
  • He began his work research on the potential of biological weapons in the late 1920s. (wordpress.com)
  • In 1346, during the siege of Kafa (now Feodossia, Crimea) the attacking Tartar Forces which were subjugated by the Mongol empire under Genghis Khan, used the bodies of Mongol warriors of the Golden Horde who had died of plague, as weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • the second invasion of Iraq (2003-2011) and the war in Afghanistan (2001-present) were fought with conventional, chemical and biological weapons. (eaec.org)
  • chemical
  • Dr. Larry C. Ford committed suicide just days after a botched assassination attempt on his business partner at Biofem Inc., of Irvine, Calif. Ford had met with scientists from South Africa's Project Coast in the 1980s to discuss chemical and biological warfare under Wouter Basson, head of the project. (timelinesdb.com)
  • 1931
  • In 1931 Manuilsky of the Lenin School of Political Warfare explicitly an-nounced the poUcy of subversive in-filtration, lulling the bourgeois into a sense of security with concessions and peaceful gestures, and annihUatuig him when properly softened-this entire process requiring perhaps 20 to 30 years. (ncdcr.gov)
  • treaty
  • The rationale behind this treaty , which has been ratified or acceded to by 170 countries as of April 2013, is to prevent a biological attack which could conceivably result in large numbers of civilian casualties and cause severe disruption to economic and societal infrastructure . (wikipedia.org)
  • Geneva Convention
  • Japan did not sign the 1929 Geneva Convention on the Prisoners of War (except the 1929 Geneva Convention on the Sick and Wounded), though in 1942, it did promise to abide by its terms. (wikipedia.org)
  • walls
  • In 1346, the bodies of Mongol warriors of the Golden Horde who had died of plague were thrown over the walls of the besieged Crimean city of Kaffa . (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1422, during the siege of Karlstein Castle in Bohemia, Hussite attackers used catapults to throw dead (but not plague-infected) bodies and 2000 carriage-loads of dung over the walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last known incident of using plague corpses for biological warfare occurred in 1710, when Russian forces attacked the Swedes by flinging plague-infected corpses over the city walls of Reval (Tallinn). (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Two instances of documents discussing the use of biological disease by the British against North American Indians during Pontiac's Rebellion (1763-66) have been examined by historians, but the actual effectiveness is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • Either way, the plague would then infect people in the area and kill perhaps tens of thousands. (wikipedia.org)
  • People continue to die of plague, not because the bacilli have become resistant but, most often, because physicians do not include plague in their differential diagnosis (in the United States) or because treatment is absent or delayed (in underdeveloped countries). (sc-ems.com)
  • eastern
  • After this time, plague became established in the countries bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea. (sc-ems.com)
  • late
  • A fresh reading of the late medieval sources across intellectual strata from merchant chronicles to the plague tracts of universitytrained doctors shows another trajectory, an about-face in the reactions to the plague after its initial onslaught. (academicroom.com)
  • last
  • During the last four millennia, plague has played a role in many military campaigns. (sc-ems.com)
  • black death
  • But few have gone beyond recounting dramatic episodes taken almost exclusively from the first wave of plague to compare levels of violence before and after the Black Death, and few have hinted at differences in reactions between the Black Death of 1348 and its subsequent strikes in the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries. (academicroom.com)
  • In Florence, Genoa, Venice, and most of northern Italy, expenditures on warfare increased exponentially after the Black Death to the fifteenth century, as shown by the soaring of state indebtedness. (academicroom.com)
  • book
  • Since this blog is, in part, a research tool, this post is a collection of notes taken specifically on the plague, though the book covers a much wider program. (wordpress.com)
  • The biblical book of I Samuel records what may be the oldest reference to bubonic plague. (sc-ems.com)
  • mortality
  • northern France hardly mentioned the plague,' others following Huizinga's lead have argued that society became more violent precisely because of the plague, that the mass mortality cheapened life and thus increased warfare, crime, popular revolt, waves of flagellants, and persecutions against the Jews. (academicroom.com)
  • Mortality from endemic plague continues at low rates throughout the world despite the availability of effective antibiotics. (sc-ems.com)
  • Black Death
  • But few have gone beyond recounting dramatic episodes taken almost exclusively from the first wave of plague to compare levels of violence before and after the Black Death, and few have hinted at differences in reactions between the Black Death of 1348 and its subsequent strikes in the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries. (academicroom.com)
  • In Florence, Genoa, Venice, and most of northern Italy, expenditures on warfare increased exponentially after the Black Death to the fifteenth century, as shown by the soaring of state indebtedness. (academicroom.com)