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  • binds
  • Ramucirumab (marketed under the brand name CYRAMZA®) is an immunoglobulin G1 VEGFR-2 monoclonal antibody that binds to the extracellular domain of VEGFR-2 with high specificity and affinity, competing with VEGF-A, -C, and -D. CYRAMZA (ramucirumab) is approved for use in certain patients with previously treated advanced or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and colorectal cancer. (phacilitate.co.uk)
  • The active site, at residues 181, 200, 97, and 85, binds the terminal phosphate of ATP and transfers it to the target location on the substrate (see figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated TGF-β complexes with other factors to form a serine/threonine kinase complex that binds to TGF-β receptors, which is composed of both type 1 and type 2 receptor subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also generated mice lacking HIPK1, a kinase that binds to p53 and appears to modulate its transcriptional activity. (utoronto.ca)
  • Most kinases are inhibited by a pseudosubstrate that binds to the kinase like a real substrate but lacks the amino acid to be phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACTH binds to the MC2 receptor in the Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, and stimulates secretion of the stress hormone cortisol. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidermal growth f
  • In contrast, expression of topoisomerase 2A (TOPO2), TOPO1 and thymidylate synthase (TS), as well as amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), were more prevalent in brain metastases than in all three primary tumor sites. (prnewswire.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation to Keytruda (pembrolizumab) for the treatment of patients with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutation-negative, and Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) rearrangement-negative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease has progressed on or following platinum-based chemotherapy. (drugs.com)
  • inhibitor
  • Proteins containing CARD include Raidd, APAF-1 (apoptotic protease activating factor 1), procaspase 9 and iceberg (inhibitor of interleukin-1-beta generation). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Erleada Erleada (apalutamide) is an oral androgen receptor inhibitor for the treatment of men with. (drugs.com)
  • They showed that Ascenta's small molecule pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor, AT-101, had preferential inhibition in Mcl-1 predominant lines. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Ascenta's lead agent, AT-101, is an orally-active small molecule pan Bcl-2 inhibitor (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1) currently in Phase 2 clinical trials in castrate resistant prostate cancer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Company's preclinical pipeline includes the oral multi-IAP antagonist AT-406, and an HDM2-p53 inhibitor program. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It is a pan-kinase inhibitor that has been shown in-vivo to affect cell proliferation and programmed cell death. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Research has shown that over 80% of cancer cells of many types of cancer, including NSCLC, lack a tumor suppressor gene called TUSC2 (formerly known as FUS1), a pan-kinase inhibitor which has been shown in-vivo to affect cell proliferation and programmed cell death. (pipelinereview.com)
  • With more than 1 agent now FDA-approved in a wide variety of tumor types, and with others in clinical trials, it is becoming more common that patients present to clinic for potential treatment with a second PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upon progression on their first-line PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, these patients received a different PD-1 inhibitor (nivolumab in all cases) and all had progressive disease as their best response to the subsequent PD-1 inhibitor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, ongoing efforts that aim to identify mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy will be informative and may ultimately assist physicians in select the optimal treatment following progression on PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While there is a general acceptance that these drugs are "similar", there are some subtle differences among them and many clinicians wonder if a subsequent different PD-1 inhibitor can of be of any help to patients with few therapeutic options after progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this report, we present the cases of three patients (two with metastatic RCC and one with melanoma) who initially responded to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade before progressing and later immediately progressed upon re-treatment with a different PD-1 inhibitor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given that FLIP is an inhibitor of anoikis, and that reducing FLIP can sensitize metastatic cells to anoikis, Mawji et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, research found that caspase inhibitors (zVAD.fmk, p53, BAF), x-chromosome-linked inhibitor (xiap), and Bcl-xL( from the Bcl-2 family) did not prevent cell death in 293T cells when induced by IGFIR-IC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemically, caspase-8 was found to enter the complex of the inhibitor of NF-κB kinase (IKK) with the upstream Bcl10-MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue) adapter complex which were crucial for the induction of nuclear translocation of NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imatinib is a 2-phenyl amino pyrimidine derivative that functions as a specific inhibitor of a number of tyrosine kinase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaplastic Lympho
