• haplotypes
  • HLA-DQ1 is a serotype that covers a broad range of HLA-DQ haplotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrated that many of the alleles that have been associated with liver injury induced by structurally diverse drugs (flucloxacillin, co-amoxiclav, ximelagatran, lapatinib, lumiracoxib) reside on common HLA haplotypes, which were present in populations of diverse ethnicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, there are several HLA-A*02 haplotypes that appear to contribute heavily to higher or lower viral loads in HIV patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multigene haplotypes following standard dynamics only exist in robust populations for a short time, the average distance between genes of about 200,000 nts, which means that over 250 generations (~5000 years) one expects 1/2 of adjacent genes to have new gene-alleles, unless the genes are small and very close together. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and sequence specific primers for HLA Class I and II alleles and polymorphisms within the TAP1, TAP2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin α (LTα), heat shock protein (HSP)70-1, HSP70-2 and HSP70-Hom genes. (edu.au)
  • CONCLUSIONS These results show that, of the polymorphisms tested within the MHC, GD is most strongly associated with DRB1*03, and associations with other immunoregulatory genes previously described in Caucasian subjects most likely reflect linkage disequilibrium. (edu.au)
  • In this review, we summarized the alleles of HLA genes which have been proposed to have association with ADRs caused by different drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • HLA genes are found to be numerous and highly polymorphic in order to bind various kinds of peptides originated from self or foreign antigens. (hindawi.com)
  • HLA genes are highly polymorphic , which means that they have many different alleles , allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the genes encoding the 6 major antigen-presenting proteins, there are a large number of other genes, many involved in immune function, located on the HLA complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA genes have historically been identified as a result of the ability to successfully transplant organs between HLA-similar individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • A study on the relationship between HLA-DR, DQ antigen, and intracranial aneurysm in the Han nationality show DQ5 more likely, AIDP type of Guillain Barré syndrome, and irritable bowel disease but not crohn's disease in the same (Jewish) population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T210M Substitution in the HLA-a*02:01 gp100 Epitope Strongly Affects Overall Proteasomal Cleavage Site Usage and Antigen Processing. (nih.gov)
  • The HLA-B*35 antigen contributes to endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis patients. (nih.gov)
  • The HLA-A*02 antigen has been associated with spontaneous abortion in infertile couples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecules
  • Clusters of Structurally Similar MHC I HLA-A2 Molecules, Found with a New Method, Suggest Mechanisms of T-Cell Receptor Avidity. (nih.gov)
  • HLA class I molecules are expressed in almost all the cells and are responsible for presenting peptides to immune cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Diversity of HLAs in the human population is one aspect of disease defense, and, as a result, the chance of two unrelated individuals with identical HLA molecules on all loci is extremely low. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • mutant N-terminally extended peptides exhibited significantly increased HLA-A*02:01 binding affinity and elicited CD8(+) T cell stimulation in vitro similar to the wtgp100209-217 epitope. (nih.gov)
  • Each HLA can bind many peptides, and each person has 3 HLA types and can have 4 isoforms of DP, 4 isoforms of DQ and 4 Isoforms of DR (2 of DRB1, and 2 of DRB3, DRB4, or DRB5) for a total of 12 isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a significant decrease and is almost certainly a result of the abnormally efficient binding of HLA-A*02 to peptides originating from EBV. (wikipedia.org)
  • This high affinity increases the probability of CD8+ t-cell recognition of EBV peptides held by HLA-A*02 complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptibility
  • the carriage of HLA-A SNP rs1655900 studied is not associated with the susceptibility to CT infection based on the data from the STD cohort. (nih.gov)
  • Thus any alteration to the HLA that induces decreased binding to a certain peptide or increased binding to a certain peptide, is expressed as, respectively, increased susceptibility to disease or decreased susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • HLA-A*02 is globally common, but particular variants of the allele can be separated by geographic prominence. (wikipedia.org)
  • An individual's HLA variants influence peptide binding and signal transduction after T cell receptor (TCR) engagement. (jci.org)
  • genetic
  • Genome-wide association studies have underscored the genetic association of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region with autoimmune diseases, in which case various predisposing alleles have been found ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Both of these mechanisms highlight that the unique interaction between drug, T-cell receptor and MHC molecule is a key factor in the development of immune-mediated adverse reactions to drugs and, as such, the study of HLA alleles represents a logical route to study the genetic basis of such immune-mediated reactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • type 1 diabet
