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  • GTPases
  • Toward a comprehensive map of the effectors of rab GTPases. (nih.gov)
  • a Eukaryotic Ras-like GTPases are generally defined by membership to four superfamilies, Ras, Arf, Rho, and Rab/Ran. (nih.gov)
  • Most Rab GTPases are approximately 24 kDa in molecular weight, and comprise ~220 amino acids, as indicated. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of Rab small GTPases in epithelial Caco-2 cells: Rab21 is an apically located GTP-binding protein in polarised intestinal epithelial cells. (ru.nl)
  • Determinants of the broad recognition of exocytic Rab GTPases by Mss4" by Zhongyuan Zhu, Anna M. Delprato et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Rab GTPases function as essential regulators of vesicle transport between subcellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Mss4, an evolutionarily conserved Rab accessory factor, facilitates nucleotide release and binds tightly to the nucleotide-free form of exocytic but not endocytic Rab GTPases. (umassmed.edu)
  • A structure-based mutational analysis of residues that are conserved only in exocytic Rab GTPases reveals three residues that are critical determinants of the broad specificity recognition of exocytic Rab GTPases by Mss4. (umassmed.edu)
  • The complementarity of the corresponding interaction surfaces suggests a hypothetical structural model for the complex between Mss4 and Rab GTPases. (umassmed.edu)
  • GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) from pathogenic bacteria and eukaryotic host organisms deactivate Rab GTPases by supplying catalytic arginine and glutamine fingers in trans and utilizing the cis-glutamine in the DXXGQ motif of the GTPase for binding rather than catalysis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Other Rab GTPases with similar mutations in the N(T)KxD motif were never found in inclusions, suggesting that the unusual localization of Rab24 is not related solely to misfolding of its nucleotide-free form. (nih.gov)
  • Rab GTPases cycles between the cytosolic compartment, where it is bound to a protein called GDI (GDP Dissociation Inhibitor), and the membrane, where it interacts with a receptor, a nucleotide exchange factor, a GAP (GTPase Activating Protein) and probably other factors that link it to the appropriate SNARE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel
  • The results suggest that the Mso1p C terminus is important for Sec1p(1-657) targeting.The BiFC results suggest that Mso1p acts in close association with Sec4p on intracellular membranes in the bud.Our results reveal a novel binding mode between the Sec1p C-terminal tail and the SNARE complex, and suggest a role for Mso1p as an effector of Sec4p. (nih.gov)
  • Our results reveal a novel binding mode between the Sec1p C-terminal tail and the SNARE complex, and suggest a role for Mso1p as an effector of Sec4p. (nih.gov)
  • hydrolysis
  • B) GTP hydrolysis by the indicated wild-type, GST-tagged Rab loaded with [γ-32P]GTP and incubated with 2 μM of either wild-type or mutant TBC1D9B-(301-810) for 60 min at 30°C. Data are corrected for reactions lacking the TBC1D9B fragment. (nih.gov)
  • C) Kinetics of Rab11a GTP hydrolysis loaded with [γ-32P]GTP and incubated with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 μM recombinant TBC1D9B-(301-810). (nih.gov)
  • D) Initial rates of Rab11a GTP hydrolysis plotted against the concentration of wild-type or mutant TBC1D9B-(301-810). (nih.gov)
  • GTPase
  • TBC1D9B functions as a GTPase-activating protein for Rab11a in polarized MDCK cells. (nih.gov)
  • b Ribbon representation of Rab GTPase emphasizing the positions of Rab family (RabF) and subfamily (RabSF) motifs. (nih.gov)
  • The spatial disposition of these residues with respect to the structure of Rab3A correlates with the dimensions of the elongated Rab interaction epitope in Mss4 and supports a mode of interaction similar to that of other exchange factor-GTPase complexes. (umassmed.edu)
  • The Legionella pneumophila GTPase activating protein LepB accelerates " by Ashwini K. Mishra, Claudia M. Del Campo et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Members of the Rab GTPase family regulate intracellular protein trafficking, but the specific function of Rab24 remains unknown. (nih.gov)
  • We show that, in addition to Sec1p, Mso1p can bind the Rab-GTPase Sec4p in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • 2001
  • 2001). CG31064, the Drosophila ortholog of these proteins, showed a strong and highly specific interaction with Rab4 under both lysis conditions (which we confirmed to be GTP-specific using a GFP-tagged CG31064), indicating that the Rab4-GTP was functional (Figures 4A and 4B). (nih.gov)
  • 2001). In addition, the putative catalytic residues (R559, Y592, and Q594) of TBC1D9B were exposed similarly to those of TBC1D4 and other TBC proteins such as Gyp1p (unpublished data). (nih.gov)
  • Rabs
  • hence, their role remains unclear.For many Rabs, this revealed specific interactions with Drosophila orthologs of known effectors.In addition, we found numerous Rab-specific interactions with known components of membrane traffic as well as with diverse proteins not previously linked to organelles or having no known function. (nih.gov)
