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  • renal
  • A new novel missense mutation in VHL genes c.194 C>T, c.239 G>A, c.278 G>A, c.319 C>G, c.337 C>G leading to the following variations p.Ala 65 Val, p.Gly 80 Asp, p.Gly 93 Glu, p.Gln 107 Glu, p.Gln 113 Glu in the protein contributed to renal clear cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • pVHL
  • Using green fluorescent protein-tagged end-binding protein 1 to label microtubule plus ends, we found that pVHL does not affect the microtubule growth rate but is needed to orient the growth of microtubules toward the cell periphery, a prerequisite for the formation of cilia. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, pVHL interacts with the Par3-Par6-atypical PKC (aPKC) polarity complex, suggesting that pVHL may connect Par3-Par6-aPKC polarity proteins to microtubule capture and ciliogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • The VHL protein (pVHL) is involved in the regulation of a protein known as hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal physiological conditions, pVHL recognizes and binds to HIF1α only when oxygen is present due to the post translational hydroxylation of 2 proline residues within the HIF1α protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypoxia
  • Hypoxia, a feature of inflammation and tumors, is a potent inducer of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). (jimmunol.org)
  • This protein is involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF), which is a transcription factor that plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression by oxygen. (cancerindex.org)
  • Hypoxia-mediated sorafenib resistance can be overcome by EF24 through Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor-dependent HIF-1α inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Anastasiadis AG, Bemis DL, Stisser BC, Salomon L, Ghafar MA, Buttyan R (2003) Tumor cell hypoxia and the hypoxia-response signaling system as a target for prostate cancer therapy. (springer.com)
  • The tumor-promoting factors β-catenin and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) are often found to be coactivated in rapidly growing tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hypoxia commonly develops during tumor growth in cancer and is associated with a poor prognosis ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor adaptation to hypoxia is mainly mediated by 2 transcription factors, that is, the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) HIF-1 and HIF-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 (EPAS1, also known as hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha (HIF-2alpha)) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPAS1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a basic helix-loop-helix PAS domain containing protein, and is considered as the master transcriptional regulator of cellular and developmental response to hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dysregulation and overexpression of HIF1A by either hypoxia or genetic alternations have been heavily implicated in cancer biology, as well as a number of other pathophysiologies, specifically in areas of vascularization and angiogenesis, energy metabolism, cell survival, and tumor invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, under hypoxia, HIF1A protein degradation is prevented and HIF1A levels accumulate to associate with HIF1B to exert transcriptional roles on target genes Enzymes prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) and HIF prolyl hydroxylase (HPH) are involved in specific post-translational modification of HIF1A proline residues (P402 and P564 within the ODD domain), which allows for VHL association with HIF1A. (wikipedia.org)
  • USP20 is known to deubiquitinate a number of proteins including thyronine deiodinase type 2 (D2), Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), and β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor protein (pVHL) ubiquitinates hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) when cell oxygen levels are normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • The cardinal feature of this hereditary cancer syndrome is the development of multiple vascular tumors called hemangioblastomas in the central nervous system and retina combined with clear cell carcinoma of the kidney and pheochromocytoma. (rupress.org)
  • For example, VHL protein inactivation [indirectly causes] upregulation of a factor called vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]. (cmaj.ca)
  • All these tumor types are vascular and can lead to substantial morbidity, much of which can be avoided with prompt recognition and careful, skilled management. (urotoday.com)
  • The clinical manifestations of VHL disease include several types of vascular tumors and epithelial cysts, including clear-cell renal cancer and renal cysts. (bu.edu)
  • VHLS manifests in a myriad of hyper-vascular tumors of both benign and malignant nature. (springer.com)
  • This heterodimer of HIF is a transcription factor that activates genes that encode for proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin, proteins that are both involved in angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Solid tumors consist of malignant cells and stroma, which includes new blood vessels, matrix components and cells responsible for their production, a fibrin-gel matrix, and inflammatory leukocytes ( 17 , 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • induces
  • Low oxygen concentration induces high expression of the CXCL12 receptor, CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4), in different cell types (monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages, tumor-associated macrophages, endothelial cells, and cancer cells), which is paralleled by increased chemotactic responsiveness to its specific ligand. (rupress.org)