  • The following is the list of known dependence receptors: Notch3 Kremen1 DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma) UNC5 receptors (UNC5A, UNC5B, UNC5C, UNC5D) Neogenin p75NTR Ptch1 CDON PLXND1 RET TrkA TrkC EphA4 c-Met Insulin Receptor IR Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor ALK (Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase) Androgen Receptor Some integrins NTRK3 Cells depend for their survival on stimulation that is mediated by various receptors and sensors. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • In cellular migration, an integral aspect of inflammatory responses, the inhibition of GSK-3 has been reported to play conflicting roles, as local inhibition at growth cones has been shown to promote motility while global inhibition of cellular GSK-3 has been shown to inhibit cell spreading and migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various dependence receptors are involved in a range of biological events: developmental cell death (naturally occurring cell death), trophic factor withdrawal-induced cell death, the spontaneous regression characteristic of type IV-S neuroblastoma, neurodegenerative cell death, inhibition of new tumor cells (tumorigenesis) and metastasis, and therapeutic antibody-mediated tumor cell death, as well as programmed cell death in other instances. (wikipedia.org)
  • AUSTIN, TX, USA I April 2, 2017 I Genprex, Inc. announced new pre-clinical data which reveal that TUSC2 (formerly known as FUS1, the active anti-cancer agent in Oncoprex TM ) in combination with PD-1 checkpoint inhibition has a significantly greater anti-tumor effect in lung cancer than either agent alone. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Attempts at treatment for cancer cells with constitutively phosphorylated STAT5 have included both indirect and direct inhibition of STAT5 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • While more medicinal work has been done in indirect inhibition, this approach can lead to increased toxicity in cells and can also result in non-specific effects, both of which are better handled by direct inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indirect inhibition targets kinases associated with STAT5, or targets proteases that carry out terminal truncation of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different inhibitors have been designed to target different kinases: inhibition of BCR/ABl constitutes the basis of the functioning of drugs like imatinib inhibition of FLT3 is carried out by drugs like lestaurtinib inhibition of JAK2 is carried out by the drug CYT387, which was successful in preclinical trials and is currently undergoing clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • activates
  • IAPs are key components of the complex cascade of protein signaling that activates enzymes called caspases to initiate breakdown of the cancer cell. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This region interacts with phospholipase C-δ1 (PLCδ1) and activates its ability to hydrolyze the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), which in turn activates protein kinase C (PKC) and increases intracellular calcium ion concentration, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastasis
  • This process is seen in developmental cell death, carcinogenesis (especially metastasis), neurodegeneration, and possibly non-lethal (sub-apoptotic) events such as neurite retraction and somal atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study, conducted by Jack A. Roth, M.D., F.A.C.S., and his team at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, evaluated the immune response of TUSC2 alone and in combination with anti-PD-1 agents across five independent experiments in two syngeneic mouse models, including a model of lung metastasis. (pipelinereview.com)
  • TUSC2 alone or in combination with checkpoint blockade (anti-PD-1 and/or anti-CTLA4) significantly prolonged mouse survival in the NSCLC metastasis model compared to checkpoint blockade alone. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Proteins
  • First discovered in 1980 as a regulatory kinase for its namesake, Glycogen synthase, GSK-3 has since been identified as a kinase for over forty different proteins in a variety of different pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The region between the fifth and sixth conserved cysteines houses the most divergent area of TGF-β proteins that is exposed at the surface of the protein and is implicated in receptor binding and specificity of TGF-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • The connections between Sirt 1 and other anti-aging genes such as Klotho, p66Shc (longevity protein) and Forkhead box proteins (FOXO1/ FOXO3a) have been associated with programmed cell death and alterations in these anti-aging genesregulate glucose, lipid and amyloid beta metabolism that are important to various chronic diseases. (scirp.org)
  • Using human-derived neuroblastoma cell lines, these investigators demonstrated differential resistance patterns to inhibitors of the Bcl-2 family proteins based on the relative BH proteins expressed (specifically, Mcl-1 or Bcl-2). (bio-medicine.org)
  • The interplay between phosphorylating events, mediated largely by the phosphatidyl inositol 3 (P13) kinase system, as well as the balance achieved between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins determines whether or not the cell enters or avoids the process of programmed cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • These recruited proteins are then responsible for the subsequent activation of other downstream proteins, including protein kinases (IKKi, IRAK1, IRAK4, and TBK1) that further amplify the signal and ultimately lead to the upregulation or suppression of genes that orchestrate inflammatory responses and other transcriptional events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins with subgroup 1 TIR domains are receptors for interleukins that are produced by macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells and all have extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third subgroup of proteins containing TIR domains consists of adaptor proteins that are exclusively cytosolic and mediate signaling from proteins of subgroups 1 and 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • These interactions allow