  • With DR3 this DQ2 has the second strongest linkage to Type 1 diabetes, and when paired with HLA-DQ8 is the most abundant phenotype found in late onset, "Type1-Type2" diabetes mellitus type 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequencies
  • The incidences of abacavir hypersensitivity are much higher in Caucasians compared to other populations due to various allele frequencies in different ethnic populations. (hindawi.com)
  • DQ8.1 also differs from other HLA in population frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frequency
  • The DR4 serogroup is large and has a number of moderate frequency alleles spread over large regions of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, we utilized HLA genotype data from more than four million individuals from publicly accessible repositories such as the Allele Frequency Net Database, Major Histocompatibility Complex Database and Immune Epitope Database to study the HLA alleles associated with DILI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patients
  • Promiscuous Recognition of a Trypanosoma cruzi CD8+ T Cell Epitope among HLA-A2, HLA-A24 and HLA-A1 Supertypes in Chagasic Patients. (nih.gov)
  • RESULTS For GD, the strongest association was with DRB1*03 [56% patients positive vs. 24% controls, P = 2 × 10−10, odds ratio (OR) 4· (edu.au)
  • The HLA-B*35 allele modulates ER stress, inflammation and proliferation in PBMCs from Limited Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis patients. (nih.gov)
  • HLA-Cw6-positive patients showed a longer psoriasis-arthritis latency period ( p = 0.012). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among patients with EBV+ HL, only 35.5% of people expressed HLA-A*02 compared to 50.9% in the EBV-HL group and 53% in the control group. (wikipedia.org)
  • DILI
  • Further functional work, together with next-generation sequencing techniques, will be needed to define the causal alleles associated with DILI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • serotypes
  • As of December 2013, there are 456 alleles identified (mostly by sequence homology) as being A2, of those 27 are nulls, and a large majority have unknown serotypes, although it is highly probable that they will all return A2 serotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • HIV produces a protein called Nef that binds to the cytoplasmic tail of HLA-A and B and diverts it to the lysosomes for destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtypes
  • Understanding the obstacle of incompatibility at residue 156 within HLA-B*35 subtypes. (nih.gov)
  • downregulation
  • HLA class I downregulation is associated with enhanced NK-cell killing of melanoma cells with acquired drug resistance to BRAF inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Relative Resistance of HLA-B to Downregulation by Naturally Occurring HIV-1 Nef Sequences. (nih.gov)
  • proteins
  • as of December 2013 there are 456 different HLA-A*02 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In essence, every individual's immune system is tuned to the specific set of HLA and self proteins produced by that individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA research didn't heat up until the 1980s when a group of researchers finally elucidated the shape of the HLA-A*02 protein (just one of many specific HLA proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Even more recently, in 2010, the WHO committee responsible for naming all HLA proteins revised their standards for naming to introduce more clarity and specificity in the naming system. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • A HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope induces anti-tumor effects against human lung cancer in mouse xenograft model. (nih.gov)
  • infection
  • A SNP in the 3'UTR of HLA-A for Chlamydia trachomatis symptomatology and severity of infection. (nih.gov)
  • For example, hypersensitivity to abacavir, a drug used for treating of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, has been proposed to be associated with allele 57:01 of HLA-B gene (terms HLA-B 57:01 ). (hindawi.com)
  • immune
  • For example, if the cell is infected by a virus, the HLA system brings fragments of the virus to the surface of the cell so that the cell can be destroyed by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In essence, there are indicators, albeit from a small study comparing HLA expression in fertile and infertile couples, that HLA-A*02 may induce increased maternal immune response to the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoantibodies
  • We modeled the influence of carrying a TCF7L2 variant (i.e., having 1 or 2 minor alleles) on the number of islet autoantibodies and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-stimulated C-peptide and glucose measures at diabetes diagnosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Association
  • HLA B7-DR15-DQ6 was found to have an association with postmenopausal osteoporosis in a Greek population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study replicated the HLA-B*27 association with acute anterior uveitis , and confirmed that HLA-B*27 homozygosity further increases the risk of AAU almost twofold. (nih.gov)