  • cysts
  • A CECT scan of the abdomen revealed bilateral renal tumors (4 cm on the right side and 1 cm on the left side) and multiple pancreatic cysts ( Figure 1 ). (urotoday.com)
  • epithelial
  • Dr. Cohen's laboratory is focusing on the molecular basis of renal cancer, renal cystic disease and renal development and offers special expertise in gene expression mechanisms, protein-protein interactions, transcription factors and transcription factor cloning, and renal epithelial cell biology. (bu.edu)
  • elongation
  • Elongin A2 is specifically expressed in the testis, and capable of forming a stable complex with elongins B and C. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein binds to elongins B and C, and thereby inhibits transcription elongation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elongation factor 1-alpha 1 (eEF1a1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EEF1A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eEF1A1 protein is an isoform of the eEF-1 complex alpha subunit, an elongation factor protein, a GTPase, and an actin bundling protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an elongation factor, it is known to mediate the recruitment of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of the 80S ribosome during protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is postulated that high expression and secretion of elongation factors from tumor tissues, combined with altered levels of eEF1A-derived bacterial peptides in neoplastic disease, may lead to autoimmunity in breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TCEB3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II that is recruited to the promoters of protein-coding genes in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • General transcription factors (GTFs) or basal transcription factors are protein transcription factors that have been shown to be important in the transcription of class II genes to mRNA templates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The preinitiation complex (PIC) is a large complex of proteins that is necessary for the transcription of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes and archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • YB-1 enhances HIF1α protein expression by directly binding to and activating translation of HIF1A messages. (cancerindex.org)
  • As a result, cellular and systemic O 2 concentrations are tightly regulated via short- and long-acting response pathways that affect the activity and expression of a multitude of cellular proteins ( 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Emerging evidence shows that the expression and function of G-protein-coupled receptors is strictly controlled by cytokines and other microenvironmental signals, such as Hyp ( 10 - 12 ), and that the regulation of receptor expression during cell activation and deactivation is as important as the regulation of chemokine production for tuning the chemokine system ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Expression of CHCHD4, a key component of the disulphide relay system (DRS) involved in mitochondrial protein import within the intermembrane space (IMS) was elevated by pVHL re-expression alongside enhanced expression of respiratory chain subunits of complex I (NDUFB10) and complex IV (mtCO-2 and COX IV). (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of pVHL mutant proteins (R200W, N78S, D126N, and S183L) that constitutively stabilize HIF-α but differentially promote glycolytic metabolism, were also found to differentially promote the pVHL-mediated mitochondrial phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • apoptosis
  • JADE3 is identical to E9 protein identified in an earlier independent study which suggested role in apoptosis for PHF16/JADE3/E9 in breast cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein can also act as a membrane receptor for the cryptic antiadhesive site of fibronectin, thus inhibiting cell anchorage and promoting apoptosis, or anoikis. (wikipedia.org)
  • suppresses
  • Burfeind P, Chernicky CL, Rininsland F, Ilan J (1996) Antisense RNA to the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor suppresses tumor growth and prevents invasion by rat prostate cancer cells in vivo . (springer.com)
  • metastatic
  • As eEF1A1 is over-expressed in osteoblasts, which proliferate and differentiate in the presence of tumor cells, it may serve as a serum biomarker to track the metastatic progression of prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include pevonedistat trials against acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma or lymphoma, metastatic melanoma, and advanced solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypoxic
  • Thus, tumor stromal cells encounter low oxygen conditions and, in particular, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been reported to localize preferentially in the hypoxic areas of tumors ( 4 , 5 , 19 , 20 ). (rupress.org)
  • MSH5
  • MutS protein homolog 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSH5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings in mouse and human indicate that the MSH5 protein plays an important role in meiotic recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the MSH5 protein is required during meiosis both for normal spontaneous and for gamma-irradiation induced crossover recombination and chiasma formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIF1A
  • However, in tumors the balance of HIF1A and HIF2A is tipped towards HIF2A. (wikipedia.org)
