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  • deficient
  • Those with metabolic syndrome , approximately one of three people in the United States, could be chronically deficient in vitamin E. Its findings suggest that while vitamin E appears to be readily available in the bloodstream of those with metabolic syndrome, it's not finding its way to the tissues where it's needed, resulting in a hidden deficiency. (drweil.com)
  • 3. Steady-state isotopic flux experiments in unstimulated tissues demonstrated net Na + and Cl − secretion in vitamin E-deficient jejuna but net Na + and Cl − absorption in vitamin E-sufficient jejuna. (clinsci.org)
  • 5. Cyclic nucleotide and maximal non-neuronal acetylcholine-mediated electrogenic secretion were increased in vitamin E-deficient jejuna. (clinsci.org)
  • 6. Exogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) induced a smaller increment in electrogenic secretion in vitamin E-deficient jejuna. (clinsci.org)
  • 7. Vitamin E-deficient jejuna were less responsive to exogenous noradrenaline, resulting in a smaller α 2 -adrenergic-mediated decrease in intestinal short-circuit current. (clinsci.org)
  • 8. Fasting for 72 h produced a greater increment in intestinal short-circuit current in vitamin E-deficient jejuna. (clinsci.org)
  • dietary
  • People who cannot absorb dietary fat or who have rare disorders of fat metabolism cannot absorb vitamin E. In addition, premature or very low birth weight infants (less than 3.5 lbs) and individuals with rare genetic abnormalities in the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein may also be at risk for a vitamin E deficiency. (drweil.com)
  • severe
  • Avitaminosis (vitamin lack) may be encountered when there are increased losses of vitamins such as occur with chronic severe diarrhea or excessive sweating or when there are increased requirements for vitamins during periods of rapid growth, especially during childhood and pregnancy. (britannica.com)
  • Severe deficiency is treated through megadose therapy where patients are given doses around 100 000 IU to assist in raising stores faster to ensure physical health in restored to prevent further illness or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Pregnancy related (>50% of cases) Placental abruption Infected abortion Prolonged intrauterine fetal death Severe eclampsia HIV Snake bites Binge drinking Shock Trauma Sickle cell disease Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Sepsis SLE-associated antiphospholipid syndrome Vitamin deficiency Pancreatitis Malaria Meningococcemia Drug-induced toxicity (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mild
  • As elucidated by Alfred Sommer, even mild, subclinical deficiency can also be a problem, as it may increase children's risk of developing respiratory and diarrheal infections, decrease growth rate, slow bone development, and decrease likelihood of survival from serious illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • In this chapter an attempt will be made to review pertinent information concerning the role of vitamins in the metabolic activity of the nervous system and to give an overview of current thinking about the pathogenesis of neurologic disorders engendered by a lack of vitamins. (springer.com)
  • For instance, vitamin B-3, which is important in digestive metabolism, relies on adequate levels of vitamin B-6 to carry out its metabolic processes. (livestrong.com)
  • metabolic disturbance, and vitamin deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • For the most part, a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, grains and lean protein is enough for you to get your daily vitamin needs met. (livestrong.com)
  • Rhodopsin is found in the retina and is composed of retinal (an active form of vitamin A) and opsin (a protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated vitamin K is then used to gamma carboxylate (and thus activate) certain enzymes involved in coagulation: Factors II, VII, IX, X, and protein C and protein S. Inability to activate the clotting cascade via these factors leads to the bleeding symptoms mentioned above. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rare disorders of fat metabolism - There is a rare genetic condition termed isolated vitamin E deficiency or 'ataxia with isolated with vitamin E deficiency', caused by mutations in the gene for the tocopherol transfer protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • When foods containing B12 are eaten, the vitamin is usually bound to protein and is released by proteases released by the pancreas in the small bowel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Familial Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency is caused by mutations in the gene for a-tocopherol transfer protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minerals
  • This age old healer knew what many physicians know today: humans require sufficient doses of vitamins and minerals, mostly obtained from food, for optimal health and disease prevention. (qualityhealth.com)
  • metabolism
  • In spite of a century of intensive research by prominent scientists, huge gaps exist in our knowledge of how the function and the structure of the nervous system are affected by alterations in vitamin metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Deficiency can result from poor diet or genetic factors (such as mutations in the MTHFR gene that lead to compromised folate metabolism). (wikipedia.org)
  • Medications may speed up the metabolism of vitamin D, causing a deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • The findings, which are published in Thorax journal, also suggest that asthma sufferers who get the right amounts of vitamins A, C and E are more likely to suffer from a milder form of the disease than those who fail to eat enough. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Small amounts of essential vitamins found in your daily diet supply you with the functional nutrients you need to maintain brain and body health. (livestrong.com)
  • The nervous system requires sufficient amounts of water-soluble vitamins to function properly. (livestrong.com)
  • Vitamins may be needed by the body in small amounts but they must be available at or above a threshold value. (progressivehealth.com)
  • If you don't eat sufficient amounts of the foods that are rich in vitamin B6, your hair will lose its natural color. (livestrong.com)
  • Make sure to get sufficient quantities of this vitamin from natural sources: Look for cereals that contain high amounts of whole grains, eat five servings daily of vegetables rich in B6 and add brewer's yeast--also high in B6--to your food. (livestrong.com)