DLC1 to co-localize along with these proteins to focal adhesions at the periphery of the cell, where it is able to carry out its function as a Rho-GAP protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction inactivates or reduces the activity of various functionally important target proteins and is one mechanism by which cylopentenone PGs influence cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells are constantly using a variety of tools, involving genes, proteins and altered pathways, to ensure their survival against antineoplastic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can occur with replication fork barriers, proteins such as PTIP, CHD4 and PARP1, which are normally cleared by the cell´s DNA damage sensors, surveyors, and responders BRCA1 and BRCA2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Types include those acting directly as receptors (Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase) and Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once ruptured, particles and substances are released, including: (1) high mobility group B-1 (HMGB1) (2) heat shock proteins and (3) various other proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • NGF is initially in a 7S, 130-kDa complex of 3 proteins - Alpha-NGF, Beta-NGF, and Gamma-NGF (2:1:2 ratio) when expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • In addition to its role in regulating glycogen synthase, GSK-3 has been implicated in other aspects of glucose homeostasis, including the phosphorylation of insulin receptor IRS1 and of the gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6 phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we targeted the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase GPAM along with choline kinase-α (CHKA), the enzymes that catabolize the products of EDI3 to determine which downstream pathway is relevant for migration. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • There are a large number of TK enzymes in the body, including the insulin receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • serine or threonine
  • While serine/threonine kinases all phosphorylate serine or threonine residues in their substrates, they select specific residues to phosphorylate on the basis of residues that flank the phosphoacceptor site, which together comprise the consensus sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The death effector domain protein family: regulators of cellular homeostasis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In addition, events such as cellular atrophy and process retraction may also be mediated by dependence receptors, although this has not been as well documented as the induction of programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncoprex is an optimized TUSC2 gene encapsulated in a fatty, positively charged nanovesicle (a nanoscale hollow sphere) injected intravenously, which can specifically target cancer cells and insert wild-type TUSC2 into cellular DNA, effectively increasing expression of the TUSC2 protein and promoting tumor cell death. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Activation of oncogenes plays an important role in cancer development and in altering cellular sensitivities to anti-cancer agents. (upstate.edu)
  • chemotherapy
  • The FDA previously granted avelumab Breakthrough Therapy Designation for the treatment of patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) whose disease has progressed after at least one previous chemotherapy regimen. (perssupport.nl)
  • A number of mechanisms have been proposed for solid and hematological tumor insensitivity to the effects of conventional chemotherapy agents, including multidrug resistance gene expression, membrane pump extrusion of chemotherapeutic agents, tumor hypoxia, decreased tumor angiogenesis, and unfavorable cell cycle kinetics ( 6 -9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is mostly resistant to standard chemotherapy that results in poor patient survival. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Antineoplastic resistance, often used interchangeably with chemotherapy resistance, is the multiple drug resistance of neoplastic (cancerous) cells, or the ability of cancer cells to survive and grow despite anti-cancer therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antineoplastic resistance, synonymous with chemotherapy resistance, is the ability of cancer cells to survive and grow despite different anti-cancer therapies, i.e. their multiple drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • Nevertheless, it is not known whether the Fas-receptor stimuli or the ASK1 overexpression are caused by ROS or CRM1 mediated export. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • 1], This disease is serious and life-threatening, and approximately 20-30% of patients are first diagnosed at an advanced or metastatic stage. (perssupport.nl)
  • Four years later, he was diagnosed with metastatic disease to the lungs and hilar lymph nodes and began treatment with an anti-PD-L1-based combination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DLC1 is also involved in the formation of focal adhesions, so loss of DLC1 leads to reduced cell adhesion and increased metastatic potential of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, metastatic tumor cells may escape from anoikis and invade other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • showed that anisomycin can sensitize metastatic epithelial cells to anoikis and reduce circulating tumor cell implantation in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anisomycin achieved this anti-metastatic activity in part by decreasing the abundance of the death receptor inhibiting protein FLIP. (wikipedia.org)
  • In related work, Schimmer's team showed that FLIP levels are higher in metastatic cells than non-metastatic cells, and that reducing FLIP levels using RNAi (RNA Interference) or other small molecule inhibitors of FLIP can sensitize metastatic cells to anoikis. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Promising antitumor activity has been observed in multiple tumor types with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors. (phacilitate.co.uk)
