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  • H1N1
  • This is the accessible text file for GAO report number GAO-11-632 entitled 'Influenza Pandemic: Lessons from the H1N1 Pandemic Should Be Incorporated into Future Planning' which was released on June 27, 2011. (gao.gov)
  • United States Government Accountability Office: GAO: Report to Congressional Requesters: June 2011: Influenza Pandemic: Lessons from the H1N1 Pandemic Should Be Incorporated into Future Planning: GAO-11-632: GAO Highlights: Highlights of GAO-11-632, a report to congressional requesters. (gao.gov)
  • Why GAO Did This Study: The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic was the first human pandemic in over four decades, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that there were as many as 89 million U.S. cases. (gao.gov)
  • The World Health Organization declared an outbreak of a new type of influenza A/H1N1 to be a pandemic in June 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the 2017/2018 season, the influenza A H1N1 component has been replaced (2). (deepdyve.com)
  • CpG motifs in an A/U context have been preferentially eliminated from classical H1N1 influenza virus genomes during virus evolution in humans. (asm.org)
  • showed that CpG dinucleotide content in a H1N1 influenza A virus originating from the 1918 pandemic decreased during its 90 years of replication in humans ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • However, many of the molecular markers for adaptation to human hosts or to the emergence of a pandemic virus do not exist in 2009 pandemic H1N1, implying that other previously unrecognized molecular determinants are accountable for its capability to infect humans. (scirp.org)
  • The current study aimed to explore novel host markers in the proteins of 2009 pandemic H1N1 that were not present in those classical markers, thus providing fresh and unique insight into the adaptive genetic modifications that could lead to the generation of this new virus. (scirp.org)
  • The amino acids at many of these novel sites in 2009 pandemic H1N1 were distinct from those in avian, human, and swine viruses that were identical at these positions, reflecting the uniqueness of these novel sites. (scirp.org)
  • 2009) Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic. (scirp.org)
  • Chang, Y.S., van Hal, S.J., Spencer, P.M, Gosbell, I.B. and Collett, P.W. (2010) Comparison of adult patients hospitalised with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and seasonal influenza during the PROTECT phase of the pandemic response. (scirp.org)
  • Shen, J., Ma, J. and Wang, Q. (2009) Evolutionary trends of A (H1N1) influenza virus hemagglutinin since 1918. (scirp.org)
  • 2009) Receptor-binding specificity of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus determined by carbohydrate microarray. (scirp.org)
  • Hu, W. (2010) Identification of highly conserved domains in hemagglutinin associated with the receptor binding specificity of influenza viruses: 2009 H1N1, avian H5N1 and swine. (scirp.org)
  • Those over 65 appear to be at lower risk because of exposure to the H1N1 type, which is the same as the 1918 flu. (blogspot.com)
  • On 11 June 2009, a new strain of H1N1 influenza was declared to be a global pandemic (Stage 6) by the WHO after evidence of spreading in the southern hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 13 November 2009 worldwide update by the WHO stated that "[a]s of 8 November 2009, worldwide more than 206 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported [503,laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including over 6,250 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • HHS s spending plans for the remaining $1.98 billion include longer-term pandemic preparation efforts, such as activities to reduce the length of time required to produce a vaccine. (gao.gov)
  • This report updates 1998 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (MMWR 1998;47{No. RR-6}:1-26). (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine made for one year may not be useful in the following year, since the virus evolves rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a clinical trial in 2008 found that oral dosing of elderly patients with interferon-alpha actually reduced their immune response to an influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • New possibilities for flu antiviral and vaccine research emerge from 'Spanish flu' virus ( Findings reported in Science help expla. (bio-medicine.org)
  • By partially reconstructing the Spanish flu virus, researchers have now discovered at least part of what made the virus so lethal, thus providing essential information for influenza drug and vaccine research. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Vaccine recommendations for children and youth for the 2017/2018 influenza season Moore, Dorothy L 2018-02-01 00:00:00 Abstract The Canadian Paediatric Society continues to encourage annual influenza vaccination for ALL children and youth ≥6 months of age. (deepdyve.com)
  • NACI has conducted a review of all available vaccine effectiveness data concerning live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and concludes that current evidence supports the continued use of LAIV in Canada, although use is not currently recommended in the USA because of concern about efficacy. (deepdyve.com)
  • They can increase the uptake of influenza vaccine by helping families to recognize both the potential severity of influenza infection, and the efficacy and safety of vaccination. (deepdyve.com)
  • Beginning in the 2014/2015 season, NACI recommended the vaccine for all individuals ≥6 months of age, with a particular focus on people at high risk for influenza-related complications or hospitalization, and individuals capable of transmitting influenza to those at high risk (Box 1) (1). (deepdyve.com)
  • A high failure rate of the influenza vaccine was observed during the 2014/2015 season because of the appearance of an important antigenic change in the predominant circulating A H3N2 strain, rendering that component of the vaccine ineffective. (deepdyve.com)
  • Two years ago it was estimated that all of the world's influenza vaccine companies could produce in a 6-month period (i.e., approximately 9 months after the emergence of the pandemic virus) enough doses of a new pandemic vaccine to vaccinate with two doses approximately 750 million people. (wiley.com)
