• pathogens
  • Operation Cherry Blossoms at Night was a 1945 plan developed by Shirō Ishii to wage biological warfare upon civilian population centers in Southern California in the United States during the final months of World War II, using pathogens created by members of Ishii's Unit 731. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the late 1960s, according to George Christopher and co-authors at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, the "U.S. military had developed a biological arsenal that included numerous bacterial pathogens, toxins, and fungal plant pathogens that could be directed against crops to induce crop failure and famine. (whyfiles.org)
  • Gen. Kawaashima Kiyochi boasted that Ping Fan could produce 300 kg of plague monthly in addition to other pathogens. (wordpress.com)
  • This terrible disease, if untreated, kills nearly every infected person (a very high mortality rate, even compared with the Bubonic plague and most other pathogens). (sdadefend.org)
  • By the late 1950s, the U.S. was building factories capable of producing enough pathogens and biological toxins to fight wars. (sdadefend.org)
  • fleas
  • I understood that the mission was to spread contaminated fleas in the enemy's base and contaminate them with plague. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using airdropped wheat, corn, scraps of cotton cloth and sand infested with plague infected fleas, an outbreak was started that resulted in a hundred deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 1945-planned kamikaze attack on San Diego with I-400-class submarine aircraft carriers that would deploy Aichi M6As floatplanes and drop fleas infected with bubonic plague was code-named Operation Cherry Blossoms at Night. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1763
  • Two instances of documents discussing the use of biological disease by the British against North American Indians during Pontiac's Rebellion (1763-66) have been examined by historians, but the actual effectiveness is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • weapon
  • Entomological (insect) warfare is also considered a type of biological weapon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the 20th century, the use of biological agents took three major forms: Deliberate contamination of food and water with poisonous or contagious material Use of microbes, biological toxins, animals, or plants (living or dead) in a weapon system Use of biologically inoculated fabrics and persons In the 20th century, sophisticated bacteriological and virological techniques allowed the production of significant stockpiles of weaponized bio-agents: Bacterial agents: Anthrax, Brucella, Tularemia, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological Weapon? (eaec.org)
  • walls
  • The Tartars had the idea of infecting the enemy by catapulting bodies infected with bubonic plague over the walls of the city of Kaffa. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • In 1346, the bodies of Mongol warriors of the Golden Horde who had died of plague were thrown over the walls of the besieged Crimean city of Kaffa. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the Black Death, the bubonic plague, decimated Europe's population in the fourteenth century, attacking armies flung excrement and bits of diseased corpses over castle walls. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 1422, during the siege of Karlstein Castle in Bohemia, Hussite attackers used catapults to throw dead (but not plague-infected) bodies and 2000 carriage-loads of dung over the walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • The last known incident of using plague corpses for biological warfare occurred in 1710, when Russian forces attacked the Swedes by flinging plague-infected corpses over the city walls of Reval (Tallinn). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ningbo
  • An American missionary Archie Crouch reported seeing Japanese planes drop odd bombs that spread what looked like wheat over the city of Ningbo and plague erupted just days later. (wordpress.com)
  • Imperial Japa
  • Airmen of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service were not included as war criminals because there was no positive or specific customary international humanitarian law that prohibited the unlawful conduct of aerial warfare either before or during World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defense
  • The Department of Defense requested $10 million from Congress to develop a synthetic biological agent for which no natural immunity existed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Passive antibody administration (immediate immunity) as a specific defense against biological weapons. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This article proposes a biological defense initiative based on developing, producing, and stockpiling specific antibody reagents that can be used to protect the population against biological warfare threats. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Defense strategies against biological weapons include such measures as enhanced epidemiologic surveillance, vaccination, and use of antimicrobial agents, with the important caveat that the final line of defense is the immune system of the exposed individual. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In 1956, the Soviet defense minister, Georgi Zhukov, told a Communist Party Congress that any modern war would certainly include the use of biological weapons (Sidell et al. (sdadefend.org)
  • Dasey, C. F. "Medical benefits of the biological defense research program. (asm.org)
  • CONTENTS Page Public Health And The Doctor In Civil Defense 2 The Public Health Nurse's Contribution To The Mental Health Of A Community 6 PUBLIC HEALTH AND THE DOCTOR IN CIVIL DEFENSE By C. B. KENDALL, M.D., State Board of Health, Raleigh, N. C. If we have not already done so, it is warfare. (ncdcr.gov)
  • diseases
