• 1989
  • The Soviet Union did not officially admit the existence of these protocols until, under pressure from the Baltic SSRs, on December 24, 1989, the Congress of the USSR People's Deputies officially recognized the secret deals and condemned them as illegal and invalid from their inception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other scholars date the Soviet occupation till 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 1989, Sąjūdis, not afraid of angering Moscow and causing a violent clampdown, continuously pushed further with its demands: from limited discussions on Gorbachev's reforms, to demand of greater say in economic decisions, to political autonomy within the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of the secret protocol was denied by the Soviet government until 1989, when it was finally acknowledged and denounced. (wikipedia.org)
  • troops
  • Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov accused Latvia and the other Baltic states of forming a military conspiracy against the Soviet Union, and so Moscow presented ultimatums, demanding new concessions, which included the replacement of governments with new ones, "determined" to "fulfill" the treaties of friendship "sincerely" and allowing an unlimited number of troops to enter the three countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then there were people who changed their support when the Soviets started arresting and deporting people, many more when the Nazi soldiers started killing Latvians, and others when the Soviet troops returned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soviet Union demanded to allow an unlimited number of Soviet troops to enter the state territory and to form a more pro-Soviet government. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Soviet troops allocated for possible military actions against the Baltic states numbered 435,000 troops, around 8,000 guns and mortars, over 3,000 tanks, and over 500 armoured cars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The district troops closely cooperated with the Baltic Fleet. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, these acts were committed upon the orders of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in pursuance of the early Soviet Government's policy of Red Terror, in other instances they were committed without orders by Soviet troops against prisoners of war or civilians of countries that had been in armed conflict with the USSR, or they were committed during partisan warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an internal security force and a prison guard contingent of the Gulag, the Internal Troops repressed political dissidents and engaged in war crimes during periods of military hostilities throughout Soviet history. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of refusal, the USSR effected an air and naval blockade and threatened to attack immediately with hundreds of thousands of troops massed upon the border. (wikipedia.org)
  • sphere of influe
  • By spring 2015, with a Russian-backed proxy army in possession of much of Ukraine's eastern Donbas region and relations between Moscow and the West at a post-Cold War low, the Baltic republics felt a growing sense of vulnerability and a perception that they might be next on Russian President Vladimir Putin's grand agenda to reclaim a Russian sphere of influence over the so-called post-Soviet space. (h-net.org)
  • authorities
  • Following invasion by the Red Army in the summer of 1940, Soviet authorities compelled the Baltic governments to resign. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the Soviet authorities the elimination of opposition and the transformation of the economics went hand in hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 1949, the top Soviet authorities organised a mass deportation of 90,000 Baltic nationals, whom they labelled as enemies of the people, to inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efforts were made by Soviet authorities to contain anti-Jewish bigotry notably during the Russian civil war, whenever the Red Army units perpetrated pogroms, as well as during the Soviet-Polish War of 1919-1920 at Baranovichi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Soviet authorities fighting the forest brothers also suffered hundreds of deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the occupation, the Soviet authorities killed, politically arrested, unlawfully drafted, and deported hundreds of thousands of people. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Soviet authorities undertook Sovietization policies: nationalization of all private property, collectivization of agriculture, suppression of the Catholic Church, and imposition of totalitarian control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latvian
  • The newly elected People's Parliament convened on 21 July to declare the creation of the Latvian SSR and request admission to the Soviet Union on the same day. (wikipedia.org)
  • On August 5, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union completed the process of annexation by accepting the Latvian petition, and formally incorporated Latvia into the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • On August 22, 1996, the Latvian parliament adopted a declaration which stated that the Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940 was a military occupation and an illegal incorporation. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the next day Adolf Hitler received the Estonian and Latvian envoys, and in course of this interviews stressed maintaining and strengthening commercial links between Germany and Baltic states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Latvian resistance movement was divided between the pro-independence units under the Latvian Central Council and the pro-Soviet forces under the Central Staff of the Partisan Movement in Moscow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emblem of the Latvian SSR was adopted on August 25, 1940 by the government of the Latvian SSR. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name of the Latvian SSR is shown only in Latvian, and reads Latvijas PSR, the PSR standing for Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika, or Soviet Socialist Republic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the upheavals of this period, the population of Latvia increased only 10 percent, from 1,905,000 at the time of the 1935 Latvian census to 2,093,000 in 1959 when the Soviet Union's first post-war census, which included Latvia, was conducted. (migrationpolicy.org)