  • 11,12 More recently, a report sponsored by the World Health Organization in collaboration with virtually all influenza vaccine companies estimated that 6 months after the emergence of a new pandemic virus, the companies could produce 860 million doses of vaccine. (wiley.com)
  • His contributions to his field have included the generation and evaluation of influenza virus vectors as potential vaccine candidates against infectious diseases, including malaria and AIDS, as well as the development (with Dr. Peter Palese) of the first reverse-genetic approaches for the production of infectious recombinant influenza viruses from plasmid DNA - research which has resulted in techniques which are now routinely used with many negative strand RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • with vaccine production hoped to increase until one billion doses are produced by one year after the virus is first identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The companies receiving the contracts were: GlaxoSmithKline $274.8 million MedImmune Inc $169.5 million Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics $220.5 million DynPort Vaccine Company, LLC $41 million Solvay Pharmaceuticals $298.6 million The US government purchased from Sanofi Pasteur and Chiron Corporation several million doses of vaccine meant to be used in case of an influenza pandemic due to H5N1 and is conducting clinical trials on them[when? (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus was finally isolated by Max Theiler (1899-1972) in 1932 who went on to develop a successful vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is assumed that Dr. J. Buist of Edinburgh was the first person to see virus particles in 1886, when he reported seeing "micrococci" in vaccine lymph, though he had probably observed clumps of vaccinia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Infections can be further classified by causative agent (bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic), and by the presence or absence of systemic symptoms (sepsis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Eucalyptus oil shows anti-viral activity as a vapor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Complications of influenza may include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, sinus infections, and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • People have been worried for years about potential new viral pandemics, such as avian influenzas. (medindia.net)
  • The two main classes of antiviral drugs used against influenza are neuraminidase inhibitors, such as zanamivir and oseltamivir, or inhibitors of the viral M2 protein, such as amantadine and rimantadine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This demonstration prompted fears that terrorist organizations might exploit the same technique to synthesize more deadly viral agents, such the smallpox virus, as biological weapons. (thenewatlantis.com)
  • Using the virus' genome sequence, whose final three genes are being published simultaneously this week in Nature, Tumpey's group created a live virus with all eight of the Spanish flu viral genes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To make the virus, the researchers used an approach called "reverse genetics," which involves transferring gene sequences of viral RNA into bacteria and then inserting combinations of the genes -- often after manipulating them -- into cell lines, where they combine to form a virus. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Then, they sent the bacteria containing the viral gene sequences to Tumpey, who inserted them into the cells to produce the virus. (bio-medicine.org)
  • pDCs express pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), which recognizes guanosine- and uridine-rich viral single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), including influenza virus ssRNA. (asm.org)
  • Samji, T. (2009) Influenza A: Understanding the viral life cycle. (scirp.org)
  • He was the first to identify the biological role of the non-structural NS1 Influenza Protein during infection, the first to describe and provide a molecular analysis of a viral-encoded IFN antagonist among negative strand RNA viruses, and the first to demonstrate that the M1 protein of the influenza virus determines its morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, he co-organized the International Course on Viral Vectors in Heidelberg, Germany, which was sponsored by the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS), as well as the first Research Conference on Orthomyxoviruses, also in 2001, which was held in the Netherlands and sponsored by the European Scientific Working Group on Influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Louis Pasteur and Edward Jenner developed the first vaccines to protect against viral infections, they did not know that viruses existed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although viruses can differ with respect to many phenotypes, phylodynamic studies have to date tended to focus on a limited number of viral phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative lengths of internal versus external branches will be affected by changes in viral population size over time (see figure 1) Rapid expansion of a virus in a population will be reflected by a "star-like" tree, in which external branches are long relative to internal branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to a phylogeny of an expanding virus, a phylogeny of a viral population that stays constant in size will have external branches that are shorter relative to branches on the interior of the tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phylogeny of hepatitis B virus (caricatured by figure 1B) instead reflects a viral population that has remained roughly constant in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clustering of taxa on a viral phylogeny will be affected by host population structure (see figure 2) Viruses within similar hosts, such as hosts that reside in the same geographic region, are expected to be more closely related genetically if transmission occurs more commonly between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tree balance will be affected by selection, most notably immune escape (see figure 3) The effect of directional selection on the shape of a viral phylogeny is exemplified by contrasting the trees of influenza virus and HIV's surface proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The social history of viruses describes the influence of viruses and viral infections on human history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rare epidemics of viral diseases originating in animals would have been short-lived because the viruses were not fully adapted to humans and the human populations were too small to maintain the chains of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidemics
  • Either way, the mortality rate was about 2.5 percent, compared with less than 0.1 percent during the routine influenza epidemics to which we have become accustomed. (managedcaremag.com)
  • That's close to the average number of excess deaths (the difference between the number of deaths observed in a group and the number of deaths that would have occurred if the group had the same death rate as a comparison population) attributed to influenza in recent years from U.S. epidemics, though. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Influenza viruses are highly contagious and can cause seasonal epidemics, manifesting as an acute febrile illness with variable degrees of severity, ranging from mild fatigue to respiratory failure and death. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly-there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemics caused by viruses began when human behaviour changed during the Neolithic period, around 12,000 years ago, when humans developed more densely populated agricultural communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses were later carried to the New World by Europeans during the time of the Spanish Conquests, but the indigenous people had no natural resistance to the viruses and millions of them died during epidemics. (wikipedia.org)
  • fever
  • When the virus is inhaled, it attacks cells in the upper respiratory tract, causing typical flu symptoms such as fatigue, fever and chills, a hacking cough, and body aches. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Typical influenza symptoms include the abrupt onset of a headache, dry cough, and chills, rapidly followed by overall achiness and a fever that may run as high as 104 ° F (40 ° C). As the fever subsides, nasal congestion and a sore throat become noticeable. (encyclopedia.com)
  • immunity
  • It's speculated that older people had acquired some immunity from two suspected pandemics in the 19th century, while younger people's immune systems hadn't matured to the point to trigger a fatal immune response to this particular virus. (managedcaremag.com)
  • These findings indicate that the use of halogenated volatile anesthetics modulates the type I IFN response to influenza and enhance postinfection antibacterial immunity. (asahq.org)
  • By using mice exposed to halothane or ketamine and infected with influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae , the authors demonstrated that the use of halogenated volatile anesthetics modulate the type I interferon response to influenza and enhance postinfection antibacterial immunity. (asahq.org)
  • measles
  • An opportunistic disease requires impairment of host defenses, which may occur as a result of genetic defects (such as Chronic granulomatous disease), exposure to antimicrobial drugs or immunosuppressive chemicals (as might occur following poisoning or cancer chemotherapy), exposure to ionizing radiation, or as a result of an infectious disease with immunosuppressive activity (such as with measles, malaria or HIV disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • The phylogenies of measles and rabies virus (caricatured by figure 2A) illustrate viruses with strong spatial structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • adults
  • The 1918 Spanish flu was a global disaster, killing an estimated 20 to 50 million people, many of them otherwise healthy adults. (bio-medicine.org)
  • While these studies have been enormously informative, they have been unable to explain the system-wide effects of influenza on the host, the increased mortality of younger adults in the 1918 influenza pandemic and the much lower mortality rates in children who were more commonly infected with the 1918 virus. (wiley.com)
  • Other studies suggest that these agents might be able to 'roll back' the self-damaging host response of young adults to the less damaging response of children and thus save lives. (wiley.com)
  • symptoms
  • Although the stomach or intestinal "flu" is commonly blamed for stomach upsets and diarrhea, the influenza virus rarely causes gastrointestinal symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms most reliably seen in influenza are shown in the adjacent table. (wikipedia.org)
  • See Clinical Presentation for more detailed information on the signs and symptoms of pediatric influenza. (medscape.com)
  • cough
  • Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by an RNA virus from the Orthrosynovitic family, of which three serotypes are known (A, B and C). Influenza causes an acute febrile illness with myalgia, headache and cough. (blogspot.com)
  • deaths
  • In the United States, 90% of all deaths from influenza occur among persons older than 65. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Influenza spreads around the world in a yearly outbreak, resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Looking at flu seasons, which span calendar years, NIH epidemiologists recently estimated that during the decade ending in 1998-1999, the mean number of influenza-associated deaths in the United States was 51,203. (managedcaremag.com)
  • In general, though, the trend since 1976-1977 has been for influenza-associated deaths to increase, which is attributed in part to the aging of the population. (managedcaremag.com)
  • antibiotics
  • When the next pandemic struck, the Asian flu of 1957-1958, more people probably - were sickened than in 1918-1919, but fewer died (about 1 million, including 60,000 Americans), partly owing to the availability of antibiotics by then. (managedcaremag.com)
  • Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but several antiviral drugs have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Influenza viruses cause epidemic disease (influenza virus types A and B) and sporadic disease (type C) in humans. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to humans, influenza also infects a variety of animal species. (medscape.com)
  • Influenza pandemics occur when a new strain of the influenza virus is transmitted to humans from another animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses of plants and livestock also increased, and as humans became dependent on agriculture and farming, diseases such as potyviruses of potatoes and rinderpest of cattle had devastating consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having evolved from viruses that infected other animals, they first appeared in humans in Europe and North Africa thousands of years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the past 50,000-100,000 years, as modern humans increased in numbers and dispersed throughout the world, new infectious diseases emerged, including those caused by viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus, which only infected humans, probably descended from the poxviruses of rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans probably came into contact with these rodents, and some people became infected by the viruses they carried. (wikipedia.org)
  • When viruses cross this so-called "species barrier", their effects can be severe, and humans may have had little natural resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most viruses are species-specific and would have posed no threat to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herpes viruses first infected the ancestors of modern humans over 80 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • A report published in early 2003 noted that Type A influenza virus has a high potential for use as such an agent because of the virulence of the Type A strain that broke out in Hong Kong in 1997 and the development of laboratory methods for generating large quantities of the virus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Therapies against a new flu strain would need to disarm the parts of the virus that do the most damage to the body. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project was initiated in 2004 to create a library of influenza sequences to understand what makes one strain more lethal than another, what genetic determinants most affect immunogenicity, and how the virus evolves over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2018
  • Recommendations from the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) for the 2017/2018 influenza season are not substantially changed from those of last season. (deepdyve.com)
  • acute
  • These pathways include several molecular targets that are up-regulated in acute lung injury and down-regulated by anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents, including statins, fibrates, and glitazones. (wiley.com)
  • virions
  • We introduced CpG sequences both in the context of oligonucleotides and in the context of modified influenza virions containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) recoded to have variable CpG content. (asm.org)
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, and from infected birds through their droppings. (wikipedia.org)
  • causative
  • It was not until 1933 that the causative agent was identified as a virus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They derive their importance from the type and extent of damage their causative agents inflict on organs and/or systems when they gain entry into a host. (hindawi.com)
  • Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious agents
  • Viruses are sub-microscopic infectious agents which can reproduce only by seizing a cell's reproductive machinery, a process often leading to disease and even the death of the host organism. (medindia.net)
  • Damage to tissues mainly results from the growth and metabolic processes of infectious agents intracellular or within body fluids, with the production and release of toxins or enzymes that interfere with the normal functions of organs and/or systems [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Naturally the host's elaborate defence mechanism, immune system, fights infectious agents and eliminates them. (hindawi.com)
  • bacterial
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, although there are millions of types. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • In contrast, a more balanced phylogeny may occur when a virus is not subject to strong immune selection or other source of directional selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Historically, influenza was ascribed to a number of different agents, including "bad air" and several different bacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Viruses are distinguished from free-living microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, by their small size and relatively simple structures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids-pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomics
  • In assessing the risk that would-be bioterrorists could misuse synthetic genomics to recreate dangerous viruses, a central question is whether they could master the necessary technical skills. (thenewatlantis.com)
  • immune response
  • These facts led us to hypothesize that both ssRNA viruses and host genes involved in the innate immune response have evolved to have low CpG content to avoid a CpG RNA sensing receptor. (asm.org)
  • interferon
  • The process involves destroying two genes in mice that inhibit the production of the protein interferon (the cell's first line of defence against viruses). (medindia.net)
  • In the absence of these repressor genes, the mouse cells produced interferon in a much higher level, effectively blocking viruses from reproducing. (medindia.net)
  • Interferon, particularly, the type 1 interferons (IFN-a and IFN- ) repress propagation of virus. (medindia.net)
  • It has since been proposed that activity of interferon is highest at low concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signaling through TLR7 results in the induction of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN-I), an essential process for the induction of specific adaptive immune responses and for mounting a robust antiviral response mediated by IFN-α. (asm.org)