  • pVHL directs the polyubiquitylation of HIF1A, ensuring that this protein will be degraded by the proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIF1 is a heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix structure that is composed of HIF1A, the alpha subunit (this protein), and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt), the beta subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hydroxylated proline residue of HIF1A is then recognized and buried in the hydrophobic core of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (VHL), which itself is part of a ubiquitin ligase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the coordinated activity of the prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) maintain the appropriate balance of HIF1A protein in the post-translation phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • A new novel missense mutation in VHL genes c.194 C>T, c.239 G>A, c.278 G>A, c.319 C>G, c.337 C>G leading to the following variations p.Ala 65 Val, p.Gly 80 Asp, p.Gly 93 Glu, p.Gln 107 Glu, p.Gln 113 Glu in the protein contributed to renal clear cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • pVHL
  • Using green fluorescent protein-tagged end-binding protein 1 to label microtubule plus ends, we found that pVHL does not affect the microtubule growth rate but is needed to orient the growth of microtubules toward the cell periphery, a prerequisite for the formation of cilia. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, pVHL interacts with the Par3-Par6-atypical PKC (aPKC) polarity complex, suggesting that pVHL may connect Par3-Par6-aPKC polarity proteins to microtubule capture and ciliogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • The VHL protein (pVHL) is involved in the regulation of a protein known as hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal physiological conditions, pVHL recognizes and binds to HIF1α only when oxygen is present due to the post translational hydroxylation of 2 proline residues within the HIF1α protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal cell carc
  • From a pathology perspective, an endolymphatic sac tumor needs to be separated from metastatic renal cell carcinoma, metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma, middle ear adenoma, paraganglioma, choroid plexus papilloma, middle ear adenocarcinoma, and ceruminous adenoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • solid tumors
  • Limitations in single-drug efficacies have thus far limited their application in the treatment of solid tumors. (springer.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the anti-angiogenic activity of histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and their combinations with other targeted (anti-angiogenic) therapeutics in treatment of solid tumors. (springer.com)
  • These include pevonedistat trials against acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma or lymphoma, metastatic melanoma, and advanced solid tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • reducing tumor growth
  • 7 . A method for blocking or reducing tumor growth of an EGFR-mediated cancer in a mammal comprising administering to said mammal a src inhibitor and anti-EGFR antibody, wherein said src inhibitor and anti-EGFR antibody are administered simultaneously, in combination, or one after another in series. (google.es)
  • target proteins
  • By their targeting of short, linear motif type of interactions, peptide aptamers have joined nucleic acid aptamers for use in signaling studies because of their ease of production, their stability, their high specificity and affinity for individual target proteins, and their use in high-throughput screening protocols. (mdpi.com)
  • The discovery that ubiquitin chains target proteins to the proteasome, which degrades and recycles proteins, was honored with the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • It performs its myriad functions through conjugation to a large range of target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cullin neddylation increases CRL ubiquitylation activity via conformational changes that optimize ubiquitin transfer to target proteins There are several different proteases which can remove NEDD8 from protein conjugates. (wikipedia.org)
  • VEGF
  • The downstream effects of HIF-1α suppression by elevated levels of MnSOD activity resulted in a decrease in the secretion of VEGF protein in cells exposed to 1% O 2 ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Treatment with temsirolimus leads to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, and also inhibits tumor angiogenesis by reducing synthesis of VEGF. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptides
  • Nucleic acid aptamers are short, single-stranded RNAs and DNAs that represent high-affinity and highly selective ligands for different targets, ranging from large proteins to peptides, nucleotides, drugs and small compounds, and even metal ions. (mdpi.com)
  • Novus provides highly purified control peptides and proteins to ensure reliable results and reproducibility. (novusbio.com)
  • furthermore, proteins are digested into peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein has a major role in the immune system as part of an immunoproteasome that is primarily induced upon infection and formed by replacing constitutive beta subunits with inducible beta subunits which possess specific cleavage properties that aid in the release of peptides necessary for MHC class I antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vascular
