• haplotypes
  • HLA-DQ1 is a serotype that covers a broad range of HLA-DQ haplotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrated that many of the alleles that have been associated with liver injury induced by structurally diverse drugs (flucloxacillin, co-amoxiclav, ximelagatran, lapatinib, lumiracoxib) reside on common HLA haplotypes, which were present in populations of diverse ethnicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, there are several HLA-A*02 haplotypes that appear to contribute heavily to higher or lower viral loads in HIV patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multigene haplotypes following standard dynamics only exist in robust populations for a short time, the average distance between genes of about 200,000 nts, which means that over 250 generations (~5000 years) one expects 1/2 of adjacent genes to have new gene-alleles, unless the genes are small and very close together. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the US Caucasians, 57% of haplotypes with a core component, Cw7-B8, extend from HLA-A1 locus to DQ2 locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least two specific combinations of HLA gene variants (HLA haplotypes) have been found to increase the risk of developing celiac disease, a disorder in which inflammation damages the intestinal tract and other organs and tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Other HLA haplotypes only mildly increase the risk of type 1 diabetes, while some haplotypes seem to protect against developing this condition. (nih.gov)
  • antigen
  • HLA-DQ5 (DQ5) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype subgroup within HLA-DQ(DQ) serotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study on the relationship between HLA-DR, DQ antigen, and intracranial aneurysm in the Han nationality show DQ5 more likely, AIDP type of Guillain Barré syndrome, and irritable bowel disease but not crohn's disease in the same (Jewish) population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T210M Substitution in the HLA-a*02:01 gp100 Epitope Strongly Affects Overall Proteasomal Cleavage Site Usage and Antigen Processing. (nih.gov)
  • HLA-DQ9 (DQ9) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human leukocyte antigen ( HLA ) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the genes encoding the 6 major antigen-presenting proteins, there are a large number of other genes, many involved in immune function, located on the HLA complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADRs induced by several drugs have been shown to have significant associations with specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. (hindawi.com)
  • In human, MHC is also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, which consists more than 200 genes on chromosome 6 and can be categorized into three subgroups: class I, class II, and class III. (hindawi.com)
  • The HLA-B*35 antigen contributes to endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis patients. (nih.gov)
  • The HLA-A*02 antigen has been associated with spontaneous abortion in infertile couples. (wikipedia.org)
  • To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. (usc.edu)
  • Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). (usc.edu)
  • 3 MHC class II molecules bind to a CD74 homotrimer (also known as invariant chain or HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain). (usc.edu)
  • genes
  • However, the presence of important immunoregulatory genes within the HLA Class II and III regions raises the possibility that these genes harbour the primary susceptibility locus. (edu.au)
  • Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and sequence specific primers for HLA Class I and II alleles and polymorphisms within the TAP1, TAP2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin α (LTα), heat shock protein (HSP)70-1, HSP70-2 and HSP70-Hom genes. (edu.au)
  • CONCLUSIONS These results show that, of the polymorphisms tested within the MHC, GD is most strongly associated with DRB1*03, and associations with other immunoregulatory genes previously described in Caucasian subjects most likely reflect linkage disequilibrium. (edu.au)
  • HLA genes are highly polymorphic , which means that they have many different alleles , allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA genes have historically been identified as a result of the ability to successfully transplant organs between HLA-similar individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review, we summarized the alleles of HLA genes which have been proposed to have association with ADRs caused by different drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • HLA genes are found to be numerous and highly polymorphic in order to bind various kinds of peptides originated from self or foreign antigens. (hindawi.com)
  • peptides
  • mutant N-terminally extended peptides exhibited significantly increased HLA-A*02:01 binding affinity and elicited CD8(+) T cell stimulation in vitro similar to the wtgp100209-217 epitope. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins from the pathogen are digested into small pieces ( peptides ) and loaded onto HLA antigens (to be specific, MHC class II ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each HLA can bind many peptides, and each person has 3 HLA types and can have 4 isoforms of DP, 4 isoforms of DQ and 4 Isoforms of DR (2 of DRB1, and 2 of DRB3, DRB4, or DRB5) for a total of 12 isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a significant decrease and is almost certainly a result of the abnormally efficient binding of HLA-A*02 to peptides originating from EBV. (wikipedia.org)
  • This high affinity increases the probability of CD8+ t-cell recognition of EBV peptides held by HLA-A*02 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC class II molecule interacts with HLA_DM, and HLA_DO in B-cells, in order to release CLIP and facilitate the binding of antigenic peptides. (usc.edu)
  • peptide
  • Data indicate that adoptive transfer of peptide-induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) cells from HLA-A2 transgenic mice into human tumor xenograft SCID mice significantly inhibited tumor growth. (nih.gov)