  • Many multivitamins now contain vitamin D in different amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with a darker pigment of skin or increased amounts of melanin in their skin, may have decreased production of Vitamin D. Melanin absorbs ultraviolet B radiation from the sun and reduces vitamin D production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because colonic bacteria synthesize a significant portion of the Vitamin K required for human needs, individuals with disruptions to or insufficient amounts of these bacteria can be at risk for Vitamin K deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • leads
  • Vitamin A deficiency leads to dryness of mucous membranes, especially of the mouth and eyes, which is also known as xeropthalmia. (livestrong.com)
  • Vitamin A deficiency also leads to an increased chance of infections and impaired immune function. (progressivehealth.com)
  • This may seem counterintuitive given that the deficiency leads to decreased activity in factors of both the intrinsic pathway (F-IX) which is monitored by PTT, as well as the extrinsic pathway (F-VII) which is monitored by PT. (wikipedia.org)
  • magnesium deficiency
  • A magnesium deficiency doesn't mean you'll develop body odor, but consuming foods rich in this mineral can help you deodorize more efficiently, according to research done by Dr. Pierre Delbet way back in 1928. (livestrong.com)
  • What Kinds of Effects Result From a Magnesium Deficiency? (reference.com)
  • A magnesium deficiency can initially result in weakness, loss of appetite, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, according to the National Institutes of Health Off. (reference.com)
  • occur
  • sources of vitamin D, a deficiency of the vitamin can occur when exposure to sunlight is limited. (britannica.com)
  • Xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, and complete blindness can also occur since vitamin A has a major role in phototransduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • For infants in the United States, vitamin K1 deficiency without bleeding may occur in as many as 50% of infants younger than 5 days old, with the classic hemorrhagic disease occurring in 0.25-1.7% of infants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, there are three specific situations when a vitamin E deficiency is likely to occur: Premature, very low birth weight infants - birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3.5 pounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemoglobin
  • However, it can include decreased oxygen-binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • fortification
  • Intramuscular injections are poorly absorbed and are ineffective in delivering sufficient bioavailable vitamin A. Fortification of food with vitamin A is costly, but can be done in wheat, sugar, and milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses of vitamin
  • Globally, 65% of all children aged 6 to 59 months received two doses of vitamin A in 2013, fully protecting them against VAD (80% in the least developed countries). (wikipedia.org)
  • dementia
  • Deficiency in any of these vitamins increases the risk of high levels of homocysteine, which is linked to early onset of dementia and Alzheimer's disease, notes the Linus Pauling Institute. (livestrong.com)
  • Preliminary research by the National Institutes of Health and University of Exeter as reported by the online publication "Scientific American" indicates that vitamin D deficiency might link to cognitive decline in the form of dementia. (livestrong.com)
  • Vitamin D is most commonly associated with bone health, but the University of Exeter study concluded that over half of the study participants with dementia also were vitamin D deficient. (livestrong.com)
  • A deficiency in vitamin B1 also can cause confusion, memory loss, loss of coordination and dementia. (livestrong.com)
  • Dementia and depression have been associated with this deficiency as well, possibly from the under-production of methionine because of the inability to convert homocysteine into this product. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorder
  • Again, a deficiency may not have caused the disorder, but extra riboflavin in your diet, along with reduction of trimethylamine-containing foods, such as cruciferous vegetables and seafood, could help. (livestrong.com)
  • liver
  • Vitamin A is found in calf's liver, milk and eggs and can also be produced by the body from carrots and spinach. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The one exception is vitamin B12, which can be kept in reserve in the liver for several years. (livestrong.com)
  • As one of the B-complex of vitamins, vitamin B6, which is found in proteins such as liver, egg yolk, organ meats, vegetables and in whole grain cereals, can help keep your hair from graying. (livestrong.com)
  • Some types of liver diseases and kidney diseases can decrease vitamin D production leading to a deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liver is required to transform vitamin D into 25-hydroxyvitamin D. This is an inactive metabolite of vitamin D but is a necessary precursor (building block) to create the active form of vitamin D. In liver disease, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D may not be formed, leading to a vitamin D deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin K is changed to its active form in the liver by the enzyme Vitamin K epoxide reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin D is first processed in the liver, before heading to the kidneys where it becomes activated to the form 1-25 dihydroxy vitamin D or alternatively named chemical calcitriol. (wikipedia.org)
  • carotenoids
  • Beta-carotene and other types of carotenoids found in plant-based products need to first be converted to retinol, the active form of vitamin A, in order to be utilized by the body. (draxe.com)
  • The three forms of vitamin A include retinols, beta-carotenes, and carotenoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • active form of vitamin
  • The kidneys are responsible for converting 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D. This is the active form of vitamin D in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • When calcium in the body becomes underprovided for normal bodily functions, calcitriol, an active form of Vitamin D, pairs with parathyroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)