• cytokines
  • DM is acknowledged as a low-grade chronic inflammatory state characterized by the over-secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, which reinforce inflammatory signals thus contributing to the development of complications. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are stimulated by recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), whereas members of the IL-1R family are stimulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this context, interleukin- (IL-) 1 β , one of the most powerful proinflammatory cytokines, is a strong stimulator of in vitro and in vivo bone resorption via upregulation of RANKL that stimulates the osteoclastogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • In particular, different studies supported the relationship between inflammatory cytokines such as TNF- α , interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-11, and IL-17, and osteoclast activity [ 7 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This protein functions as a signal transducer in the NF-kappaB pathway that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) in response to proinflammatory cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) detect microorganisms by recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and IL-1R family members respond the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin 18 (IL-18), a member of the IL-1 superfamily of cytokines has been demonstrated to be an important mediator of both innate and adaptive immune responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines, which plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1 family is a group of 11 cytokines, which induces a complex network of proinflammatory cytokines and via expression of integrins on leukocytes and endothelial cells, regulates and initiates inflammatory responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also include the action of proinflammatory cytokines, the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation (typical of necroptosis in type 1 diabetic patients), excessive production of islet amyloid polypeptide with the consequent endoplasmic reticulum stress, disruption in autophagy mechanisms, and protein complex formation, such as the inflammasome, capable of increasing oxidative stress produced by mitochondrial damage. (hindawi.com)
  • Among them, the activation of self-reactive lymphocytes and their infiltration in the pancreas, followed by the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ), which united with its membrane receptor on the PBC, activate intracellular signaling pathways that end in the induction of proapoptotic mechanisms and, in some cases, cell death through necroptosis [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Toll-like receptors were first discovered in Drosophila and trigger the synthesis and secretion of cytokines and activation of other host defense programs that are necessary for both innate or adaptive immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • TLRs
  • This review examines the involvement of these cells in the progression of neural injury and proposes that the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are likely to be an integral component in the communication between the CNS and the periphery. (wiley.com)
  • TLRs and IL-1R members have a highly conserved amino acid sequence in their cytoplasmic domain called the Toll/Interleukin-1 (TIR) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The elicitation of different TLRs/IL-1Rs results in similar signaling cascades due to their homologous TIR motif leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, which initiates a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and AP-1-dependent transcriptional response of pro-inflammatory genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are major PRRs that have evolved to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are conserved molecules of invading pathogens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Clearly, similar signaling pathways are evoked by these two disparate groups of receptors, but the manner in which chemokine receptors and TLRs interact during innate immunity is poorly understood. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Membrane-bound PRRs include Toll like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition of extracellular or endosomal pathogen-associated molecular patterns is mediated by transmembrane proteins known as toll-like receptors (TLRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as specific pattern recognition molecules and the finding that stimulation of TLRs leads to activation of NF-κB improved our understanding of how different pathogens activate NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRAK1
  • Two years later the first experimental member of this family of kinases, IRAK1, was cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002, through database searches at the National Center for Biotechnology Information in an attempt to recognize novel members of the IRAK family, a human cDNA sequence which encoded a peptide sharing significant homology with IRAK1 was identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • that it might function upstream of other IRAKs and possibly cause a cascade of phosphorylation events through its function as an IRAK1 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four IRAK family members have been described in humans: IRAK1, IRAK2, IRAKM, and IRAK4. (wikipedia.org)

Warning: preg_replace(): Compilation failed: unmatched parentheses at offset 14 in /home/lookformedical/www/faq.php on line 155
  • tumor
  • Known inducers of NF-κB activity are highly variable and include reactive oxygen species (ROS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), isoproterenol, cocaine, and ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRAK4
  • IRAK4 was proposed to be the mammalian homolog of the Pelle gene found in Drosophila melanogaster and was proposed to require its kinase activity in order for it to function in activating NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • This idea of a cascade of phosphorylation events was supported by a study where an IRAK4 knockout in mice showed a more severe phenotype than other IRAK knockout experiments and signalling through Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) is virtually eliminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also contained within IRAK4's N-terminal is an extension of twenty amino acids, which is unique to IRAK4 among kinases, even within the IRAK family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein also contains three auto-phosphorylation sites, each of which when mutated results in a decrease in the kinase activity of IRAK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • lectin receptors
  • The sensory apparatus that allows detection of infectious microbes has been deciphered in large part, and it is now known that Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like helicases, C-type lectin receptors, and cytosolic sensors of DNA, most notably cyclic guanosine monophosphate/adenosine monophosphate synthetase, permit recognition of specific molecules of microbial origin. (mhmedical.com)
  • macrophages
  • IRAK-M is specific to monomyeloic cells (monocytes and macrophages) while the other IRAKs that are ubiquitously expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basis for the term "interleukin" was to streamline the growing number of biological properties attributed to soluble factors from macrophages and lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • MiRNAs downregulate the expression of certain target genes by binding complementary sequences of their mRNAs and play an important role in the activation of innate immune cells including macrophages 6 and microglia 7 . (jove.com)
  • ligands
  • The IL-1 family of ligands includes 11 members and among them IL-1 β emerged as the primary therapeutic target for an expanding number of inflammatory conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • Name some promiscuous ligands and receptors. (brainscape.com)
  • retinoic acid
  • Ethanol exposure during development impairs neuronal signaling mechanisms mediated by the N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptors, the retinoic acid receptors, and by growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). (mdpi.com)
  • subunit
  • NBD is a peptide that acts by binding to regulatory subunit NEMO (IKK-γ) thereby preventing it from binding subunits IKK-α and IKK-β and activating the IKK complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol
  • Prenatal ethanol exposure interferes with the synaptogenesis phase of brain development, especially within the cerebellum and leads to various impairments in brain function [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • nuclear
  • NF-κB is important in regulating cellular responses because it belongs to the category of "rapid-acting" primary transcription factors, i.e., transcription factors that are present in cells in an inactive state and do not require new protein synthesis in order to become activated (other members of this family include transcription factors such as c-Jun, STATs, and nuclear hormone receptors). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, p50 and p52 homodimers also bind to the nuclear protein Bcl-3, and such complexes can function as transcriptional activators. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Over the last years, novel biological drugs have been developed to antagonize the pathophysiological actions of IL-1β. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review will summarize the main experimental and clinical findings obtained with pharmacological IL-1β inhibitors in the context of the cardiovascular complications of DM, and discuss the perspectives of IL-1β inhibitors as novel therapeutic tools for treating these patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • differentiation
  • Insulin is a polypeptide hormone formed by 51 amino acids [ 5 ] which once bound with its receptor, mainly expressed in the liver, muscular, and adipose tissue [ 6 ], and regulates a wide number of physiological processes that comprise gene mechanisms such as cellular growth and differentiation, expression of genes that code for enzymes that trigger glycogen, and lipid and protein synthesis. (hindawi.com)