  • Immune modulating agents, such as ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) therapy, are monoclonal antibodies that block the activation of immune cells. (cancernetwork.com)
  • CTLA-4 is found on the surface of T cells, and cancers use this switch to turn off the body's anti-cancer immune responses. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The anti-tumor effects mediated by the CTLA-4 blockade have been attributed to sustained active immune responses against cancer cells. (cancernetwork.com)
  • PD-1 is a protein found on certain types of T cells, which are part of the immune system. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Because PD-1 prevents T cells from attacking other cells, including in some cases cancer cells, inhibiting PD-1 can facilitate the immune response to cancer. (pipelinereview.com)
  • The data further support a direct effect of TUSC2 on various immune cells which induces a synergistic antitumor immune response. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Oncoprex immunogene therapy is designed to 1) target and kill cancer cells, 2) block mechanisms that create drug resistance, and 3) stimulate natural immune responses against cancer. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Oncoprex combines features of gene therapy and immunotherapy in that it up-regulates the tumor suppressor gene TUSC2, increases the anti-tumor immune cell population, and down-regulates PD-L1 receptors thereby boosting the immune response to cancer. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Once these microbes have breached physical barriers such as the skin or intestinal tract mucosa, they are recognized by TLRs, which activate immune cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in part, due to the presence of Immune receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on the membranes of leukocytes including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune cells that have detected a virus may also release anti-viral factors such as interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since it was first isolated by Nobel Laureates Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen in 1956, numerous biological processes involving NGF have been identified, two of them being the survival of pancreatic beta cells and the regulation of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • After being primed by casein kinase 2 (CK2), glycogen synthase gets phosphorylated at a cluster of three C-terminal serine residues, reducing its activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the consensus sequence residues of a target substrate only make contact with several key amino acids within the catalytic cleft of the kinase (usually through hydrophobic forces and ionic bonds), a kinase is usually not specific to a single substrate, but instead can phosphorylate a whole "substrate family" which share common recognition sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • highly conserved
  • While the catalytic domain of these kinases is highly conserved, the sequence variation that is observed in the kinome (the subset of genes in the genome that encode kinases) provides for recognition of distinct substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • In the process of inflammation, NGF is released in high concentrations by mast cells, and induces axonal outgrowth in nearby nociceptive neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • Interests in anti-aging therapy with appetite regulation improve an individual's survival to metabolic disease induced by gene-environment interactions by maintenance of the anti-aging genes connected to the metabolism of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, drugs and xenobiotics. (scirp.org)
  • Bcl10 and MALT1 appear to cooperate in a signaling complex that specifically links antigen receptor engagement to activation of the cell survival transcription factor NF-kB. (utoronto.ca)
  • The research also shows that TUSC2 in combination with PD-1 blockade has synergistic activity in upregulating natural killer (NK) cells, correlated with prolonged survival in mice. (pipelinereview.com)
  • Virtually every known chemotherapeutic agent has been investigated both as monotherapy and in various combinations, but the clinical response rates have rarely been greater than 20%, with minimal impact on survival ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 15-d-Δ12,14-PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, and PGJ2 share a common mono-unsaturated cyclopentenone structure as well as a set of similar biological activities including the ability to suppress inflammation responses and the growth as well as survival of cells, particularly those of cancerous or neurological origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually cells stay close to the tissue to which they belong since the communication between proximal cells as well as between cells and ECM provide essential signals for growth or survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • High affinity binding between proNGF, sortilin, and p75NTR can result in either survival or programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival and PCD mechanisms are mediated through adaptor protein binding to the death domain of the p75NTR cytoplasmic tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • NF-κB regulates nuclear gene transcription to promote cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • The role that Bcl-10 and MALT1 play in the signaling of a wide variety of other non-antigen specific receptors are being investigated. (utoronto.ca)
  • inhibitors
  • These data suggest that TUSC2 could become a promising new treatment approach to lung cancer, particularly in combination with approved PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors, such as nivolumab," said Julien Pham, M.D., MPH, COO of Genprex. (pipelinereview.com)
