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  • genes
  • These genes regulate the synthesis of type I collagen pro-alpha polypeptide chains, proteins involved in type I collagen processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and proteins involved in osteoblast function. (dovepress.com)
  • The aberrant forms of the WNT1 protein showed impaired capacity to induce canonical WNT signalling, target genes, and mineralization. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. (bio-rad.com)
  • Among the confirmed Wnt-1 responsive genes, we further characterized a mouse homolog of the human transcription factor Basic Transcription Element Binding protein 2 (BTEB2), Wnt-1 Responsive Cdc42 homolog (Wrch-1), and Wnt-1 Induced Secreted Protein (WISP-1). (nih.gov)
  • This elevated monomeric form of β-catenin binds to proteins including T-cell factor-4 (TCF-4), lymphoid enhancement factor, or pangolin 24 - 26 to translocate to the nucleus, where they control the transcription of target genes including c-myc and cyclin-D1, among others. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Transport of small hydrophilic substances across cell membranes is mediated by substrate-specific transporter proteins which have been classified into several families of related genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of the major genes that affect the metencephalon are Fgf8 and Wnt1, which are both expressed around the isthmus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complex enhances transcription of specific genes, including Wnt1 and the metastasis-associated protein KAI1, and thereby causes cancer growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions of MTA1 are regulated by its post-translational modifications, modulating the roles of effector molecules, interacting with other regulatory proteins and chromatin remodeling machinery, and modulating the expression of target genes via interacting with the components of the NuRD complex including HDACs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel genes and their protein products that are expressed during the process are under active investigation in many laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • This protein interacts and thus activatesTAK1 kinase. (techblessing.com)
  • The secreted protein, wnt, binds to its receptor frizzled to inactivate glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) by hypophosphorylation 18 - 20 and activation of disheveled through an unknown mechanism. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This enzyme is a member of the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, although not explicitly designated as such (it does not even have a numbered MAPK code). (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein can also interact with and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14/p38alpha), and thus represents an alternative activation pathway, in addition to the MAPKK pathways, which contributes to the biological responses of MAPK14 to various stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Telomerase is a protein complex with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), an RNA component (TERC), dyskerin, which binds TERC, reptin, pontin, and a number of other proteins, and both reptin and pontin have been shown to be key factors in telomerase assembly and activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • After Wnt binds, an intracellular protein named Dishevelled (Dvl) is activated via phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • type I collag
  • They and others have known for a long time that most families with children who had the genetic brittle bone disease osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) often carry mutations in type I collagen, the most abundant protein in bone. (healthcanal.com)
  • family
  • However, WISP-2 is unique among this family of proteins by lacking precisely the CT domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wnt proteins constitute a family of secreted glyocoproteins that activate signal transduction pathways to mediate tissue homeostasis, cell fate, cell proliferation, and self-renewal. (fishersci.co.uk)
  • The neurogenic locus notch homolog 4 protein is a member of the Notch family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of this type 1 transmembrane protein family share structural characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notch protein family members play a role in a variety of developmental processes by controlling cell fate decisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reptin is a tumor repressor protein that is a member of the ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities (AAA+) helicase family and regulates KAI1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acronym CCN is derived from the first three members of the family discovered, namely CYR61 (cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 or CCN1), CTGF (connective tissue growth factor or CCN2), and NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed or CCN3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the CCN protein family are characterized by having four conserved cysteine-rich domains, which include the insulin-like growth factor-binding domain (IGFBP), the Von Willebrand factor type C domain (VWC), the thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR), and a C-terminal domain (CT) with a cysteine knot motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) is a member of the SFRP family that contains a cysteine-rich domain homologous to the putative Wnt-binding site of Frizzled proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) family consists of five secreted glycoproteins in humans (SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP3, SFRP4, SFRP5) that act as extracellular signaling ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • osteoblast
  • Another surprising finding was that WNT1 was not made primarily by the osteoblast -the primary bone forming cells that line the surface of bone. (healthcanal.com)
  • TAK1
  • It has been shown that the C-terminal portion of this protein is sufficient for binding and activation of TAK1, while a portion of the N-terminus acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of TGF beta, suggesting that this protein may function as a mediator between TGF beta receptors and TAK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor
  • Hint1 is a tumor suppressing protein that counteracts cancer by inhibiting TCF-β-catenin complex function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-genomic mechanisms of MTA1 expression include post-transcriptional regulations such as ubiquitination by RING-finger ubiquitin-protein ligase COP1 or interaction with tumor suppressor ARF or micro-RNAs such as miR-30c, miR-661 and miR-125a-3p. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • It presents itself as a member of a number of different protein complexes, most of which function in chromatin modification, including PRC1, TIP60/NuA4 and INO80. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • Proteins that incorporate vWF domains participate in numerous biological events (e.g. cell adhesion, migration, homing, pattern formation, and signal transduction), involving interaction with a large array of ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction between SFRPs and Wnt proteins prevents the latter from binding the Fz receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • WNT signaling plays a central role in much of development, including bone growth, but there are 19 WNT proteins in humans. (healthcanal.com)
