Loading...
  • 1989
  • The Soviet Union did not officially admit the existence of these protocols until, under pressure from the Baltic SSRs, on December 24, 1989, the Congress of the USSR People's Deputies officially recognized the secret deals and condemned them as illegal and invalid from their inception. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other scholars date the Soviet occupation till 1989. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 1989, Sąjūdis, not afraid of angering Moscow and causing a violent clampdown, continuously pushed further with its demands: from limited discussions on Gorbachev's reforms, to demand of greater say in economic decisions, to political autonomy within the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of the secret protocol was denied by the Soviet government until 1989, when it was finally acknowledged and denounced. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989 Kirghizia had the third-highest rate of reported abortions (86 percent of women reporting at least one abortion) of the Soviet republics, with Russia and the Ukraine first and second. (encyclopedia.com)
  • troops
  • Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov accused Latvia and the other Baltic states of forming a military conspiracy against the Soviet Union, and so Moscow presented ultimatums, demanding new concessions, which included the replacement of governments with new ones, "determined" to "fulfill" the treaties of friendship "sincerely" and allowing an unlimited number of troops to enter the three countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then there were people who changed their support when the Soviets started arresting and deporting people, many more when the Nazi soldiers started killing Latvians, and others when the Soviet troops returned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soviet Union demanded to allow an unlimited number of Soviet troops to enter the state territory and to form a more pro-Soviet government. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Soviet troops allocated for possible military actions against the Baltic states numbered 435,000 troops, around 8,000 guns and mortars, over 3,000 tanks, and over 500 armoured cars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The district troops closely cooperated with the Baltic Fleet. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of refusal, the USSR effected an air and naval blockade and threatened to attack immediately with hundreds of thousands of troops massed upon the border. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, these acts were committed upon the orders of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in pursuance of the early Soviet Government's policy of Red Terror, in other instances they were committed without orders by Soviet troops against prisoners of war or civilians of countries that had been in armed conflict with the USSR, or they were committed during partisan warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an internal security force and a prison guard contingent of the Gulag, the Internal Troops repressed political dissidents and engaged in war crimes during periods of military hostilities throughout Soviet history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, Moscow demanded that the Baltic states allow the establishment of Soviet military bases and the stationing of troops on their soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Born: Rudi Dutschke, spokesperson of the German student movement, in Schönefeld, Germany Soviet troops pushed into the suburbs of Viipuri while Moscow rejected a Finnish plea for an immediate ceasefire. (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant number of these incidents occurred in Northern and Eastern Europe before, during and in the aftermath of World War II , involving summary executions and mass murder of prisoners of war - such as at the Katyn massacre - and grievous mass mistreatment of defenceless civilians by the troops of the Red Army in Soviet-occupied territories . (infogalactic.com)
  • treaty
  • Latvia was next in line, as the USSR demanded the signing of a similar treaty. (wikipedia.org)
  • On February 5, 1932, a Non-Aggression Treaty with the Soviet Union was signed, based on the August 11, 1920 treaty whose basic agreements inalterably and for all time form the firm basis of the relationship of the two states. (wikipedia.org)
  • A special case arises, however, when the predecessor state was signatory to a human rights treaty, since it would be desirable to hold the successor state accountable to the terms of that treaty, regardless of the successor state's desires. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Moscow Peace Treaty concluded the 105-day Winter War on 13 March 1940 and started the Interim Peace. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the terms of the treaty, Finland ceded 11 per cent of its national territory and 13 percent of its economic capacity to the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relations between Finland and the Soviet Union remained strained after the signing of the one-sided peace treaty, and there were disputes regarding the implementation of the treaty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Latvian
  • The newly elected People's Parliament convened on 21 July to declare the creation of the Latvian SSR and request admission to the Soviet Union on the same day. (wikipedia.org)
