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  • Runx2
  • Runx2 trans-activation mediated by the MSX2-interacting nuclear target requires homeodomain interacting protein kinase-3. (jax.org)
  • Parathyroid Hormone-responsive Smad3-related Factor, Tmem119, Promotes Osteoblast Differentiation and Interacts with the Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Runx2 Pathway. (jax.org)
  • Foxo1 mediates insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/insulin regulation of osteocalcin expression by antagonizing Runx2 in osteoblasts. (jax.org)
  • Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) also known as core-binding factor subunit alpha-1 (CBF-alpha-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • RUNX2 is a key transcription factor associated with osteoblast differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellular dynamics of Runx2 protein are also important for proper osteoblast differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Runx2 protein is detected in preosteoblasts and the expression is upregulated in immature osteoblasts and downregulated in mature osteoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Runx2 is responsible for inducing the differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal cells into immature osteoblasts, as well as activating expression of several key downstream proteins that maintain osteoblast differentiation and bone matrix genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due, in part, to the fact that Runx2 interacts with many cellular proliferation genes on a transcription level, such as c-Myb and C/EBP, as well as p53/ These functions are critical for osteoblast proliferation and maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Runx2 has been shown to interact with several kinases that contribute to facilitate cell-cycle dependent dynamics via direct protein phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phosphorylation state of Runx2 also mediates it's DNA-binding activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, the Runx2 DNA-binding activity is correlated with cellular proliferation, which suggests Runx2 phosphorylation may also be related to Runx2-mediated cellular proliferation and cell cycle control. (wikipedia.org)
  • RUNX2 (NP_004339, 251 a.a. ~ 350 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. (abnova.com)
  • In previous studies by our group, we reported that thymosin beta 4 (Tb4) is closely associated with the initiation and development of the tooth germ, and can induce the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) during the development of the tooth germ. (nih.gov)
  • Schematic illustration of the putative signaling pathways from thymosin beta 4 (Tb4) to runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) in the mDE6 cells. (nih.gov)
  • RUNX2 can upregulate the expression of downstream biological effectors, including odontogenesis-related genes and calcification-related factors. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro transfection studies and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis using hypertrophic MCT cells showed that Runx2 contributes to the transactivation of this promoter via its conserved Runx2 binding sites.When the 4-kb Col10a1 promoter transgene was bred onto a Runx2(+/-) background, the reporter was expressed at lower levels.Together, these data suggest that Col10a1 is a direct transcriptional target of Runx2 during chondrogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Comparative genomic analysis revealed multiple Runx2 (Runt domain transcription factor) binding sites within the proximal human, mouse, and chick Col10a1 promoters. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro transfection studies and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis using hypertrophic MCT cells showed that Runx2 contributes to the transactivation of this promoter via its conserved Runx2 binding sites. (nih.gov)
  • Col10a1 promoter activity is up-regulated via RUNX2 binding elements in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • A) Transactivation of Col10a1 via RUNX2-binding A and B elements. (nih.gov)
  • B) Contribution of RUNX2 binding sites to 4-kb Col10a1 promoter activity. (nih.gov)
  • right) RUNX2 binding sites contribute to 4-kb Col10a1 promoter activity in MCT cells. (nih.gov)
  • When the two Runx2 binding sites were mutated, reporter activity was decreased by 35% compared to that of the wild-type promoter. (nih.gov)
  • interactions
  • Gag-Pol polyprotein: Mediates, with Gag polyrotein, the essential events in virion assembly, including binding the plasma membrane, making the protein-protein interactions necessary to create spherical particles, recruiting the viral Env proteins, and packaging the genomic RNA via direct interactions with the RNA packaging sequence (Psi). (uniprot.org)
  • Fluorescence Anisotropy as a Tool to Study Protein-protein Interactions Abril Gijsbers 1 , Takuya Nishigaki 2 , Nuria Sánchez-Puig 1 1 Departamento de Química de Biomacromoléculas, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2 Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Protein interactions are at the heart of a cell's function. (jove.com)
  • Its interactions with HIF-1α rely on a mobile loop region that helps to enclose the hydroxylation site and helps to stabilize binding of both iron and 2-oxyglutarate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity and also acts as a scaffold to stabilize additional protein interactions with the transcription complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • It plays a key role in regulating the cell cycle via protein-protein interactions with the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • The interferon-inducible p204 protein acts as a transcriptional coactivator of Cbfa1 and enhances osteoblast differentiation. (jax.org)
  • Knock-out of the DNA-binding activity results in inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factor involved in osteoblastic differentiation and skeletal morphogenesis. (abcam.com)
