• cohort
  • Data on the 78 children identified by local health and/or education systems to have special educational provision for ASD were compared with the 12 906 remaining children in the cohort. (bmj.com)
  • genetic
  • Many variables are present when attempting to specifically define the source although autism unquestionably does not originate from how a child is nurtured, it is a genetic disorder. (studentshare.net)
  • Autism is not a specific disease but rather a disorder of brain development with a strong genetic basis. (aappublications.org)
  • However, linkage studies have largely failed at identifying causative variants for psychiatric disorders such as these, primarily because of their complex genetic architecture. (wikipedia.org)
  • GCTA heritability estimates are useful because they can lower bound the genetic contributions to traits such as intelligence without relying on the assumptions used in twin studies and other family studies and pedigree analyses, thereby corroborating them, and enabling the design of well-powered Genome-wide association study (GWAS) designs to find the specific genetic variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • ASD is associated with several genetic disorders and with epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. (wikipedia.org)
  • causes
  • That is, anything that causes an inflammatory response in the pregnant mother, such as infection or an immune disorder, may expose the fetal brain to inflammatory signals and disrupt development. (wikipedia.org)
  • psychiatric disorders
  • So now the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) is going to re diagnose "Autism" and if you watch very carefully, there will be some "new" psychiatric disorders that will suddenly pop up and as if by magic, these new disorders will sound an awful lot like Autism. (blogspot.com)
  • Studies along these lines have determined a polygenic basis for several psychiatric disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quest to understand the causative biology of psychiatric disorders is hence greatly assisted by the ability to analyse entire genomes of affected and unaffected individuals in an unbiased manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Children with autism demonstrate behaviors and skills that span a broad continuum extending from very mild peculiarities to severe developmental challenges. (aappublications.org)
  • In a severe form known as "progressive mutism", the disorder progresses until the person with this condition no longer speaks to anyone in any situation, even close family members. (wikipedia.org)
  • manifests
  • Autism is a global neurodevelopment disorder which, in most cases, manifests during the first 2 years and prolongs throughout life, having clinical variances with aging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) manifests in early childhood and is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in social interactions, markedly aberrant communication skills, and restricted repetitive behaviors, interests, and activities (RRBs). (medscape.com)
  • impairments
  • The DSM-5 also added a new category called social communication disorder (SCD) to diagnose individuals who have verbal and nonverbal communication impairments but lack other attributes associated with autism. (blogspot.com)
  • adults
  • Augmentative and alternative communication: Supporting children and adults with complex communication needs (3rd ed. (springer.com)
  • Children and adults with selective mutism are fully capable of speech and understanding language but forgo speaking in certain situations, though speech is expected of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a hierarchical variation among people with this disorder: some people participate fully in activities and appear social but do not speak, others will speak only to peers but not to adults, others will speak to adults when asked questions requiring short answers but never to peers, and still others speak to no one and participate in few, if any, activities presented to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • This approach is expected to be able to identify the secondary gene networks that are disrupted in neurological disorders, subsequently assisting drug development stratagems for brain diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease
  • A report released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests that autism and related disorders are more common than previously thought. (northside.com)
  • syndrome
  • Autism is a complex, behaviorally defined, static disorder of the immature brain that is of great concern to the practicing pediatrician because of an astonishing 556% reported increase in pediatric prevalence between 1991 and 1997, to a prevalence higher than that of spina bifida, cancer, or Down syndrome. (aappublications.org)
  • Autism is frequent in tuberous sclerosis complex and fragile X syndrome, but these 2 disorders account for but a small minority of cases. (aappublications.org)
  • interventions
  • Behavioral interventions include Applied Behavioral Analysis, Developmental, Individual Difference, Relationship-based (DIR)/Floortime Model, and Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH). (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Preliminary screening instruments include the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), and Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Related terms include developmental psychology, referring to development throughout the lifespan, and pediatrics, the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. (wikipedia.org)
  • multiplex
  • The aim of our study was to validate a cost-effective set of commercial Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and methylation specific multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) test in autistic children refered by the neurodevelopmental center and autism unit of a Paediatric Hospital. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gene
  • However, microarray based approaches have their own problems that confound analysis - probe saturation can result in very small measurable variance of gene expression between genetically unique individuals, and the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can result in hybridization artifacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • All the patients had been previously studied by conventional karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for 15(q11.2q13) and, with these techniques, four alterations were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • linkage
  • This skewed ratio remains unexplained: despite the contribution of a few well characterized X-linked disorders, male-to-male transmission in a number of families rules out X-linkage as the prevailing mode of inheritance. (aappublications.org)
  • cognitive
  • The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • Autistic Children Though autism is incurable and usually results in social isolation to varying degrees, various forms of treatment have proven to make a decidedly positive impact in the way autistics interact with others. (studentshare.net)
  • Autism is a developmental disorder that appears in the first 3 years of life, and affects the brain's normal development of social and communication skills. (northside.com)
  • Some children with autism appear normal before age 1 or 2 and then suddenly "regress" and lose language or social skills they had previously gained. (northside.com)
  • Selective mutism is strongly associated with other anxiety disorders, particularly social anxiety disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers therefore speculate that selective mutism may be an avoidance strategy used by a subgroup of children with social anxiety disorder to reduce their distress in social situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although autistic people may also be selectively mute, they often display other behaviors-hand flapping, repetitive behaviors, social isolation even among family members (not always answering to name, for example)-that set them apart from a child with selective mutism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some autistic people may be selectively mute due to anxiety in social situations that they do not fully understand. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • The primary goals of treatment are to maximize the child's ultimate functional independence and quality of life by minimizing the core autism spectrum disorder features, facilitating development and learning, promoting socialization, reducing maladaptive behaviors, and educating and supporting families. (aappublications.org)
  • The DIR/Floortime Model allows those conducting treatment to tailor the treatment to individual children. (wikipedia.org)
  • And although ridiculous to any sane person, many medical professionals say that these disorders are legitimate conditions that often warrant treatment on behalf of Big Pharma's effort to control diagnoses. (blogspot.com)
  • Particularly in young children, SM can sometimes be confused with an autism spectrum disorder, especially if the child acts particularly withdrawn around his or her diagnostician, which can lead to incorrect treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach is likely to underestimate prevalence because it does not count children who have not been diagnosed yet, and it is likely to generate skewed statistics because some children have better access to treatment. (wikipedia.org)