  • On August 5, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union completed the process of annexation by accepting the Latvian petition, and formally incorporated Latvia into the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • On August 22, 1996, the Latvian parliament adopted a declaration which stated that the Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940 was a military occupation and an illegal incorporation. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the next day Adolf Hitler received the Estonian and Latvian envoys, and in course of this interviews stressed maintaining and strengthening commercial links between Germany and Baltic states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Latvian resistance movement was divided between the pro-independence units under the Latvian Central Council and the pro-Soviet forces under the Central Staff of the Partisan Movement in Moscow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emblem of the Latvian SSR was adopted on August 25, 1940 by the government of the Latvian SSR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the upheavals of this period, the population of Latvia increased only 10 percent, from 1,905,000 at the time of the 1935 Latvian census to 2,093,000 in 1959 when the Soviet Union's first post-war census, which included Latvia, was conducted. (migrationpolicy.org)
  • The Latvian population decreased by 169,000 as a result of forced deportations, the voluntary outflow of Latvians to other parts of the Soviet Union, and low levels of natural increase. (migrationpolicy.org)
  • dissolution
  • Soviet rule came to the end during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the USSR was a highly centralised entity from its creation in 1922 until the mid-1980s when political forces unleashed by reforms undertaken by Mikhail Gorbachev resulted in the loosening of central control and its ultimate dissolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a universal state succession is the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relying on purely nonviolent means, independence leaders and nationalist activists broke Moscow's nearly half-century old grip on their countries, almost bloodlessly regaining their independence while touching off a chain reaction that ended in the final dissolution of the Soviet Empire. (h-net.org)
  • dissolution of the USSR. (wikitravel.org)
  • treaties
  • This continuity of the Baltic states with their first period of independence has been used to re-adopt pre-World War II laws, constitutions, and treaties and to formulate new policies, including in the areas of citizenship and language. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an attempt to codify the rules of succession of states, the Vienna Convention on Succession of States in respect of Treaties was drafted in 1978. (wikipedia.org)
  • army
  • All Soviet army personnel present in the country were allowed to vote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anticipating return of the Soviet terror, some 70,000[citation needed] Lithuanians retreated into Germany ahead of the advancing Red Army. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Estonians had no choice but to allow the establishment of Soviet naval, air and army bases on two Estonian islands and at the port of Paldiski. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paldiski , a deserted Soviet army base that was once off-limits to Estonians themselves, can easily be visited on a day trip from the capital, Tallinn. (wikitravel.org)
  • By spring 2015, with a Russian-backed proxy army in possession of much of Ukraine's eastern Donbas region and relations between Moscow and the West at a post-Cold War low, the Baltic republics felt a growing sense of vulnerability and a perception that they might be next on Russian President Vladimir Putin's grand agenda to reclaim a Russian sphere of influence over the so-called post-Soviet space. (h-net.org)
  • Although there are numerous documented cases of such incidents, few members of the Red Army or leaders such as Vassili Kononov , Lavrentiy Beria , were charged with war crimes, and none of them by the International Criminal Court or a Soviet tribunal. (infogalactic.com)
  • invasion
  • There shall be recognized as an aggressor that State which shall be the first to have committed one of the following actions: Relevant chapters: Second - invasion by armed forces of the territory of another State even without a declaration of war. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further repressions were prevented by Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Baltic Military District (Russian: Прибалтийский военный округ (ПрибВО)) was a military district of the Soviet armed forces in the occupied Baltic states, formed briefly before the German invasion during the World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, by 22 June, when Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, began, the district's newly formed units were not completely manned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite assurances of unwavering support from President Barack Obama and other Western politicians, leaders in all three Baltic republics contemplate seriously the likelihood of either a direct Russian invasion or a "hybrid" scenario, similar to that which unfolded in Crimea and eastern Ukraine. (h-net.org)
  • Advertised concern about ethnic Ukrainians and Belarusians had been proffered as justification for the Soviet invasion of Poland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lithuanian
  • Spending the first post-war years as displaced persons, they eventually settled in other countries, most often United States, forming culturally active Lithuanian diaspora. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the soviet Lithuanian dissidents, and activists, it was a golden opportunity not to be missed, to bring their movements from underground into the public life. (wikipedia.org)
  • borders
  • Ulmanis government decided that, in conditions of international isolation and the overwhelming Soviet force both on the borders and inside the country, it was better to avoid bloodshed and an unwinnable war. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the overwhelming Soviet force both on the borders and inside the country, the order was given not to resist in order to avoid bloodshed and open war. (wikipedia.org)
