• genes
  • The MHC proteins are encoded by HLA genes (human leukocyte antigens) and have changed little in structure during their evolution. (sunyorange.edu)
  • Unlike most genes in the genomes, there appears to be a selective pressure to create variation in these genes and most alleles differ by multiple nucleotides. (sunyorange.edu)
  • Individual MHC genes may exist with more than 100 alleles in some species and are the most polymorphic vertebrate genes known (Penn, 1998). (sunyorange.edu)
  • Some MHC genes have more than 400 alleles ( Anzai , 2003). (sunyorange.edu)
  • However, identification of causal variants within the MHC for the majority of these diseases has remained difficult due to the great variability and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) that exists among alleles throughout this locus, coupled with inadequate study design whereby only a limited subset of about 20 from a total of approximately 250 genes have been studied in small cohorts of predominantly European origin. (plos.org)
  • 2009, Genomewide Association Study of an AIDS-Nonprogression Cohort Emphasizes the Role Played by HLA Genes (ANRS Genomewide Association Study 02). (usc.edu)
  • Certain HLA DR and DQ genes have known involvement in autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • HPV-positive tumor cells present antigens of the viral protein in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I that can be recognized by CTLs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Peste des petits ruminants virus that causes a highly infectious and often fatal disease of sheep and goats is confirmed by various diagnostic techniques among them being isolation of the virus from cell culture systems, viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) detection by molecular assays, and viral antigen detection by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC ELISA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and AGAR gel test. (ac.ke)
  • The presence of such T cells with very high functional avidity for the viral antigens can explain why the effect of peptide competition is relatively minor within the CEF-pool. (mdpi.com)
  • HLA-A*02-C*16 and HLA-A*02-B*45 have been shown to contribute to significantly increased viral loads (greater than 100,000 copies per milliliter). (wikipedia.org)
  • locus
  • However, because of the extensive LD that exists among alleles throughout this locus, the causal MHC variant(s) have remained elusive for the great majority of diseases. (plos.org)
  • For A*02, the α chain is encoded by the HLA-A*02 gene and the β chain is encoded by the B2M locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • Nonrandom association (or LD) in the inheritance of alleles at multiple loci within the MHC was demonstrated as early as 1968 . (plos.org)
  • Genotypes
  • Significant Association of HLA-B Alleles and Genotypes in Thai Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study. (nih.gov)
  • Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have been found to be associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, allergies and inflammatory bowel diseases, and there are emerging evidences of correlations between HLA genotypes and renal diseases such as diabetic nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, and glomerulonephritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • encodes
  • HLA DR3-DQ2 encodes DQ2.5cis isoform of HLA-DQ, this isoform is described frequently as 'the DQ2 isoform', but in actuality there are two major DQ2 isoform. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune response
  • These influences on antigen presentation are key during thymic selection processes and peripheral activation of the immune response. (jci.org)
  • Subsequently, Baruj Benacerraf described the importance of these antigens in the immune response . (plos.org)
  • In essence, there are indicators, albeit from a small study comparing HLA expression in fertile and infertile couples, that HLA-A*02 may induce increased maternal immune response to the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • An individual's HLA variants influence peptide binding and signal transduction after T cell receptor (TCR) engagement. (jci.org)
  • HLA-A*02 is globally common, but particular variants of the allele can be separated by geographic prominence. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • Because the expression of classic and nonclassic HLA antigens is crucial for the recognition and elimination of tumor cells by cytotoxic T and/or NK cells, we analyzed the HLA-A, -B, -C, and -G expression in uveal melanoma specimens from 18 patients. (arvojournals.org)
  • human
  • Shortly afterward, Jean Dausset recognized the human MHC, or human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, so named because Dausset originally demonstrated MHC antigens on the surface of white blood cells . (plos.org)
  • variant
  • An HLA-C amino-acid variant in addition to HLA-B*27 confers risk for ankylosing spondylitis in the Korean population. (nih.gov)
  • 0501
  • This is one area of Europe where the B18-DR3 level is relatively different from Cw5-B18, as it appears there was a rare recombination event in the evolution of Cw5-B18-DR3 that lead to the replacement of Cw*0501 with Cw*1201. (wikipedia.org)
  • designation
  • In order to standardize the HLA designation of prior low-resolution typings with the more advanced DNA based typings, all HLA-A, −B and -DR were analyzed using a low resolution serologic equivalent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • common