  • We extracted some "highlights" from "Biological Warfare: A Historical Perspective," (see the bibliography ), written by experts from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. (whyfiles.org)
  • 1925
  • Use of biological weapons was outlawed by the Geneva Protocol of 1925, but barely a decade later reports that the Japanese Imperial Army was employing such weapons against Chinese soldiers and civilians begin to filter out of Asia to Great Britain and the United States. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • bodies
  • In 1346, during the siege of Kafa (now Feodossia, Crimea) the attacking Tartar Forces which were subjugated by the Mongol empire under Genghis Khan, used the bodies of Mongol warriors of the Golden Horde who had died of plague, as weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • agents
  • The use of biological agents in armed conflict is a war crime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prisoners are deliberately infected with several biological agents, and at least 10,000 die . (whyfiles.org)
  • U.S. surreptitiously tests dispersal of non-pathogenic agents (as stand-ins for biological weapons) in New York City, San Francisco and elsewhere. (whyfiles.org)
  • Senate hearings on Health and Scientific Research confirmed that 239 populated areas had been contaminated with biological agents between 1949 and 1969. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This has included the use of biological agents (microbes and plants) as well as the biotoxins, including venoms, derived from them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, biological agents are potential weapons only against populations with a substantial proportion of susceptible persons. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Drugs can provide protection when administered after exposure to certain agents, but none are available against many potential agents of biological warfare. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Shortly afterward, an American U-2 spy plan, flying high over a desolate island in the Aral Sea, photographed dense clusters of buildings and odd geometric grids which CIA agents recognized as belonging to a biological weapons base (Mayday: Eisenhower, Khrushchev and the U-2 Affair, p. 121). (sdadefend.org)
  • California
  • This operation, codenamed "Cherry Blossoms at Night", called for the use of airplanes to spread plague over Southern California at night. (wikipedia.org)
  • civilian
  • The rationale behind this treaty, which has been ratified or acceded to by 170 countries as of April 2013, is to prevent a biological attack which could conceivably result in large numbers of civilian casualties and cause severe disruption to economic and societal infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Japanese
  • The modern history of Biological Warfare (BW) starts in 1918 with the Japanese formation of a special section of the Army (Unit 731) dedicated to BW. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • A 1941 attack on Changteh kills at least 1,700 Japanese troops, demonstrating that biological weapons are tricky to use. (whyfiles.org)
  • My primary interest is in Japanese research and use of plague in their biological warfare program. (wordpress.com)
  • Lt. Gen. Shiro Ishii was the primary organizer, promoter, and director of the Japanese biological warfare (BW) program. (wordpress.com)
  • p. 98) With both sides attempting biological warfare and with the level of technology at the time, it is unlikely that it will be possible to unravel the outcome of either the Japanese or Soviet efforts. (wordpress.com)
  • In military campaigns, the Japanese army used biological weapons on Chinese soldiers and civilians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent additional firsthand accounts testify the Japanese infected civilians through the distribution of plague-infested foodstuffs, such as dumplings and vegetables. (wikipedia.org)
  • Japanese scientists from Unit 731 provided research information for the United States biological weapons program in order to escape war crimes charges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Japanese biological warfare information provided to U.S. authorities after World War II remained a secret and was eventually returned to Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Japanese were also unable to defeat the Chinese communist forces in Shaanxi, which waged a campaign of sabotage and guerrilla warfare against the invaders. (wikipedia.org)
  • armies
  • During an attack on Kaffa (now Feodossia, Ukraine), Tatar armies catapult comrades who died of bubonic plague into the city. (whyfiles.org)
  • The armies, composed of the most rapidly moving travelers who had ever moved between the steppes of East Asia (where bubonic plague was and remains endemic among small rodents), managed to keep the chain of infection without a break until they reached, and infected, peoples and rodents who had never encountered it. (wikipedia.org)
  • city
  • In an experiment to determine how susceptible an American city would be to a biological attack, the U.S. Navy ships sprayed a cloud of bacteria over San Francisco. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1931
  • In 1931 Manuilsky of the Lenin School of Political Warfare explicitly an-nounced the poUcy of subversive in-filtration, lulling the bourgeois into a sense of security with concessions and peaceful gestures, and annihUatuig him when properly softened-this entire process requiring perhaps 20 to 30 years. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Geneva Convention
  • Japan did not sign the 1929 Geneva Convention on the Prisoners of War (except the 1929 Geneva Convention on the Sick and Wounded), though in 1942, it did promise to abide by its terms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike
  • Unlike the malignant twists of nature, ranging from bubonic plague through to potato blight, which have killed masses throughout the ages, both the beef and pituitary hormone CJD crises were manmade. (bibliotecapleyades.net)