• bromine
  • The catalyst is in the form of a clear chlorine and/or bromine containing solution of a metal glycoxide and a metal glycolate having a pH in the range of from 0 to about 1, and containing chlorine and/or bromine atoms at a number ratio of chlorine and/or bromine to total metal cations in the catalyst ranging from about 0.5:1 to about 3:1. (google.com)
  • Sodium
  • In a separate reactor, the TiCl4 is reduced by liquid magnesium or sodium (15-20% excess) at 800-850 °C in a stainless steel retort to ensure complete reduction: 2Mg(l) + TiCl4(g) → 2MgCl2(l) + Ti(s) [T = 800-850 °C] Complications result from partial reduction of the titanium to its lower chlorides TiCl2 and TiCl3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many methods have been applied to the production of titanium metal, beginning with a report in 1887 by Nilsen and Pettersen using sodium, which was optimized into the commercial Hunter process. (wikipedia.org)
  • magnesium
  • Major success using magnesium at 1000 °C using a molybdenum clad reactor, as reported to the Electrochemical Society in Ottawa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kroll process displaced the Hunter process and continues to be the dominant technology for the production of titanium metal, as well as driving the majority of the world's production of magnesium metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • Titanium tetrachloride was found to reduce with hydrogen at high temperatures to give hydrides that can be thermally processed to the pure metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iridium metal is employed when high corrosion resistance at high temperatures is needed, as in high-performance spark plugs, crucibles for recrystallization of semiconductors at high temperatures, and electrodes for the production of chlorine in the chloralkali process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecule is stable at high temperatures, but below 1000 °C condenses to a trimer (BOF)3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spectroscopic constants of the 10BFO molecule are B=9349.2711 MHz D=3.5335 kHz and for 11BFO molecule they are B=9347.3843 MHz D=3.5273 kHz The monomer is stable either at low pressures, or temperatures over 1000 °C. Below this temperature, the monomers associate to form a trimer called trifluoroboroxole. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar equations can be written for other CDC precursors): MC(solid) + 2 Cl2(gas) → MCl4(gas) + C(solid) Halogen treatment at temperatures between 200 and 1000 °C has been shown to yield mostly disordered porous carbons with a porosity between 50 and ~80 vol% depending on the precursor. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrodes
  • At the phase boundary between the electrodes and the water, the electric current leads to the electrochemical production of disinfecting species from the water itself (for example, ozone), or from species dissolved in the water (for example, chloride is oxidised to free chlorine). (matthey.com)
  • hydrogen
  • The NdCl3 can alternatively be prepared by reacting neodymium metal with hydrogen chloride or chlorine, though this method is not economical due to the relatively high price of the metal and is used for research purposes only. (wikipedia.org)
  • coke
  • The titanium is fed into the process in form of ore together with the coke. (wikipedia.org)
  • The added O2 leaves the process with the product TiO2, the added coke leaves the process together with the added oxygen from the titanium ore in form of CO and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • aluminium
  • Also in development is a pyrometallurgical route that involves the reduction of an intermediate form of titanium with aluminium. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • doi:10.1002/zaac.19372340105 W. J. Kroll, "The Production of Ductile Titanium" Transactions of the Electrochemical Society volume 78 (1940) 35-47. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functional interrelationships between chloride concentration in the water, current, current density, electrode material, water quality, electrochemical production of free chlorine and disinfecting action have been investigated in detail only recently ( 11-15 ). (matthey.com)
  • process
  • The chloride process is used to separate titanium from its ores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, the founder decided to back up his warranty and replaced every corroded heat exchanger, in the process keeping his customers and of course prompting the Electrically Isolated Titanium Heat Exchanger design and the tradition of 'WE PERFORM TO KEEP YOU WARM! (heatsiphon.com)
  • This behavior is observed for titanium, hence the use of the chloride process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another process, the FFC Cambridge process, has been patented for a solid electrolytic solution, and its implementation would eliminate the titanium-sponge processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • material
  • The pure titanium heat exchanger tube material was selected based on corrosion tests at 100 F with a pH of 4.75 and chlorine levels 5000 parts per million (1000 times greater than normal pool water) Although this is a severe test, it simulates realistic possible conditions such as chlorine tablets in skimmers and out of balance pool water. (heatsiphon.com)
  • water
  • German Patent Application 2,608,863 discloses the use of a catalyst system for the polymerization of ethylene consisting of bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium dialkyl, aluminum trialkyl and water. (google.es)
  • found
  • Congeners that have chlorine in the 2, 3, 7, and 8 positions have been found to be significantly toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, Spirit found the magnetism was caused by the mineral magnetite, especially magnetite that contained the element titanium. (wikipedia.org)