  • B) Anti-GFP immunoblot of affinity chromatography of lysates from S2 cells expressing GFP-CG31064 (FYVE domain form) or CG7371-GFP using GDP- and GTP-locked Rabs. (nih.gov)
  • Note that many Rabs, for example Rab11, participate extensively in transport routes and hence the localization of this protein is quite extensive. (nih.gov)
  • Rab8, but not several other Rabs implicated in ciliary assembly, binds to the CTS in a coimmunoprecipitation assay. (nih.gov)
  • GDIs slow the rate of dissociation of GDP from rab proteins and release GDP from membrane-bound rabs. (wikipedia.org)
  • preferentially
  • The results show that the Sec1p tail binds preferentially ternary Sso1p-Sec9p-Snc2p complexes and it enhances ternary SNARE complex formation in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • This protein preferentially binds to the SH3 domain of c-Abl kinase, and acts as a regulator of MAPK1/ERK2 kinase, which may contribute to its ability to reduce the tumorigenic phenotype in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Rab4 Interacts with a Second Form of the GARP Complex(A) Proteins isolated from cell lysates ranked by S score for interaction with GST-Rab4 (detergent-free, lighter gray). (nih.gov)
  • These effects are independent of the pumping function of Na/K-ATPase, and instead depend on interaction between Na/K-ATPase and Cav1 mediated by an N-terminal caveolin-binding motif within the ATPase alpha1 subunit. (nih.gov)
  • 2004). To determine whether the interaction between Na/K-ATPase and Cav1 plays a role in regulating caveolar vesicle trafficking, we first performed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis to test whether these two proteins have the potential to directly interact in live cells. (nih.gov)
  • RAB7A functions as a key regulator in endo-lysosomal trafficking, governs early-to-late endosomal maturation, microtubule minus-end as well as plus-end directed endosomal migration and positions, and endosome-lysosome transport through different protein-protein interaction cascades. (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • Known Rab4 effector marked in red, and other proteins with links to membrane traffic are indicated. (nih.gov)
  • One of these residues is located at the N-terminus of the switch I region near the nucleotide binding site whereas the other two flank an exposed hydrophobic triad previously implicated in effector recognition. (umassmed.edu)
  • RILP plays the role of a downstream effector for Rab7 and together both of these proteins act to regulate late endocytic traffic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Golgi
  • Adaptor protein complex 1 is found on the cytoplasmic face of vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates both the recruitment of clathrin to the membrane and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transport vesicles can move molecules between locations inside the cell, e.g., proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these proteins mature in the Golgi apparatus before going to their final destination which may be to lysosomes, peroxisomes, or outside of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • RAB7a was cloned by screening a human placenta cDNA library with a rat Rab7 cDNA to show that the RAB7a cDNA encodes a 207-amino acid protein whose sequence is 99% identical to those of mouse, rat, and dog Rab7a and 61% identical to that of yeast Rab7a. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • In mechanistic studies, cholesterol loading of macrophage plasma membranes (cyclodextrin-cholesterol) or endosomal system (AcLDL+U18666A or Npc1 null mutation) activated Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, leading to sustained phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induction of p38 targets, including Ctsk, S100a8, Mmp8, and Mmp14. (umassmed.edu)
  • The Sec1/Munc18 protein family members perform an essential, albeit poorly understood, function in association with soluble n-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor adaptor protein receptor (SNARE) complexes in membrane fusion. (nih.gov)
  • Interactions
  • A total of five RabSF regions and four RabF regions have been described, and these correspond to surface loops involved in protein-protein interactions. (nih.gov)
  • However, we cannot yet eliminate the possibility that these phenomena are related to unusual non-physiological protein interactions with the mutant form of Rab24. (nih.gov)
  • Other key interactions include RAC1 (By similarity), NTRK1/TRKA (By similarity), C9orf72 (By similarity), CHM (the substrate-binding subunit of the Rab geranylgeranyltransferase complex), and RILP, as well as PSMA7, RNF115 and FYCO1. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotide
  • The functions of other Rab proteins have been defined through the use of dominant-negative mutants with amino acid substitutions in the conserved N(T)KxD nucleotide binding motif. (nih.gov)
  • plasma membrane
  • When the plasma membrane signals were analyzed, we found significant FRET between this pair of proteins (Fig. 4, A and B), indicating that the Na/K-ATPase and Cav1 are likely to interact in the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • subunit
  • These were found with or without detergent, and we were able to confirm that GARP subunit binding is GTP specific (Figure 4B). (nih.gov)