  • The district was created in order to strengthen the defense of the northwestern borders of the Soviet Union and to protect the approaches to Moscow and Leningrad from German-controlled East Prussia. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the war, the Soviets established new borders for the Baltic republics. (wikipedia.org)
  • A successor state often acquires a new international legal personality, which is distinct from a continuing state, also known as a continuator, which despite change to its borders retains the same legal personality and possess all its existing rights and obligations (such as a rump state). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fleet
  • According to the district's plan, the 8th, 11th, and 27th Armies were to cooperate with the Baltic Fleet in defending the coast from Haapsalu to Palanga, focusing on the defense of the 300-kilometer border with East Prussia. (wikipedia.org)
  • forcibly
  • At least 130,000 people, 70% of them women and children, were forcibly transported to labor camps and other forced settlements in remote parts of the Soviet Union, particularly in the Irkutsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was after the Soviet occupation of the Baltic States but before they were forcibly legally absorbed into the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nazi
  • Anyone not racially acceptable or who opposed the German occupation, as well as those who had cooperated with the Soviet Union, were killed or sent to concentration camps in accordance with the Nazi Generalplan Ost plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Soviet refusal to recognize the Hague Conventions also gave Nazi Germany the rationale for its inhuman treatment of captured Soviet military personnel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tallinn
  • Two Soviet bombers downed a Finnish passenger airplane "Kaleva" flying from Tallinn to Helsinki carrying three diplomatic pouches from the U.S. legations in Tallinn, Riga and Helsinki. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red banners with admonitory slogans that are so common elsewhere in the Soviet Union are conspicuous by their absence in Tallinn. (latimes.com)
  • In Tallinn and Riga, many new apartments are in such poor condition that, as in other parts of the Soviet Union, instant renovation is needed before they can be occupied. (latimes.com)
  • sovereign
  • A second option considers that the inhabitants in question acquire the nationality of the successor state only by an express or tacit submission to the new sovereign. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charles Hyde wrote: Whenever a State acquires from another part of its territory, the inhabitants of the area transferred, who were nationals of the former sovereign, are, in the absence of an agreement collectively naturalized. (wikipedia.org)
  • naval blockade
  • Fourth - a naval blockade of coasts or ports of another State. (wikipedia.org)
  • 120 Soviet vessels participated in the naval blockade, including one cruiser, seven destroyers, and seventeen submarines, along with 219 airplanes including the 8th air-brigade with 84 DB-3 and Tupolev SB bombers and the 10th brigade with 62 airplanes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethnic
  • However, the Soviets also imported ethnic Russians to fill political, administrative and managerial posts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treisman admits that using such a description is "disconcerting-indeed shocking" to consider the loss of "only" sixty-three thousand lives in ethnic fighting across the Caucasus region and Central Asia as remarkably peaceful but considering that the Soviet Union was a "minefield of potential conflicts," the outcome could have been "much, much worse. (h-net.org)
  • This is not purely exclusive of genocide, since there are cases, as in the Soviet deportation and murder of ethnic Germans during World War II, that are both genocide and politicide. (hawaii.edu)
  • occupation
  • Resistance in Latvia was very confusing, it included people resisting the Soviet occupation who were happy to work with the German forces, Soviet supporters resisting the German occupation, Nationalists resisting everyone who was occupying or trying to occupy Latvia. (wikipedia.org)
  • By June 18, military operations of the occupation of the Baltic States were complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finnish
  • I refer to one of the more extreme cases that Dullin describes, p. 256-7, a good one for the animal history people: the Soviet effort to end reindeer migrations across the Finnish border in the far north). (booksandideas.net)
  • The joint German-Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish-Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are considered part of the Eastern Front. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germans
  • The Mereküla Landing Operation of the special unit of the Soviet Baltic Sea Fleet in the rear of the Germans at the Narva front at Mereküla is resisted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially the Germans were perceived by most Estonians as liberators from the USSR and its repressions, having arrived only a week after the first mass deportations from the Baltics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the northernmost areas of the Baltic states were the last to be reached by the Germans, it was here that the Soviet destruction battalions had their most extreme effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was postponed until after the war when the Germans invaded the USSR on June 22, 1941 - Operation Barbarossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • regimes