  • The Latvian population decreased by 169,000 as a result of forced deportations, the voluntary outflow of Latvians to other parts of the Soviet Union, and low levels of natural increase. (migrationpolicy.org)
  • Under the auspices of the Latvian Commission of Historians, resear-chers in Latvia have initiated successful co-operation with colleagues in the United States, Israel, Germany, Sweden and other countries, thereby proving that they are an active part of the international scientific dia-logue. (mfa.gov.lv)
  • dissolution
  • Soviet rule came to the end during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the USSR was a highly centralised entity from its creation in 1922 until the mid-1980s when political forces unleashed by reforms undertaken by Mikhail Gorbachev resulted in the loosening of central control and its ultimate dissolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a universal state succession is the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relying on purely nonviolent means, independence leaders and nationalist activists broke Moscow's nearly half-century old grip on their countries, almost bloodlessly regaining their independence while touching off a chain reaction that ended in the final dissolution of the Soviet Empire. (h-net.org)
  • dissolution of the USSR. (wikitravel.org)
  • occupation
  • Anyone not racially acceptable or who opposed the German occupation, as well as those who had cooperated with the Soviet Union, were killed or sent to concentration camps in accordance with the Nazi Generalplan Ost plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance in Latvia was very confusing, it included people resisting the Soviet occupation who were happy to work with the German forces, Soviet supporters resisting the German occupation, Nationalists resisting everyone who was occupying or trying to occupy Latvia. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, de facto interruption of statehood due to foreign occupation for a period of fifty years did indeed occur, giving a place to the legal principle of ex factis jus oritur, as well as irrevocable territory and demographic changes that make the Baltic case much more complex than mere restitutio in integrum (a restoration of-in this case-territorial integrity). (wikipedia.org)
  • By June 18, military operations of the occupation of the Baltic States were complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was after the Soviet occupation of the Baltic States but before they were forcibly legally absorbed into the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • army
  • All Soviet army personnel present in the country were allowed to vote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anticipating return of the Soviet terror, some 70,000[citation needed] Lithuanians retreated into Germany ahead of the advancing Red Army. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Estonians had no choice but to allow the establishment of Soviet naval, air and army bases on two Estonian islands and at the port of Paldiski. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paldiski , a deserted Soviet army base that was once off-limits to Estonians themselves, can easily be visited on a day trip from the capital, Tallinn. (wikitravel.org)
  • invasion
  • There shall be recognized as an aggressor that State which shall be the first to have committed one of the following actions: Relevant chapters: Second - invasion by armed forces of the territory of another State even without a declaration of war. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further repressions were prevented by Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Baltic Military District (Russian: Прибалтийский военный округ (ПрибВО)) was a military district of the Soviet armed forces in the occupied Baltic states, formed briefly before the German invasion during the World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, by 22 June, when Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, began, the district's newly formed units were not completely manned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite assurances of unwavering support from President Barack Obama and other Western politicians, leaders in all three Baltic republics contemplate seriously the likelihood of either a direct Russian invasion or a "hybrid" scenario, similar to that which unfolded in Crimea and eastern Ukraine. (h-net.org)
  • Advertised concern about ethnic Ukrainians and Belarusians had been proffered as justification for the Soviet invasion of Poland. (wikipedia.org)
  • sovereign
  • They have also argued that in accordance to the internal Soviet laws and constitution, restoration of independence was illegal and the Baltic republics could only become newly created sovereign entities via the secession laws of the USSR. (wikipedia.org)
  • On one hand, legal recognition of Baltic incorporation on the part of other sovereign nations outside the Soviet bloc was largely withheld based on the fundamental legal principle of ex injuria jus non oritur, since the annexation of the Baltic states was held to be illegal. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second option considers that the inhabitants in question acquire the nationality of the successor state only by an express or tacit submission to the new sovereign. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charles Hyde wrote: Whenever a State acquires from another part of its territory, the inhabitants of the area transferred, who were nationals of the former sovereign, are, in the absence of an agreement collectively naturalized. (wikipedia.org)