  • The image off to the side shows a piece of a poisonous bacterial protein (SEI peptide) bound within the binding cleft portion of the HLA-DR1 molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus any alteration to the HLA that induces decreased binding to a certain peptide or increased binding to a certain peptide, is expressed as, respectively, increased susceptibility to disease or decreased susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • An individual's HLA variants influence peptide binding and signal transduction after T cell receptor (TCR) engagement. (jci.org)
  • polymorphisms
  • Specific TNF and LTα alleles were strongly associated with GD (Pc = 3 × 10−5 and 0·001) and weak associations were seen for HSP70-1 + 190C and HSP70-2 + 1267G polymorphisms (Pc = 0·05 and 0·01). (edu.au)
  • The results show that natural polymorphisms within HIV-1 Nef modulate its interaction with natural polymorphisms in the HLA cytoplasmic tails, thereby affecting the efficiency of HLA downregulation and consequent recognition by HIV-specific T cells. (nih.gov)
  • chromosome
  • The HLA gene complex resides on a 3 Mbp stretch within chromosome 6p 21. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC class I proteins associate with β2-microglobulin , which unlike the HLA proteins is encoded by a gene on chromosome 15 . (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Both of these mechanisms highlight that the unique interaction between drug, T-cell receptor and MHC molecule is a key factor in the development of immune-mediated adverse reactions to drugs and, as such, the study of HLA alleles represents a logical route to study the genetic basis of such immune-mediated reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • type 1 diabet
  • With DR3 this DQ2 has the second strongest linkage to Type 1 diabetes, and when paired with HLA-DQ8 is the most abundant phenotype found in late onset, "Type1-Type2" diabetes mellitus type 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequencies
  • The incidences of abacavir hypersensitivity are much higher in Caucasians compared to other populations due to various allele frequencies in different ethnic populations. (hindawi.com)
  • DQ8.1 also differs from other HLA in population frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • DILI
  • Further functional work, together with next-generation sequencing techniques, will be needed to define the causal alleles associated with DILI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • serotypes
  • As of December 2013, there are 456 alleles identified (mostly by sequence homology) as being A2, of those 27 are nulls, and a large majority have unknown serotypes, although it is highly probable that they will all return A2 serotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic tail
  • HIV produces a protein called Nef that binds to the cytoplasmic tail of HLA-A and B and diverts it to the lysosomes for destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • belongs
  • Any cell displaying that person's HLA type belongs to that person and, therefore, is not an invader. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtypes
  • Understanding the obstacle of incompatibility at residue 156 within HLA-B*35 subtypes. (nih.gov)
  • Patients
  • Promiscuous Recognition of a Trypanosoma cruzi CD8+ T Cell Epitope among HLA-A2, HLA-A24 and HLA-A1 Supertypes in Chagasic Patients. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS For GD, the strongest association was with DRB1*03 [56% patients positive vs. 24% controls, P = 2 × 10−10, odds ratio (OR) 4· (edu.au)
  • The HLA-B*35 allele modulates ER stress, inflammation and proliferation in PBMCs from Limited Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis patients. (nih.gov)
  • Among patients with EBV+ HL, only 35.5% of people expressed HLA-A*02 compared to 50.9% in the EBV-HL group and 53% in the control group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight patients received conditioning with fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling donor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • proteins
  • as of December 2013 there are 456 different HLA-A*02 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HLA complex helps the immune system distinguish the body's own proteins from proteins made by foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • In essence, every individual's immune system is tuned to the specific set of HLA and self proteins produced by that individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA research didn't heat up until the 1980s when a group of researchers finally elucidated the shape of the HLA-A*02 protein (just one of many specific HLA proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Even more recently, in 2010, the WHO committee responsible for naming all HLA proteins revised their standards for naming to introduce more clarity and specificity in the naming system. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • For example, if the cell is infected by a virus, the HLA system brings fragments of the virus to the surface of the cell so that the cell can be destroyed by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • variant
  • An HLA-C amino-acid variant in addition to HLA-B*27 confers risk for ankylosing spondylitis in the Korean population. (nih.gov)
  • induces
  • A HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope induces anti-tumor effects against human lung cancer in mouse xenograft model. (nih.gov)
  • infection
  • the carriage of HLA-A SNP rs1655900 studied is not associated with the susceptibility to CT infection based on the data from the STD cohort. (nih.gov)
  • A SNP in the 3'UTR of HLA-A for Chlamydia trachomatis symptomatology and severity of infection. (nih.gov)
  • For example, hypersensitivity to abacavir, a drug used for treating of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, has been proposed to be associated with allele 57:01 of HLA-B gene (terms HLA-B 57:01 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Association
  • HLA B7-DR15-DQ6 was found to have an association with postmenopausal osteoporosis in a Greek population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study replicated the HLA-B*27 association with acute anterior uveitis , and confirmed that HLA-B*27 homozygosity further increases the risk of AAU almost twofold. (nih.gov)