• 1922
  • Auckland Zoo opened in 1922 experiencing early difficulties mainly due to animal health issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1920s On the afternoon of Saturday 16 December 1922, the zoo was opened by the Governor-General of the time,Lord Jellicoe, with the mayor of Auckland James Gunson in attendance to a sizeable crowd. (wikipedia.org)
  • nurses
  • It proclaimed a "Children's Year" beginning April 6, 1918, to protect children from shortages of milk, food, and public health nurses during World War I. As part of this effort, volunteers weighed and measured millions of children, resulting in the publication of the nation's first age, height, and weight standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way the French government was able to monitor how many children were placed with wet nurses (eighty thousand a year between 1874 and World War I) and how many of those infants died (15.1 percent). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ubiquitous custom of wet-nursing did not wane in France until World War I. The war's tumult disrupted access to wet nurses and demonstrated to urban families, long reluctant to consider any alternative to maternal nursing other than wet-nursing, that safe, inexpensive, and easy artificial infant feeding options now existed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The goal was to promote the Zionist ideal through education, public health initiatives, and the training of nurses in what was then the Palestine region of the Ottoman Empire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its charter articulates twin goals: to begin public-health initiatives and nurses training in Palestine, and to foster Zionist ideals through education in America. (wikipedia.org)
  • women
  • However, her extensive work in improving maternal health benefited women across Canada and worldwide through her books that talked about new techniques such as sterilization of bottles, pasteurization, and handwashing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their proposal (with colleagues) to President Theodore Roosevelt in 1905 reflected the Progressive Era's generally heightened concern for social welfare issues, as well as the influence of the Settlement movement, of which both women were members. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wet-nursing was a particularly entrenched cultural phenomenon in France, where the wealthy sent their infants to the countryside to be suckled for several years by peasant women. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sen pointed to research that had shown that if men and women receive similar nutritional and medical attention and good health care then females have better survival rates, and it is the male which is the genetically fragile sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the health and wellbeing of women, the missing women phenomenon has led to an excess of males in society and an imperfectly balanced marriage market. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the association of missing women with female neglect, countries with higher rates of missing women also tend to have higher rates of women in poor health, leading to higher rates of infants in poor health. (wikipedia.org)
  • At a meeting at Temple Emanu-El in New York City on February 24, 1912, Henrietta Szold together with other Zionist women, proposed to the Daughters of Zion study circle that they expand their purpose and embrace proactive work to help meet the health needs of Palestine's people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many women choose home birth because delivering a baby in familiar surroundings is important to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study published in the Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, women were asked, Why did you choose a home birth? (wikipedia.org)
  • practices
  • The Better Farming Train was an agricultural demonstration train which toured Victoria, Australia in the 1920s and 1930s to promote better farming practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, for example, take tobacco: It took 50, 60 years of research before policy catches up with what the science is showing- Laura Anderko, professor at Georgetown University and director of the Mid-Atlantic Center for Children's Health and the Environment commenting on public health practices in response to proposal to ban chlorpyrifos pesticide. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a fine example of a district hospital and demonstrates the evolution of Queensland district hospitals from the 1890s in accordance with changes to community needs, health practices and hospital legislation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laura Anderko, professor at Georgetown University and director of the Mid-Atlantic Center for Children's Health and the Environment commenting on public health practices in response to proposal to ban chlorpyrifos pesticide. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was set up in the wake of claims that the bodies of up to 800 babies and children may have been interred in an unmarked mass grave in the Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home, located in Tuam, County Galway, but its remit covers investigation into records of and practices at an additional 13 Mother and Baby Homes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1914
  • In 1914 MacMurchy wrote A Little Talk about the Baby, a book that mixed scholarly research with common sense. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women's
  • In addition, the "Domestic" and "Women's" sections of the train, featuring baby health, needlework and cookery, made independent tours to some locations and a Wool Demonstration Train ran in 1934. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Israel, Hadassah supports health education and research, women's initiatives, schools and programs for underprivileged youth. (wikipedia.org)
  • eugenics
  • MacMurchy was vocal in her attempts to persuade the Canadian government that eugenics was the answer to preventing degenerate babies. (wikipedia.org)
  • As late as the 1920s, the ERO was one of the leading organizations in the American eugenics movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children
  • The development of kindergartens was an outcome of a movement that developed in the Western world in the late 19th century in response to new knowledge about the role of diet, hygiene and exercise in the health of children. (wikipedia.org)
  • They cared for babies and children up to five years of age in two cottages at Herbert Street, Rosalie (now Paddington). (wikipedia.org)