  • The principle of staging polyps and sessile lesions is based on knowledge that the deeper and more extensive the tumour spread is into the rich lymphatic and vascular plexuses of the mid and lower thirds of the submucosa, with a higher risk of spread into the lymphatic and venous channels beyond the confines of the rectal wall and into mesorectum. (cancerlink.ru)
  • 1 mm (high risk), 1-2 mm (risk factor), poor differentiation, mucinous or signet ring morphology, tumour budding, intramural lymphatic or vascular invasion. (cancerlink.ru)
  • mTOR
  • Temsirolimus is a specific inhibitor of mTOR and interferes with the synthesis of proteins that regulate proliferation, growth, and survival of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) is a kinase enzyme inside the cell that collects and interprets the numerous and varied growth and survival signals received by tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In RCC tumors, activated mTOR further exacerbates accumulation of HIF-1a by increasing synthesis of this transcription factor and its angiogenic target gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitory
  • The transcriptional activity of NF-κB is primarily regulated by physical interaction with inhibitory IκB proteins (IκBα and IκBβ), which prevents its nuclear translocation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • We used these HIF2a inhibitors as chemical biology probes and we discovered that they suppress the expression of HIF2a by activating a cellular protein that senses iron levels. (massgeneral.org)
  • This ubiquitin-like protein (ULP), becomes covalently conjugated to a limited number of cellular proteins in a manner analogous to ubiquitination. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with ubiquitin and SUMO, NEDD8 is conjugated to cellular proteins after its C-terminal tail is processed. (wikipedia.org)
  • syndrome
  • Folliculin also known as FLCN, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome protein or FLCN_HUMAN is a protein that in humans is associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome and hereditary spontaneous pneumothorax. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, cosegregation of kidney neoplasms with BHD cutaneous lesions was observed in 3 families with a family history of kidney tumors, suggesting that kidney tumors may be part of the BHD syndrome phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tumor shows a very high association with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients may also present with other symptoms related to von Hippel-Lindau syndrome in other anatomic sites, which will result in imaging evaluation of the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are usually several other tumors which are part of the syndrome, including tumors of the central nervous system, kidneys, pancreas, adrenal glands, epididymis, broad ligament, along with the endolymphatic sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vast majority of patients with an endolymphatic sac tumor have von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ubiquitin-labeled protein as degradation substrate, unfold the protein to linear, open the gate of 20S core particle, and guide the substate into the proteolytic chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • To recognize protein as designated substrate, 19S complex has subunits that are capable to recognize proteins with a special degradative tag, the ubiquitinylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This unique structure design prevents random encounter between proteolytic active sites and protein substrate, which makes protein degradation a well-regulated process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of ubiquitin to a substrate protein is called ubiquitination or less frequently ubiquitylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of this sequential cascade is to bind ubiquitin to lysine residues on the protein substrate via an isopeptide bond, cysteine residues through a thioester bond, serine and threonine residues through an ester bond, or the amino group of the protein's N-terminus via a peptide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • A heat-stable polypeptide present in these extracts, ATP-dependent proteolysis factor 1 (APF-1), was found to become covalently attached to the model protein substrate lysozyme in an ATP- and Mg2+-dependent process. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastatic
  • When administered with adoptively transferred tumor-reactive lymphocytes, IL-2 promotes T cell engraftment and response rates of up to 50% in metastatic melanoma patients. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • patients
  • One issue is that patients who are cured of tumors have an increased risk of acquiring a cancer at another site (Kaldor et al. (cancerlink.ru)
  • Nephrectomy increased plasma AM significantly after 3-6 days and a similar pre-surgery level was observed after 4-5 weeks in both groups of tumour patients. (clinsci.org)
  • Tumour samples from 27 patients with SI-NETs were analyzed ex vivo for sensitivity to a panel of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents using a short-term total cell kill assay. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Tumors range from several millimeters up to 10 cm, with larger tumors more frequently seen in older patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression levels of the proteasomal subunits (PSMA1, PSMA5, PSMB4, PSMB5 and PSMD1) were investigated in 80 patients with neuroendocrine pulmonary tumors and compared to controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequent
  • The fragment of 39 amino acids at peptide N-terminal is essential for proper protein folding and subsequent complex assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function lead to reduced proteolytic activities and the accumulation of damaged or misfolded protein species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such protein accumulation may contribute to the pathogenesis and phenotypic characteristics in neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory responses and autoimmune diseases, and systemic DNA damage responses leading to malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • interacts
  • MoaD, which is involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis, interacts with MoeB, which acts like an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme for MoaD, strengthening the link between these prokaryotic proteins and the ubiquitin system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The change in electrostatic potential is likely to effect the binding of FLNA to the many proteins it interacts with. (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial and temporal
  • Deposition of matricellular proteins modulates growth factor signaling and contributes to the spatial and temporal regulation of the reparative response. (jci.org)
  • To meet such complicated demands in biological process via spatial and temporal proteolysis, protein substrates have to be recognized, recruited, and eventually hydrolyzed in a well controlled fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • adenocarcinoma
  • Additionally, injection of kidney tumor cells from the adenocarcinoma cell line ACHN with FLCN inactivation into immunocompromised mice resulted in the growth of significantly larger tumors, further underscoring a tumor suppressor role for FLCN. (wikipedia.org)
  • covalently
  • The first ubiquitin molecule is covalently bound through its C-terminal carboxylate group to a particular lysine, cysteine, serine, threonine or N-terminus of the target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • FLCN has been shown to interact through its C-terminus with two novel proteins, folliculin interacting protein 1 (FNIP1) and folliculin interacting protein 2 (FNIP2/FNIPL) , and indirectly through FNIP1 and FNIP2 with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • According to the protein interaction and topological characteristics of this multisubunit complex, the 19S regulatory particle is composed of a base and a lid subcomplex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is one of the 17 essential subunits that contribute to the complete assembly of the 20S proteasome complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In GGR of NER, after DNA damage is caused by UV irradiation, Cul4A in the DNA damage binding protein 2 (DDB2) complex is activated by NEDD8, and this allows GGR-NER to proceed to remove the damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is one of the 17 essential subunits (alpha subunits 1-7, constitutive beta subunits 1-7, and inducible subunits including beta1i, beta2i, beta5i) that contributes to the complete assembly of 20S proteasome complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumor is arranged as simple, broad, non-complex papillary projections without large cystic spaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Homologues are known to exist between human VBP1 and proteins in mice, Drosophila and C. elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors develop in mice injected with FLCN-deficient kidney cancer cells from BHD-associated human tumors but when wild type FLCN is restored in these cells, tumor development is inhibited. (wikipedia.org)
  • kidney
  • In a risk assessment performed in affected and unaffected members of BHD families, the odds ratio for developing kidney tumors in a person affected with BHD was 6.9 times greater than his unaffected siblings. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Lower levels of MnSOD protein and its activity have been found in many types of tumors ( 13 , 14 ), and one of such sample is MCF-7 cells ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This protein contains "Trypsin-like" activity and is capable of cleaving after basic residues of peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • We propose that peptide aptamers can provide a very useful and new alternative for interfering with protein-protein interactions in intracellular signal transduction cascades, including those emanating from activated receptors for growth factors. (mdpi.com)
  • Tumor suppressors help control the growth and division of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms are usually present for a long time, which supports the slow growth of these tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • extends
  • The tumor destroys the mastoid air spaces and extends into the middle ear and/or posterior cranial fossa. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • The tumor involves the endolymphatic sac, a portion of the intraosseous inner ear of the posterior petrous bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • A finite level of DNA damage can occur at non-tumor sites, and this can explain the increased incidence of later tumors (10-20 years) in individuals who have been given chemotherapy. (cancerlink.ru)
  • cancer
  • Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed solid tumor and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A major problem with the use of alkylating agents to treat cancer is that these chemicals are relatively nonspecific, i.e., most will also alkylate proteins (causing toxic side effects) and also DNA in cells other than the tumor. (cancerlink.ru)
  • In 1992, he set up his own lab at DFCI down the hall from Livingston's where he researched hereditary forms of cancer such as von Hippel-Lindau. (wikipedia.org)