  • In this report, we present two patients with renal cell carcinoma and one with melanoma who received PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinicians should refrain from using multiple PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors sequentially outside of clinical trials until there is sufficient data to support this practice routinely. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NSCLC
  • In a June 1 poster discussion (abstract #2060), researchers presented data demonstrating the genetic similarity of brain metastases in patients with NSCLC, breast cancer and melanoma, compared to primary tumors. (prnewswire.com)
  • TUSC2 is a tumor suppressor gene that is lacking in cancer cells of many different cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (pipelinereview.com)
  • Genprex is utilizing its proprietary gene therapy platform to develop Oncoprex as a targeted treatment option suitable for a majority of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. (pipelinereview.com)
  • regulates
  • Interests in the gene-environment interaction indicate that the anti-aging gene Sirt 1that regulates food intake has been repressed early in the aging process in various global populations. (scirp.org)
  • We identified PARK7 (DJ-1), an early onset Parkinson gene as a protein that regulates PTEN functions and oxidative stress. (utoronto.ca)
  • Molecular
  • TLRs are a type of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular building blocks of the TLRs are represented in bacteria and in plants, and plant pattern recognition receptors are well known to be required for host defence against infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective: To assess the expression level of targeting drug-based molecular biomarkers in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) tissues and its clinical significance. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAG1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Consequently, these three cyclopentenone-PGs and the two epoxyisoprostanes are suggested to be models for the development of novel anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation of cell
  • Therefore, in addition to transmitting mechanical forces across otherwise vulnerable membranes, they are involved in cell signaling and the regulation of cell cycle, shape, and motility. (hindawi.com)
  • superfamily
  • This superfamily represents the death domain and other structurally similar domains, including DED, CARD and the DAPIN domain. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 1993
  • Dependence receptors were first identified in 1993 in the laboratory of Dale Bredesen, and their importance in tumorigenesis first described by Mehlen, Bredesen, and their colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hamster cell research in 1993 showed that amplifications in the DHFR gene involved in DNA synthesis began with chromosome break in below the gene, and subsequent cycles of bridge-breakage-fusion formations result in large intrachromosomal repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • imatinib
  • Imatinib works by stopping the Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 1 February 2012, imatinib was approved for use after the surgical removal of KIT-positive tumors to help prevent recurrence. (wikipedia.org)
  • For treatment of progressive plexiform neurofibromas associated with neurofibromatosis type I, early research has shown potential for using the c-KIT tyrosine kinase blocking properties of imatinib. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imatinib is specific for the TK domain in abl (the Abelson proto-oncogene), c-kit and PDGF-R (platelet-derived growth factor receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • As this is now a constitutively active tyrosine kinase, imatinib is used to decrease bcr-abl activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal cell carc
  • Merck and Pfizer Inc. today announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation for avelumab in combination with INLYTA(R) (axitinib)* for treatment-naive patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (perssupport.nl)
  • Avelumab is under clinical investigation for advanced renal cell carcinoma and has not been demonstrated to be safe and effective for this indication. (perssupport.nl)
  • There is no guarantee that avelumab will be approved for advanced renal cell carcinoma by any health authority worldwide. (perssupport.nl)
  • A 54-year-old man underwent a radical nephrectomy which revealed an 11.5 cm pT2bN0M0 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) on pathologic review. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cancers
  • http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/full/66/16/8147 "Frequent Alterations in the Expression of Serine/Threonine Kinases in Human Cancers" Capra et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • Cancer cell heterogeneity, or tumour heterogeneity, is the idea that tumours are made up of different populations of cancer cells that are morphologically, phenotypically and functionally different. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antineoplastic drugs kill susceptible sub-populations and the tumour mass may shrink as an initial response to the drug, resistant cancer cells will survive treatment, be selected and then propagate, eventually causing a cancer relapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cell heterogeneity can cause disease progression when molecularly targeted therapy, fails to kill those tumor cells which do not express the marker, then divide and mutate further, creating a new heterogeneous tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • ECM components through their action on integrin clustering are involved in cell adhesion, cortical actin cytoskeleton organization, and cell spreading [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • GDPD6) has been suggested to promote cell migration, adhesion, and spreading, but its mechanisms of action remain uncertain. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Rho-GTPases are involved in regulating cell morphology (through cytoskeletal organization) and migration (through focal adhesion formation). (wikipedia.org)