  • phosphorylation
  • Regulation of c-Myb through protein phosphorylation and leucine zipper interactions. (nih.gov)
  • It is a highly divergent, atypical member of the MAPK group, lacking most features so characteristic of most mitogen-activated protein kinases (e.g. it does not have the dual phosphorylation motifs of typical MAPKs, and is not phosphorylated by any known MAP2 kinases). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The ED50 of this protein, as determined by human BMP-2 (200ng/mL) induction of alkaline phosphatase production by murine ATDC5 cells, is 1.5-2.5ng/mL. (fishersci.co.uk)
  • MTA1 is one of the most upregulated proteins in human cancer and associates with cancer progression, aggressive phenotypes, and poor prognosis of cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Willebrand
  • CCN proteins characteristically contain an N-terminal secretory signal peptide followed by four structurally distinct domains with homologies to insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP), von Willebrand type C repeats (vWC), thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR), and a cysteine knot motif within the C-terminal (CT) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The domain is named after the von Willebrand factor (VWF) type C repeat which is found in multidomain protein/multifunctional proteins involved in maintaining homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Transport of small hydrophilic substances across cell membranes is mediated by substrate-specific transporter proteins which have been classified into several families of related genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel genes and their protein products that are expressed during the process are under active investigation in many laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two of the major genes that affect the metencephalon are Fgf8 and Wnt1, which are both expressed around the isthmus. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, to facilitate Wnt signaling, co-receptors may be required alongside the interaction between the Wnt protein and Fz receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling pathways activated by HER2 include: mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt) phospholipase C γ protein kinase C (PKC) Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) In summary, signaling through the ErbB family of receptors promotes cell proliferation and opposes apoptosis, and therefore must be tightly regulated to prevent uncontrolled cell growth from occurring. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence suggests
  • In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that as partners of CNC and Bach proteins, sMafs are involved in the onset and progression of various human diseases, including neurodegeneration, arteriosclerosis and cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Axin
  • The core β-Catenin destruction complex consists of β-Catenin, Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein (APC), Axin, the kinases CK1 and GSK3β and the Ubiquitin ligase βTrCP. (biologists.org)
  • signal
  • All three pathways are activated by binding a Wnt-protein ligand to a Frizzled family receptor, which passes the biological signal to the Dishevelled protein inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a protein that is widely thought to be the most important organizing signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • but they share the following features characteristics of secretory proteins: a signal peptide, several potential N-glycosylation sites and 22 conserved cysteines that are probably involved in disulphide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), particularly BMP2 and BMP4, have been implicated as regulators of neural crest cell induction, maintenance, migration, differentiation and survival. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Another surprising finding was that WNT1 was not made primarily by the osteoblast -the primary bone forming cells that line the surface of bone. (healthcanal.com)
  • family
  • RhoU (or Wrch1 or Chp2) is a small (~21 kDa) signaling G protein (more specifically a GTPase), and is a member of the Rho family of GTPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Flp protein, much like Cre, is a tyrosine family site-specific recombinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with three Wnt-induced secreted proteins, they comprise the CCN family of matricellular proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • matrix
  • 3 Osteo/chondrogenic transcription factors such as Sox9 , Runx2 , and Msx2 are upregulated in the mineralizing vasculature, activating expression of osteogenic enzymes and matrix proteins necessary for calcium deposition. (ahajournals.org)
  • transcription
  • MafK is one of the small Maf proteins, which are basic region and basic leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • sMafs form homodimers by themselves and heterodimers with other specific bZIP transcription factors, such as CNC (cap 'n' collar) proteins [p45 NF-E2 (NFE2), Nrf1 (NFE2L1), Nrf2 (NFE2L2), and Nrf3 (NFE2L3)] and Bach proteins (BACH1 and BACH2). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. (novusbio.com)
  • On the other hand, the protein associated with WNT1 exists outside the cell and tissue and is easier to affect with a drug. (healthcanal.com)
  • HER2 proteins have been shown to form clusters in cell membranes that may play a role in tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • An important downstream effect of trastuzumab binding to HER2 is an increase in p27, a protein that halts cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (novusbio.com)
  • It may be involved in breast cancer, and its protein signaling is, it is presumed, a molecular switch that governs adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, the protein domain, WIF N-terminal refers to the N terminal domain of the protein, WIF. (wikipedia.org)
  • fusion
  • In mice, fusion is aided by a set of metalloproteinases called meltrins and a variety of other proteins still under investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • The domain is named after the von Willebrand factor (VWF) type C repeat which is found in multidomain protein/multifunctional proteins involved in maintaining homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of this region in a number of other complex-forming proteins points to the possible involvement of the VWFC domain in complex formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substitution of a valine for a glutamic acid in the transmembrane domain can result in the constitutive dimerisation of this protein in the absence of a ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • The ependymal cells of the SCO, are also involved in the production of brain transthyretin, which is a protein involved in the transport of thyroid hormones in blood and also plays a role in transporting the cerebrospinal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to their dynamic role within the ECM they are considered matricellular proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • The type of lipid modification that occurs on these proteins is palmitoylation of cysteines in a conserved pattern of 23-24 cysteine residues. (wikipedia.org)