  • The new cabinets at first denied any intention of setting up Soviet regimes, not to mention incorporation into the Soviet Union, instead claiming only to remove "fascist" politicians from office. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tartu
  • In the meanwhile, the Soviets had been murdering citizens held in Tartu Prison, killing 192 before the Estonians captured the city. (wikipedia.org)
  • deportations
  • Population transfer in the Soviet Union may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories. (wikipedia.org)
  • This includes deportations to the Soviet Union of non-Soviet citizens from countries outside the USSR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly before, during and immediately after World War II, Stalin conducted a series of deportations on a huge scale which profoundly affected the ethnic map of the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arrests and deportations began slowly, partly because of the language problems, not enough Soviet officials capable of reading the local language documents. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to historian Robert Conquest, the selective deportations from the Baltic States represented the policy of "decapitation" of the nation by removing its political and social elite, "as was later evidently to be the motive for the Katyn massacre. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polish
  • After the partitions of Poland in 1795 and the destruction of Poland as a sovereign state, Polish Jews were subject to the laws of the partitioning powers, the increasingly antisemitic Russian Empire, as well as Austria-Hungary and Kingdom of Prussia (later a part of the German Empire). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the postwar period, many of the approximately 200,000 Jewish survivors registered at Central Committee of Polish Jews or CKŻP (of whom 136,000 arrived from the Soviet Union) left the People's Republic of Poland for the nascent State of Israel and North or South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of them, a diplomat and merchant from the Moorish town of Tortosa in Spanish Al-Andalus, known under his Arabic name of Ibrahim ibn Jakub, was the first chronicler to mention the Polish state under the rule of prince Mieszko I. In the summer of 965 or 966 Jacob made a trade and diplomatic journey from his native Toledo in Moslem Spain to the Holy Roman Empire and Slavonic countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the Occupation of East Poland by the Soviet Union, the Soviets liquidated the Polish state, and a German-Soviet meeting addressed the future structure of the "Polish region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soviet authorities collectivized agriculture, and nationalized and redistributed private and state-owned Polish property. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polish: Andrzej Wyszyński) (10 December [O.S. 28 November] 1883 - 22 November 1954) was a Soviet politician, jurist and diplomat. (wikipedia.org)
  • perestroika
  • Combining perestroika ("restructuring") of the economy-including a greater emphasis on free-market policies-and glasnost ("openness") in diplomacy, he greatly improved Soviet relations with Western democracies, particularly the United States. (history.com)
  • regime
  • The communist regime targeted religions based on State interests, and while most organized religions were never outlawed, religious property was confiscated, believers were harassed, and religion was ridiculed while atheism was propagated in schools. (wikipedia.org)
  • The total number of Christian victims under the Soviet regime has been estimated to range between 12-20 million. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Soviet regime had an ostensible commitment to the complete annihilation of religious institutions and ideas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marxist-Leninist
  • In his Theory of Judicial Proofs in Soviet Justice (Stalin Prize in 1947) he laid a theoreticial base for the Soviet judicial system, based on Marxist-Leninist principles, giving it a strong bias towards dialectical and collectivist thinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1932
  • The reported number of kulaks and their relatives who had died in labour colonies from 1932 to 1940 was 389,521.It is estimated that 15 million kulaks and their families were deported by 1937, during the deportation many people died, but the full number is not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • spheres
  • Religious beliefs and practices persisted among the majority of the population, in the domestic and private spheres but also in the scattered public spaces allowed by a state that recognized its failure to eradicate religion and the political dangers of an unrelenting culture war. (wikipedia.org)
  • countries
  • minor and Violent Peasant Elites in the long Countries, C. Sarosh Kuruvilla, Ching Kwan Lee, Mary E. The pro-choice Welfare State in Three ways: From No. to Discipline, Ashgate, 2014. (anthonyflood.com)
  • Three years later, he procured a motorbike and set off on a trip around the Baltic Sea visiting 12 countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • In due course, the Soviet Union "accepted" all three petitions and formally annexed the three countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public tribunals were also set up to punish "traitors to the people": those who had fallen short of the "political duty" of voting their countries into the USSR. (wikipedia.org)
  • country's
  • Once in power, each country's Soviet-controlled communist party took permanent control of the administration, political organs, police, societal organizations and economic structures to ensure that no effective opposition could arise and to control socioeconomic and political life therein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soviet losses were heavy, and the country's international reputation suffered. (wikipedia.org)
