• rickets
  • Already doctors are urging that breast-fed babies get vitamin D supplements to fend off a shocking return of rickets, a soft-bone disease, most often seen in children, that was thought eliminated decades ago. (nbcnews.com)
  • Vitamin D helps bones absorb calcium, and rickets marks just the worst deficiency, specialists told a recent National Institutes of Health meeting to assess the issue. (nbcnews.com)
  • Vitamin D (cholecalciferol) deficiency is a known cause of rickets, and has been linked to numerous health problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficiency impairs bone mineralization, leading to bone softening diseases as rickets in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the newly discovered substance was the fourth vitamin identified, it was called vitamin D. The 1928 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Adolf Windaus, who discovered the steroid 7-dehydrocholesterol, the precursor of vitamin D. Prior to the fortification of milk products with vitamin D, rickets was a major public health problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, milk has been fortified with 10 micrograms (400 IU) of vitamin D per quart since the 1930s, leading to a dramatic decline in the number of rickets cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D deficiency historically used to be identified through counting cases of rickets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The old theory was that if someone had enough vitamin D to prevent rickets and osteomalacia, two skeletal disorders, they were considered safe from a deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sir Edward Mellanby GBE KCB FRS FRCP (8 April 1884 - 30 January 1955) discovered vitamin D and its role in preventing rickets in 1919. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was later discovered that the actual cause of rickets is lack of vitamin D due to lack of sunlight which can be prevented or remedied by ingesting food rich in vitamin D, such as cod liver oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mild
  • While some of the symptoms of zinc deficiency may appear mild, they can become life-altering. (healthguideinfo.com)
  • As elucidated by Alfred Sommer, even mild, subclinical deficiency can also be a problem, as it may increase children's risk of developing respiratory and diarrheal infections, decrease growth rate, slow bone development, and decrease likelihood of survival from serious illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • But the researchers noted the finding is biologically possible: Stomach acid is needed to help the body take in vitamin B12, because the acid separates the vitamin from the protein to which it is attached. (nbcnews.com)
  • Rhodopsin is found in the retina and is composed of retinal (an active form of vitamin A) and opsin (a protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated vitamin K is then used to gamma carboxylate (and thus activate) certain enzymes involved in coagulation: Factors II, VII, IX, X, and protein C and protein S. Inability to activate the clotting cascade via these factors leads to the bleeding symptoms mentioned above. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rare disorders of fat metabolism - There is a rare genetic condition termed isolated vitamin E deficiency or 'ataxia with isolated with vitamin E deficiency', caused by mutations in the gene for the tocopherol transfer protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • When foods containing B12 are eaten, the vitamin is usually bound to protein and is released by proteases released by the pancreas in the small bowel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Familial Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency is caused by mutations in the gene for a-tocopherol transfer protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Learn why it is important for the body and know what vitamin D deficiency symptoms can occur when you do not get enough. (healthguideinfo.com)
  • Xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, and complete blindness can also occur since vitamin A has a major role in phototransduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • For infants in the United States, vitamin K1 deficiency without bleeding may occur in as many as 50% of infants younger than 5 days old, with the classic hemorrhagic disease occurring in 0.25-1.7% of infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, there are three specific situations when a vitamin E deficiency is likely to occur: Premature, very low birth weight infants - birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3.5 pounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • fortification
  • Intramuscular injections are poorly absorbed and are ineffective in delivering sufficient bioavailable vitamin A. Fortification of food with vitamin A is costly, but can be done in wheat, sugar, and milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • In spite of a century of intensive research by prominent scientists, huge gaps exist in our knowledge of how the function and the structure of the nervous system are affected by alterations in vitamin metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Deficiency can result from poor diet or genetic factors (such as mutations in the MTHFR gene that lead to compromised folate metabolism). (wikipedia.org)
  • Medications may speed up the metabolism of vitamin D, causing a deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • In this chapter an attempt will be made to review pertinent information concerning the role of vitamins in the metabolic activity of the nervous system and to give an overview of current thinking about the pathogenesis of neurologic disorders engendered by a lack of vitamins. (springer.com)
  • Mood Disorders: Are They Caused by Vitamin Deficiencies? (qualityhealth.com)
  • For example, in one study, researchers found an association between low vitamin D and higher incidences of premenstrual syndrome, seasonal affective disorder, major depression, and non-specified mood disorders. (qualityhealth.com)
  • This specific link between vitamins and mental health disorders is not new either. (qualityhealth.com)
  • He says evidence clearly links low levels of vitamins B12, B6, D, and Folate (among others) to depression and mood disorders. (qualityhealth.com)
  • page needed] The deficiency also may present with thyroid disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorder
  • Again, a deficiency may not have caused the disorder, but extra riboflavin in your diet, along with reduction of trimethylamine-containing foods, such as cruciferous vegetables and seafood, could help. (livestrong.com)
  • severe
  • Severe deficiency is treated through megadose therapy where patients are given doses around 100 000 IU to assist in raising stores faster to ensure physical health in restored to prevent further illness or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Pregnancy related (>50% of cases) Placental abruption Infected abortion Prolonged intrauterine fetal death Severe eclampsia HIV Snake bites Binge drinking Shock Trauma Sickle cell disease Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Sepsis SLE-associated antiphospholipid syndrome Vitamin deficiency Pancreatitis Malaria Meningococcemia Drug-induced toxicity (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • enough vitamin
  • Half of black women of childbearing age lack enough vitamin D in their blood during the winter and 30 percent in the summer, according to studies from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (nbcnews.com)
  • Standing outside 15 minutes a day three times a week lets the skin produce enough vitamin D most of the year, says Dr. Michael Holick of Boston University. (nbcnews.com)
  • People who take common stomach acid-suppressing medications may be at increased risk of not getting enough vitamin B12, a new study suggests. (nbcnews.com)
  • sunlight
  • Vitamin D is stored in the body when skin is exposed to sunlight, but even seniors who are frequently outdoors may still be deficient. (greenwichtime.com)
  • Government blood tests suggest a surprising number of Americans do not get currently recommended amounts, especially those with dark-pigmented skin that does not produce as much of the vitamin from sunlight. (nbcnews.com)
  • Vitamin D deficiencies are often caused by decreased exposure of the skin to sunlight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The popular term Sunshine vitamin, as it's often called, is one of the one main sources of achieving sufficient Vitamin D through sunlight on the skin known as D3. (wikipedia.org)
  • dementia
  • A deficiency in vitamin B1 also can cause confusion, memory loss, loss of coordination and dementia. (livestrong.com)
  • Dementia and depression have been associated with this deficiency as well, possibly from the under-production of methionine because of the inability to convert homocysteine into this product. (wikipedia.org)