  • incorporation
  • The Russian government and its state officials insist that incorporation of the Baltic states was in accordance with international law and gained de jure recognition by the agreements made in the Yalta and Potsdam conferences and by the Helsinki Accords, whereas the Accords only committed existing frontiers would not be violated. (wikipedia.org)
  • perestroika
  • As Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to revive the economy of the Soviet Union, he introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring). (wikipedia.org)
  • Combining perestroika ("restructuring") of the economy-including a greater emphasis on free-market policies-and glasnost ("openness") in diplomacy, he greatly improved Soviet relations with Western democracies, particularly the United States. (history.com)
  • Lithuanian
  • The Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia, in the winter of 1919 The Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed in 1919 but fell very soon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spending the first post-war years as displaced persons, they eventually settled in other countries, most often United States, forming culturally active Lithuanian diaspora. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the soviet Lithuanian dissidents, and activists, it was a golden opportunity not to be missed, to bring their movements from underground into the public life. (wikipedia.org)
  • borders
  • Ulmanis government decided that, in conditions of international isolation and the overwhelming Soviet force both on the borders and inside the country, it was better to avoid bloodshed and an unwinnable war. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the overwhelming Soviet force both on the borders and inside the country, the order was given not to resist in order to avoid bloodshed and open war. (wikipedia.org)
  • The district was created in order to strengthen the defense of the northwestern borders of the Soviet Union and to protect the approaches to Moscow and Leningrad from German-controlled East Prussia. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the war, the Soviets established new borders for the Baltic republics. (wikipedia.org)
  • A successor state often acquires a new international legal personality, which is distinct from a continuing state, also known as a continuator, which despite change to its borders retains the same legal personality and possess all its existing rights and obligations (such as a rump state). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fleet
  • According to the district's plan, the 8th, 11th, and 27th Armies were to cooperate with the Baltic Fleet in defending the coast from Haapsalu to Palanga, focusing on the defense of the 300-kilometer border with East Prussia. (wikipedia.org)
  • forcibly
  • At least 130,000 people, 70% of them women and children, were forcibly transported to labor camps and other forced settlements in remote parts of the Soviet Union, particularly in the Irkutsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gorbachev
  • As time went by, an ever-greater chasm developed between the initial thrust of the Popular Front, leading members of which at first advocated mere autonomy within a Soviet system that Gorbachev was trying to reform in a cautious way, and the eventual context of the Estonian Popular Front, which came to stand for true independence, an idea supported by the rank and file. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gorbachev's political agenda went for great and deep changes within the Soviet government, as such, Gorbachev invited the soviet public into open and public discussions unseen before. (wikipedia.org)
  • But Gorbachev found comfort in his view of the gains achieved here since 1940. (latimes.com)
  • Meanwhile, though, within the USSR, Gorbachev faced powerful critics, including conservative, hard-line politicians and military officials who thought he was driving the Soviet Union toward its downfall and making it a second-rate power. (history.com)
  • Claiming Gorbachev was ill, the coup leaders, headed by former vice president Gennady Yanayev, declared a state of emergency and attempted to take control of the government. (history.com)
  • Tallinn
  • Two Soviet bombers downed a Finnish passenger airplane "Kaleva" flying from Tallinn to Helsinki carrying three diplomatic pouches from the U.S. legations in Tallinn, Riga and Helsinki. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red banners with admonitory slogans that are so common elsewhere in the Soviet Union are conspicuous by their absence in Tallinn. (latimes.com)
  • In Tallinn and Riga, many new apartments are in such poor condition that, as in other parts of the Soviet Union, instant renovation is needed before they can be occupied. (latimes.com)
  • Poland
  • Poland was to be partitioned in the event of its "political rearrangement"-the areas east of the Narev, Vistula and San Rivers going to the Soviet Union while Germany would occupy the west. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poland was the first country to be occupied by the Soviet Union during the World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Soviet Union invaded eastern Poland on 17 September. (wikipedia.org)
  • An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. (indexmundi.com)
  • 1988
  • Encouraged by the non arrests, by mid-1988, a group of 35 intellectuals organized the Sąjūdis Reform Movement with the original goal of supporting, discussing, and implementing Gorbachev's reforms yet short of openly supporting independence from the USSR. (wikipedia.org)