  • HLA-A2 is also common in the general population, being present in about 50% of individuals of European descent. (jci.org)
  • However B18 found in the Middle East is linked to B18-DR11 (DR11 is very common in the Eastern Mediterranean). (wikipedia.org)
  • class
  • This (highly artificial) way of presenting antigen to the CD8 T cell is at the very heart of immune monitoring when the infectious agent itself cannot be introduced into the assay system utilizing the natural endogenous Class I presentation pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Rheumatology international 2009 29(11):1293-9, HLA-Cw*06 class I region rather than MICA is associated with psoriatic arthritis in Czech population. (usc.edu)
  • In parallel, patients were typed for HLA-A, -B, and -C class I antigens by PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). (arvojournals.org)
  • A considerable portion of the uveal melanomas tested showed a loss of classic HLA class I antigens, which may enable them to escape from the immunosurveillance of cytotoxic T cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • infection
  • Unlike exhaustion markers such as PD-1, Tim-3, 2B4 and CD160, LAG-3 is poorly expressed on bulk and antigen-specific T cells during chronic HIV infection and its expression on innate lymphocyte subsets is not well understood. (ac.ke)
  • targets
  • Such antigens may represent therapeutic targets for posttransplant vaccination or adoptive T-cell therapy to augment the antitumor effects of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Neoepitopes derived from post-translational modifications of native antigens are emerging as novel targets that are more likely to evade self-tolerance. (jci.org)
  • cells
  • these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. (ac.ke)
  • CD8 + CTL-recognizing minor H antigens on tumor cells can be isolated posttransplant and could contribute to the graft- versus -tumor effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The CD8 T cell system has evolved to recognize antigens that are actively biosynthesized in cells. (mdpi.com)
  • These basic rules of antigen presentation permit CD8 T cells to identify and destroy cells that are actively infected while sparing bystander cells that may have acquired the antigen without themselves being infected. (mdpi.com)
  • Studies of organ donors with T1D that have examined T cells in pancreas, the diabetogenic insulitis lesion, and lymphoid tissues have revealed a broad repertoire of target antigens and T cell receptor (TCR) usage, with initial evidence of public TCR sequences that are shared by individuals with T1D. (jci.org)
  • HLA-A*02 appears to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a manner that inhibits HIV replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • Study replicated the HLA-B*27 association with acute anterior uveitis , and confirmed that HLA-B*27 homozygosity further increases the risk of AAU almost twofold. (nih.gov)
  • Thus
  • Thus any alteration to the HLA that induces decreased binding to a certain peptide or increased binding to a certain peptide, is expressed as, respectively, increased susceptibility to disease or decreased susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • The current work suggests that HLA-DR3 (odds ratio = 1.91, 95 % CI = 1.098-3.324, P = 0.024, Pc = 0.312) and HLA-DR11 (odds ratio = 2.06, 95 % CI = 1.133-3.761, P = 0.021, P c = 0.273) may represent susceptibility risk factors for the development of ESRD in Taiwanese individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HLA-A*02 has been linked with decreased risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Hodgkin lymphoma(HL). (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • The HLA-B*35 antigen contributes to endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis patients. (nih.gov)
  • The HLA-B*35 allele modulates ER stress, inflammation and proliferation in PBMCs from Limited Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis patients. (nih.gov)
  • Eight patients received conditioning with fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling donor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD8 + CTL clones recognizing minor H antigens were isolated from five patients studied. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, HLA-A2 and -G expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tumor sections from these patients. (arvojournals.org)
  • The information of 141 ESRD patients was obtained from the medical record of the Keelung branch of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and was compared to the HLA type of a control group comprized of 190 healthy unrelated Taiwanese from one of our previous studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among patients with EBV+ HL, only 35.5% of people expressed HLA-A*02 compared to 50.9% in the EBV-HL group and 53% in the control group. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • KIR-3DL2 binding to HLA-B27 licenses Th17 cell differentiation in spondyloarthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Activation-Induced Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor 3DL2 Binding to HLA-B27 Licenses Pathogenic T Cell Differentiation in Spondyloarthritis. (nih.gov)
  • region
  • The level of B18-DR3 peaks in Sardinia but is also very high in the Basque region of Northern Spain. (wikipedia.org)
  • appears
  • In summation, HLA-A*02 appears to be somewhat less effective than other HLA-As at protecting against HIV infections. (wikipedia.org)