• PMID
  • Two types of IL-1 receptor, each with three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, limited sequence similarity (28%) and different pharmacological characteristics have been cloned from mouse and human cell lines: these have been termed type I and type II receptors [ PMID: 8702856 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Both IL-1 receptors appear to be well conserved in evolution, and map to the same chromosomal location [ PMID: 1833184 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The crystal structures of IL1A and IL1B [ PMID: 2602367 ] have been solved, showing them to share the same 12-stranded beta-sheet structure as both the heparin binding growth factors and the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitors [ PMID: 1738162 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A novel method for virus immune evasion has been proposed in which the product of one or both of these proteins may bind interleukin-1 and/or interleukin-6, preventing these cytokines reaching their natural receptors [ PMID: 1826022 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A similar gene product from Cowpox virus (CPV) has also been shown to specifically bind murine IL-1 beta [ PMID: 1339315 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This entry represents Interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (IL1R1), the crystal structure of the soluble extracellular part of type-I IL1R complexed with IL1RA has been determined to 2.7A resolution [ PMID: 9062194 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • TLRs
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) detect microorganisms by recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and IL-1R family members respond the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • TLRs and IL-1R members have a highly conserved amino acid sequence in their cytoplasmic domain called the Toll/Interleukin-1 (TIR) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as specific pattern recognition molecules and the finding that stimulation of TLRs leads to activation of NF-κB improved our understanding of how different pathogens activate NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • The similarity between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and IL-1R is not restricted to sequence homology since these proteins also share a similar signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Components of signalization pathway of IL-1R which are involved in cellular response to IL-1 also mediate responses to other cytokines (IL-18 and IL-33), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and many forms of cytotoxic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • soluble
  • The receptors both exist in transmembrane (TM) and soluble forms: the soluble IL-1 receptor is thought to be post-translationally derived from cleavage of the extracellular portion of the membrane receptors. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • this complex formation may be the dominant mechanism for neutralization of IL1B by secreted/soluble receptors. (genecards.org)
  • As interleukin (IL)-10 is a key immunoregulatory cytokine, we questioned whether neutralization of IL-10 during priming with soluble antigen could prime for a subsequent T helper cell type 1 (Th1) effector recall response. (rupress.org)
  • By using an adoptive transfer model to track the fate of antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic CD4 + T cells, we show that administration of soluble ovalbumin (OVA) protein, but not OVA 323-339 peptide antigen, together with an anti-IL-10 receptor (R) mAb led to the enhancement of a Th1 response upon rechallenge. (rupress.org)
  • Soluble foreign antigen usually leads to a transient clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cells, followed by the deletion and/or functional inactivation of the cells (for review see references 1 and 2). (rupress.org)
  • In some cases, soluble antigen can lead to subsequent unresponsiveness to an immunizing regimen of antigen in adjuvant (for review see references 1 and 2). (rupress.org)
  • Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the abortive immune response initiated by soluble antigen, including deletion or anergy (for review see references 1 and 2). (rupress.org)
  • Soluble ST2 and Interleukin-33 Levels in Coronary Artery Disease: Relation to Disease Activity and Adverse Outcome. (biomedsearch.com)
  • cDNA
  • Publications] D.Yang,H.Hayashi,Y.Hiyama T.Takii,K.Onozaki: 'Transfectionon of human melanoma cells with ytpe I interleukin-1(IL-1)receptor cDNA them IL-1 responsive and revealed the improtance of ODC activity down-regulation in IL-1-induced growth inhibition. (nii.ac.jp)
  • subunits
  • As the results, it was elucidated that such rigid-oligomerization between cytokines and their receptor subunits via the specific glycans is important to modulate immunological response. (nii.ac.jp)
  • functional
  • However, only three of these EF hands are functional in NCS-1 (the most N-terminal EF hand does not bind calcium). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • 2011 ). Binding of acetylcholine to its cognate receptor, α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), on cytokine producing cells inhibits nuclear translocation of NF-kB and inflammasome activation, and suppresses cytokine production (Wang et al. (springer.com)
  • Osteoprotegerin (OPG), which is a decoy receptor homolog for RANK ligand (RANKL), inhibits RANK by binding to RANKL, and, thus, osteoprotegerin is tightly involved in regulating NF-κB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • VEGFR-1 inhibits the activity of VEGFR-2 by sequestering VEGF, thus preventing VEGFR-2 from binding to VEGF. (wikipedia.org)
  • interacts
  • The CD4 receptor in particular interacts with murine MHC-II following the "ball-on-stick" model, where the Phe-43 ball fits into the conserved hydrophobic α2 and β2 domain residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulates
  • 1,2 In particular, Ang II acting via the Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R) stimulates the net sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubules, and an exaggerated effect of Ang II on this process contributes to the development of hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • IL-1 additionally stimulates bone resorption and induces tissue damage like cartilage degradation as a result of loss of proteoglycans. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • IL-1R signalization activates immune response by activation of transcription of IL-1 target genes such as IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, COX-2, IκBα, IL-1α, IL-1β, MKP-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • endogenous
  • Our data, showing that LPS receptor signaling and neutralization of endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines is essential for Th1 priming, has important implications for the design of relevant vaccines for effective in vivo immunotherapy. (rupress.org)
  • neuronal
  • Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) also known as frequenin homolog (Drosophila) (freq) is a protein that is encoded by the FREQ gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The designation 'NCS-1' came from the assumption that the protein was expressed only in neuronal cell types, which is not the case. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCR receptors are also expressed on neuronal cells, such as dendrites and microglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anakinra
  • The study's overall objectives are to evaluate the safety of anakinra in combination with standard chemotherapy regimens in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarinoma, as well as to collect preliminary immune modulation and clinical activity information, overall survival, and serious adverse events related to the study drug. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Peak plasma concentrations of anakinra generally occurred 3 to 7 hours after s.c. administration of clinically relevant doses (1 to 2 mg/kg: n = 18) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Flow cytometric analysis of cytokine receptors on human Langerhans' cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Publications] S.Itoh,H.Hayashi,N.Watanabe,Y.Kobayashi,T.Takii,K.Onozaki: 'Interleukin 1(IL-1)production is not essential for acquired resistance of human melanoma cells A375 to anti-proliferative effect of IL-1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • IRAK
  • Some special/significant features of each IRAK family member: There is some evidence that IRAK-1 functions in regulating other signaling cascades leading to NF-kB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • IRAK-M negatively regulates TLR signaling by inhibiting the IRAK-4/IRAK-1 complex The newest described IRAK family member, IRAK-4, has been found to be critical for the recruitment of IRAK-1 and for its activation/degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear
  • NF-κB is important in regulating cellular responses because it belongs to the category of "rapid-acting" primary transcription factors, i.e., transcription factors that are present in cells in an inactive state and do not require new protein synthesis in order to become activated (other members of this family include transcription factors such as c-Jun, STATs, and nuclear hormone receptors). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen
  • It has been suggested that the dose and form of antigen, the route of administration of antigen, the delivery of appropriate costimulatory signals, and the genetic background of the host may determine whether an antigen primes for an appropriate memory effector response (for review see references 1-3). (rupress.org)