  • Their structure comprises two domains: domain I include the Rab binding platform, whereas domain II in REP mediates binding to the alpha-subunit of RGGTase [29, (nih.gov)
  • catalytic
  • In addition to expanding GTP hydrolytic paradigms, these observations reveal the unconventional dual finger and non-canonical catalytic network mechanisms of Rab GAPs as necessary alternative solutions to a major impediment imposed by substitution of the conserved P-loop glycine. (umassmed.edu)
  • mediate
  • a Organelles and transport routes for major conserved pathways are shown, with Rab proteins known to mediate each step show as red lozenges . (nih.gov)
  • Gene
  • UNC13B (Unc-13 Homolog B) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include signal transducer activity and diacylglycerol binding . (genecards.org)
  • By employing the reporter gene, anti-core protein compounds can be screened by just bioluminescence imaging the Fluc activity in entire animals underneath correct physiological circumstances. (rgsinhibitor.com)
  • Washington DC, USA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Description: Human chromosome 4: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM Name: humchr04.txt Release: 2018_11 of 05-Dec-2018 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- This documents lists all the human protein sequence entries whose genes are known to be encoded on chromosome 4 in this release of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. (uniprot.org)
  • LRRK2 , encoding leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine-protein kinase 2, is the only gene in which pathogenic variants are known to cause LRRK2 -related PD. (nih.gov)
  • DENND6B (DENN Domain Containing 6B) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Ras-related protein Rab-27A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB27A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cluster of CpG dinucleotides clustered together is called a CpG island, and in mammals, these CpG islands are one of the major classes of gene promoters, onto or around which transcription factors may bind and transcription can begin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methylation of CpG dinucleotides and/or islands within gene promoters is associated with transcriptional repression via interference of transcription factor binding and recruitment of transcriptional repressors with methyl binding domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • EVI5L (Ecotropic Viral Integration Site 5-Like) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EVI5L gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the main transcription factors predicted to bind to the promoter includes: activator-, mediator- and TBP-dependent core promoter element for RNA polymerase II transcription from TATA-less promoters, p53 tumor suppressor, brachyury gene, mesoderm developmental factor, EGR/nerve growth factor induced protein C & related factors, and GLI zinc finger family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FLCN gene encodes a novel 64 kDa protein, FLCN, which is highly conserved across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • C9orf72 (chromosome 9 open reading frame 72) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the gene C9orf72. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rab escort protein 1 (REP1) also known as rab proteins geranylgeranyltransferase component A 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CHM gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes component A of the RAB geranylgeranyl transferase holoenzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rab5 GDP/GTP exchange factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RABGEF1 gene. (wikipedia.org)

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  • genes
  • genes encoding mG-proteins were found. (deepdyve.com)
  • the more tightly the DNA is bound by the nucleosome, and the more tightly a string of nucleosomes are compressed among each other, the greater the repressive effect on transcription of genes in the DNA sequences near or wrapped around the histones, and vice versa (i.e. looser DNA binding and relaxed compaction leads to a comparatively derepressed state, resulting in facultative heterochromatin or, even further derepressed, euchromatin). (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • NewEast Biosciences Rab5B Activation Assay Kit bases on the configuration-specific anti-Rab5-GTP monoclonal antibody to measure the active Rab5B-GTP levels, either from cell extracts or from in vitro GTP?S loading Rab5B activation assays. (neweastbio.com)
  • In examining the effects of PD-associated mutations and risk factors on protein function, we found that conserved substitutions such as G2019S affect human and mouse LRRK2 proteins similarly, but variation around position 2385, which is not fully conserved between humans and mice, induces divergent in vitro behavior. (springer.com)
