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  • discovery
  • In this minireview, we briefly describe the history of bacteriophage discovery and the early clinical studies with phages and we review the recent literature emphasizing research conducted in Poland and the former Soviet Union. (asm.org)
  • victims
  • And because phages have co-evolved with their bacterial victims for millennia, it s unlikely that an arms race will lead to resistance. (braintalkcommunities.org)
  • Sickbed: Proper disposal and treatment of the germ infected fecal waste (and all clothing and bedding that come in contact with it) produced by cholera victims is of primary importance. (chemeurope.com)
  • research
  • History of phage research. (openwetware.org)
  • Recent epidemiologic research suggests that an individual's susceptibility to cholera (and other diarrheal infections) is affected by their blood type: Those with type O blood are the most susceptible, while those with type AB are the most resistant. (chemeurope.com)
  • prevention
  • Is it absurd that phage biocontrol products are accepted in the West for prevention or treatment of contamination in food, but not available to patients suffering from antibiotic-resistant infections? (blogspot.com)
  • patients
  • Sterilization: Boiling, filtering, and chlorination of water kill the bacteria produced by cholera patients and prevent infections from spreading. (chemeurope.com)
  • All materials (such as clothing and bedding) that come in contact with cholera patients should be sterilized in hot water using chlorine bleach if possible. (chemeurope.com)
  • Hands that touch cholera patients or their clothing and bedding should be thoroughly cleaned and sterilized. (chemeurope.com)
  • water
  • He used porcelain filters to strain the river water, removing bacteria and larger organisms while retaining a suspension that could kill Vibrio cholerae. (braintalkcommunities.org)
  • In the United States and Western Europe, due to advanced water treatment and sanitation systems, cholera is no longer a major health threat. (chemeurope.com)
  • Sources: Warnings about cholera contamination posted around contaminated water sources with directions on how to decontaminate the water. (chemeurope.com)
  • All water used for drinking, washing, or cooking should be sterilized by boiling or chlorination in any area where cholera may be present. (chemeurope.com)
  • Cloth filters , though very basic, have significantly reduced the occurrence of cholera when used in poor villages in Bangladesh that rely on untreated surface water. (chemeurope.com)
  • known
  • But with lingering questions about phages, which are often dubbed viral dark matter because so little is known about their biology, their use in mainstream medicine still faces many hurdles. (braintalkcommunities.org)
  • A bacteriophage ( / b æ k ˈ t ɪər i oʊ f eɪ dʒ / ), also known informally as a phage ( / f eɪ dʒ / ), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea . (wikipedia.org)
  • long
  • The major reservoir for cholera was long assumed to be humans themselves, but considerable evidence exists that aquatic environments can serve as reservoirs of the bacteria. (chemeurope.com)
  • made
  • However, they were abandoned for general use in the West for several reasons: Medical trials were carried out, but a basic lack of understanding of phages made these invalid. (wikipedia.org)
  • cycle
  • Finally, the infected cell bursts - releasing the new crop of phages and starting another cycle of infection and phage reproduction. (blogspot.com)
  • early
  • Early studies of phage behavior and reproduction depended on adding phages to liquid cultures in which bacteria had grown, and observing the clearing of the turbid broth and destruction of the bacteria. (blogspot.com)
  • shown
  • Nevertheless, phages of Inoviridae have been shown to complicate biofilms involved in pneumonia and cystic fibrosis, and shelter the bacteria from drugs meant to eradicate disease and promote persistent infection. (wikipedia.org)