  • Following widespread news reports in 2014 that the bodies of 796 babies and children may have been interred in an unrecorded mass grave at the Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home in Tuam, County Galway, there were calls both nationally and internationally for an investigation of the site, and for an inquiry into all such Mother and Baby Homes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1919, Hadassah organized the first School Hygiene Department in Palestine to give routine health examinations to Jerusalem school children. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1920s was the first time that the majority of children lived in two-parent breadwinner-homemaker families (one where the father supported the family financially and the mother supported the family domestically). (wikipedia.org)
  • prevention
  • Public health aims to improve the quality of life through prevention and treatment of disease, including mental health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common public health initiatives include promoting handwashing and breastfeeding, delivery of vaccinations, suicide prevention and distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public health plays an important role in disease prevention efforts in both the developing world and in developed countries, through local health systems and non-governmental organizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States Public Health Service (PHS), led by the Surgeon General of the United States, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta, are involved with several international health activities, in addition to their national duties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada is the national agency responsible for public health, emergency preparedness and response, and infectious and chronic disease control and prevention. (wikipedia.org)
  • significantly
  • Most governments recognize the importance of public health programs in reducing the incidence of disease, disability, and the effects of aging and other physical and mental health conditions, although public health generally receives significantly less government funding compared with medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • This differs from work-life balance: while work-life balance may refer to the health and living issues that arise from work, work-family balance refers specifically to how work and families intersect and influence each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • organizations
  • Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • rural
  • By the eighteenth century the custom of sending babies away to be wet-nursed had crossed class lines, as economic conditions forced even the urban working class to place their babies with rural families for up to four years. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Difficulties
  • Warwick Brunton, '"A Choice of Difficulties": National Mental Health Policy in New Zealand, 1840-1947', PhD thesis, 2001. (otago.ac.nz)
  • time
  • By the end of the 1920s the zoo was well established had assembled a large collection in a relatively short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • made
  • She made a special study of medical inspection of schools, child welfare and public health in England and in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public health programs providing vaccinations have made strides in promoting health, including the eradication of smallpox, a disease that plagued humanity for thousands of years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Republican amendments would have limited appeals by death-row inmates, made it harder to issue health, safety and environmental regulations, and would have committed the President to a seven-year budget plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • Hadassah fundraises for community programs and health initiatives in Israel, including the Hadassah Medical Center, a leading research hospital in Israel renowned for its inclusion of and treatment for all religions and races in Jerusalem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Education
  • It was operated jointly by the Victorian Departments of Agriculture, Railways, Education and Public Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States federal government shutdowns of 1995 and 1995-96 were the result of conflicts between Democratic President Bill Clinton and the Republican Congress over funding for Medicare, education, the environment, and public health in the 1996 federal budget. (wikipedia.org)
  • government
  • The Mother and Baby Homes Commission of Investigation (officially the "Commission of Investigation into Mother and Baby Homes and certain related matters") is a judicial commission of investigation, established in 2015 by an order of the Irish government. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 16 July 2014, the government announced that Judge Yvonne Murphy would chair a Commission of Investigation into Mother and Baby homes, including Tuam. (wikipedia.org)
  • local
  • Before its passage, most of the expansion in public health programs occurred at the state and local levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the United States, the front line of public health initiatives are state and local health departments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple testimonies of local people suggest that the infants were poisoned by a Japanese lead physician and nurse working at the local mining hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • birth
  • The Children's Bureau's first efforts focused on decreasing infant mortality by determining how many babies were dying, through expanded birth registration efforts, and understanding why so many babies died before their first birthday. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others choose home birth because they dislike a hospital or birthing center environment, do not like a medically centered birthing experience, are concerned about exposing the infant to hospital-borne pathogens, or dislike the presence of strangers at the birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, most of the mixed race infants resulting from these unions died, soon after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • cities
  • The custom was so pervasive among all classes that cities like Paris and Lyon literally became cities without babies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • national
  • With the passage of the Roussel Law in 1874, the supervision of wet-nursed infants became a national, rather than a municipal, responsibility. (encyclopedia.com)
  • conditions
  • The focus of a public health intervention is to prevent and manage diseases, injuries and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors, communities and environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. (ifitweremyhome.com)