  • Measurement of in vitro Rab-GAP activity has shown that EVI5L has significant Rab2A- and Rab10-GAP activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coimmunoprecipitation experiments with FNIP1 and FLCN expressed in HEK293 cells and in vitro binding assays have shown that the C-terminus of FLCN and amino acids 300 to 1166 of FNIP1 are required for optimal FLCN-FNIP1 binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinetic experiments with Rab11a/b and Rab11-interacting proteins (FIPs) indicate that FIPs cannot differentiate between GTP-bound Rab11a and Rab11b in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rab5-GDP
  • NewEast Biosciences Rab5B Activation Assay Kit is based on the configuration-specific monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes Rab5-GTP, but not Rab5-GDP, and a Rab5B specific rabbit polyclonal antibody. (neweastbio.com)
  • nucleotide
  • Conserved active-site residues in the Rab switch II region stabilising the nucleotide-free form differentiate these pathways. (ox.ac.uk)
  • All of these proteins are in the guanosine nucleotide-binding protein family There are 63 orthologs of EVI5L that have been identified including mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of germline FLCN mutations identified in BHD patients are loss-of-function mutations including frameshift mutations (insertion/deletion), nonsense mutations, and splice site mutations that are predicted to inactivate the FLCN protein, although some missense mutations have been reported that exchange one nucleotide for another and consequently result in a different amino acid at the mutation site. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Detergent resistance is the much more widely used of the two but, as with any biochemical fractionation, both methods are plagued by issues of contamination from nonraft proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Here we overcome this problem by applying a recently described method in quantitative proteomics [stable isotope-labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) ( 9 )] to directly determine the subset of cholesterol-dependent proteins in the biochemical preparation. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that proteins from different species have different biochemical properties, with the mouse protein being more stable but having significantly lower kinase activity compared to the human orthologue. (springer.com)
  • differentiate
  • In most cases, the Leu population of cells received the drug to more easily differentiate contaminating proteins from authentic proteins being altered by the treatment (see Results and Discussion ). (pnas.org)
  • residues
  • DNA methylation occurs on the cytosine of CpG dinucleotides in the genomic sequence, and protein methylation occurs on the amino termini of the core histone proteins - most commonly on lysine residues (Bradley et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • EVI5L has an unusually large amount of glutamic acid residues, compared to similar proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • SRPK2 is a Serine/arginine rich protein-specific kinase which specifically phosphorylates its substrates at serine residues located in regions rich in arginine/serine dipeptides, known as RS domains and is involved in the phosphorylation of SR splicing factors and the regulation of splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • A-C. Primary mouse glial cells (A), N2a cells (B) or NIH 3t3 cells (C) were transfected with Flag-tagged human or mouse LRRK2, or mock transfected and protein levels measured by western blot using a flag antibody. (springer.com)
  • Kinase
  • EVI5L has been shown to interact with NUDT18 (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 18 and SRPK2 (serine/threonine-protein kinase 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • FLCN has been shown to interact through its C-terminus with two novel proteins, folliculin interacting protein 1 (FNIP1) and folliculin interacting protein 2 (FNIP2/FNIPL) , and indirectly through FNIP1 and FNIP2 with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). (wikipedia.org)
  • active
  • The bound active Rab5 will then be pulled down by protein A/G agarose. (neweastbio.com)
  • For DENND1-Rab35 and DrrA-Rab1 the Rab active-site glutamine, often mutated to create constitutively active forms, is involved in GEF mediated GDP-release. (ox.ac.uk)
  • May act as scaffold protein that regulates neurotransmitter release at the active zone. (rcsb.org)
  • human
  • However, the characteristics of human LRRK2 and mouse Lrrk2 protein have not previously been directly compared. (springer.com)
  • Overall our results indicate that structural differences between human and mouse LRRK2 are likely responsible for the different properties we have observed for these two species of LRRK2 protein. (springer.com)
  • A one phase decay non-linear regression equation was used to calculate half-life of each protein (Human LRRK2: half-life = 3.83h, 95%CI=2.71-5.68, R 2 =0.84. (springer.com)
  • Mouse LRRK2 is expressed at higher levels than human protein in mouse cells. (springer.com)
  • B. Quantification of IP for Flag-tagged proteins relative to inputs for indicated human and mouse constructs from n =3 independent experiments. (springer.com)
  • Folliculin also known as FLCN, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome protein or FLCN_HUMAN is a protein that in humans is associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome and hereditary spontaneous pneumothorax. (wikipedia.org)