  • citizens
  • It is the Soviet Union that runs against the tide of history by denying human freedom and human dignity to its citizens. (davekopel.org)
  • Non-citizens (Latvian: nepilsoņi) in Latvian law are individuals who are not citizens of Latvia or any other country but, who, in accordance with the Latvian law "Regarding the status of citizens of the former USSR who possess neither Latvian nor other citizenship", have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • and 3) they are not and have not been citizens of another state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Communist Party often rejected the principle of treating all religious believers as public enemies, partly due to pragmatic considerations (given the large number of people adhering to a faith) and also partly from the belief that the number of the believers included many loyal Soviet citizens whom the authorities ought to convince to become atheists rather than attack outright. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] As the founder of the Soviet state, V. I. Lenin, put it: Religion is the opium of the people: this saying of Marx is the cornerstone of the entire ideology of Marxism about religion. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to both Soviet and Western sources[citation needed],[which? (wikipedia.org)
  • Parliamentary
  • Parliamentary state secretaries, appointed by the president from among the deputies to the Bundestag, implement the ministers' policies in the parliament. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On July 14-15, 1940, rigged parliamentary elections for the "People's Parliaments" were conducted by local Communists loyal to the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lenin
  • One amongst many was the treatment of the state, written by Willie Paul some time before Lenin, which had a remarkably similar analysis. (me.uk)
  • During the revolution, he was entrusted by Lenin with the task of leading the Baltic armed forces that were to come to the aid of the Bolsheviks at the time of the uprising in Petrograd. (wsws.org)
  • However, since Marxist ideology as interpreted by Lenin and his successors regarded religion as an obstacle to the construction of a communist society, putting an end to all religion (and replacing it with atheism) became a fundamentally important ideological goal of the Soviet state. (wikipedia.org)
  • voyna
  • It has been known as the Great Patriotic War (Russian: Великая Отечественная Война, Velikaya Otechestvennaya Voyna) in the former Soviet Union, while in Germany it was called the Eastern Front (German: die Ostfront), the Eastern Campaign (der Ostfeldzug), the Russian Campaign (der Rußlandfeldzug), or the German-Soviet War by outside parties. (wikipedia.org)
  • officially
  • The state advocated the destruction of religion, and it officially pronounced religious beliefs to be superstitious and backward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soviet law never officially outlawed the holding of religious views, and the various Soviet Constitutions always guaranteed the right to believe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, however, did the Soviet state officially ever subject them to arrest, imprisonment or death simply for holding beliefs. (wikipedia.org)
  • to disseminate atheism, and the acts of violence and terror tactics deployed, while almost always officially invoked on the basis of perceived resistance to the state, aimed in the larger scheme not simply to dampen opposition, but to further assist in the suppression of religion in order to disseminate atheism. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1776 - The Continental Congress officially names its union of states the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1922
  • The Soviet Union was established by the Bolsheviks in 1922, in place of the Russian Empire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within about a year of the revolution, the state expropriated all church property, including the churches themselves, and in the period from 1922 to 1926, 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1,200 priests were killed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile
  • Meanwhile, though, within the USSR, Gorbachev faced powerful critics, including conservative, hard-line politicians and military officials who thought he was driving the Soviet Union toward its downfall and making it a second-rate power. (history.com)
  • thus
  • Thus the USSR became the first state to have as one objective of its official ideology the elimination of existing religion, and the prevention of future implanting of religious belief, with the goal of establishing state atheism (gosateizm). (wikipedia.org)
  • Germany
  • Germany invaded and occupied the Baltic states in 1941 a week after the first Soviet-conducted mass deportation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was to be achieved by the expansion of the territorial base of the German state itself, combined with the political and economic subjugation of the rest of Europe to Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contained a secret protocol aiming to return Central Europe to the pre-World War I status quo by dividing it between Germany and the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1950s
  • By the 1950s, during the preceding few decades the Soviet Union had rapidly evolved from a mainly agrarian society into a major industrial power. (wikipedia.org)
  • newly
  • Yeltsin capitalized on his defeat of the coup, emerging from the rubble of the former Soviet Union as the most powerful figure in Moscow and the leader of the newly formed Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). (history.com)