  • Recent results suggest that novel CBP-mediated post-translational N-glycosylation activity alters the conformation of CBP-interacting proteins, leading to regulation of gene expression, cell growth and differentiation, Homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) phosphorylates several regions of CBP close to the N-terminal and close to the C-terminal region as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein ubiquitination and subsequent proteolysis and degradation by the proteasome are important mechanisms in the regulation of the cell cycle, cell growth and differentiation, gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotides
  • It also have subunits that can bind with nucleotides (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, a CCAAT box (also sometimes abbreviated a CAAT box or CAT box) is a distinct pattern of nucleotides with GGCCAATCT consensus sequence that occur upstream by 60-100 bases to the initial transcription site. (wikipedia.org)
  • This same experiment also yielded the same sequence as shown above when using a different oligonucleotide (R2) that contained an ATTGG core and flanked by 12 5' random nucleotides and 10 3' random nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAP locally opens the double-stranded DNA (usually about four turns of the double helix) so that one strand of the exposed nucleotides can be used as a template for the synthesis of RNA, a process called transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAP not only initiates RNA transcription, it also guides the nucleotides into position, facilitates attachment and elongation, has intrinsic proofreading and replacement capabilities, and termination recognition capability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • Analysis of the signal transduction mechanisms underlying the upregulating effect of RA on collagenase-3 expression demonstrated that this factor acts through a signaling pathway involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. (nih.gov)
  • In normoxia, HIF alpha subunits are marked for the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway through hydroxylation of proline-564 and proline-402 by PHD2. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin is a subunit of the cadherin protein complex and acts as an intracellular signal transducer in the Wnt signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, the C-terminal segment of β-catenin can mimic the effects of the entire Wnt pathway if artificially fused to the DNA binding domain of LEF1 transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, plakoglobin is a very weak transactivator when bound to DNA - this is probably caused by the divergence of their C-terminal sequences (plakoglobin appears to lack the transactivator motifs, and thus inhibits the Wnt pathway target genes instead of activating them). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian
  • Beta-catenin was initially discovered in the early 1990s as a component of a mammalian cell adhesion complex: a protein responsible for cytoplasmatic anchoring of cadherins. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • In addition, to gain structural and quantitative insight, we investigated the binding of Securin to p53. (jove.com)
  • These proteins have a structural motif consisting of a 2-layer sandwich structure with an alpha/beta plait topology. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Yet its exact partners among the general transcription complexes are still unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • helices
  • The conserved region contains four alpha helices and three loops arranged as in histone H3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic domain consists of a double-stranded β-helix core that is stabilized by three α-helices packed along the major β-sheet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the domains has 5 alpha helices with a hydrophobic core. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first repeat of β-catenin (near the N-terminus) is slightly different from the others - as it has an elongated helix with a kink, formed by the fusion of helices 1 and 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally, it contains a 33-amino acid ankyrin repeat that forms a series of alpha helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • The base consists of a ring of six AAA ATPases (Subunit Rpt1-6, systematic nomenclature) and four non-ATPase subunits (Rpn1, Rpn2, Rpn10, and Rpn13). (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase from E. coli consists of four different subunit types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core domain consists of two alpha helical structures that form nearly identical domains connected by a short linker region and rotated by 90 degrees between each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C terminus consists of another short alpha helix and a random coil. (wikipedia.org)
  • transactivation
  • Using biophysical techniques, we characterized two fragments of the HIF-1alpha subunit, one the full-length ODD domain (residues 403-603) and the second comprising the N-TAD (N-transactivation domain) and inhibitory domain (residues 530-698). (jove.com)
  • TAF9 is supposed to be a universal transactivation cofactor for 9aaTAD transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CREB protein domains, KIX, TAZ1 and TAZ2, each bind tightly to a sequence spanning both transactivation domains 9aaTADs of transcription factor p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Regulation of adult bone mass by the zinc finger adapter protein Schnurri-3. (jax.org)
  • In addition to participation in proteasome functions, this subunit may participate in transcriptional regulation since it has been shown to interact with the thyroid hormone receptor and retinoid X receptor-alpha. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin is a dual function protein, involved in regulation and coordination of cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only their ARM domains resemble each other in both architecture and ligand binding capacity, but the N-terminal β-TrCP-binding motif is also conserved in plakoglobin, implying common ancestry and shared regulation with β-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • This effect is dose and time dependent, requires the de novo synthesis of proteins, and is mediated by RAR-RXR heterodimers. (nih.gov)
  • Products of RNAP include: Messenger RNA (mRNA)-template for the synthesis of proteins by ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)