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  • vaccinia virus
  • An isolated recombinant vaccinia virus complement control protein (hrVCP) polypeptide comprises a modified amino acid sequence comprising one or more amino acid substitutions to an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • substituting one or more amino acids of the VCP polypeptide amino acid sequence to produce a recombinant vaccinia virus complement control protein (hrVCP) polypeptide having enhanced complement activation regulatory activity when compared to a complement activation regulatory activity of the VCP polypeptide. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Immunofluorescence deconvolution micrograph of a cell infected with vaccinia virus particles. (sciencephoto.com)
  • RNAs
  • Lassa virus (Arenaviridae) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Arenaviridae) Hantavirus (Bunyaviridae) Marburg Virus (Filoviridae) Ebola virus (Filoviridae) Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae) Measles (Paramyxoviridae) Mumps virus (Paramyxoviridae) Human respiratory syncytial virus (Paramyxoviridae) Parainfluenza (Paramyxoviridae) Rabies (Rhabdoviridae) Vesicular stomatitis virus (Rhabdoviridae) The genome for negative-stranded RNA virus (NSV) consists of one to several single-stranded RNAs, which are assembled into complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases subgenomic RNAs are also created during replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • RdRp
  • The genome of a positive-sense ssRNA virus usually contains relatively few genes, usually between three and ten, including an RdRP. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • It has been repeatedly noted that many test conditions such as the cell culture system, virus strain, virus challenge dose, virus input multiplicity of infection, and time of harvesting, etc., can substantially affect or even alter the test results, thus making comparative studies and unambiguous evaluations very difficult. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Areas of virus assembly within the cell are pink. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In more details, replication of the virion consists of the following steps: A virion enters the host cell and releases its negative RNA into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Positive-sense RNA viruses account for a large fraction of known viruses, including many pathogens such as the hepatitis C virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and SARS and MERS coronaviruses, as well as less clinically serious pathogens such as the rhinoviruses that cause the common cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genus
  • Examples are given for viruses with a single‐stranded DNA genome, either (a) linear ( Parvoviridae , genus Dependovirus ) or (b) circular ( Geminiviridae , genus Mastrevirus ), and with a double‐stranded DNA genome, either (c) linear ( Adenoviridae , genus Mastadenovirus ) or (d) circular ( Papovaviridae , genus Polyomavirus ). (els.net)
  • Mosavirus is a genus of viruses in the order Picornavirales, in the family Picornaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Mosavirus A. Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Mosavirus Mosavirus A Viruses in Mosavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral, spherical, and round geometries, and T=pseudo3 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhabdovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases associated with viruses of this genus include: breathing and swimming problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferlavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is currently only one species in this genus (Reptilian ferlavirus) to accommodate a single virus, Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Nodaviridae Genus: Alphanodavirus Black beetle virus Boolarra virus Flock House virus Nodamura virus Pariacoto virus Genus: Betanodavirus Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus Striped jack nervous necrosis virus Tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus While NoV remains the type species for this group, Flock house virus (FHV) is the best studied of the Nodaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Closterovirus, also known as beet yellows viral group, is a genus of viruses, in the family Closteroviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • This genus has a probably worldwide distribution and includes among other viral species the Beet yellows virus (the type species) and Citrus tristeza virus, rather economically important plant diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Teschovirus Teschovirus A Viruses in Teschovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral, spherical, and round geometries, and T=pseudo3 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tibrovirus is a genus of viruses n the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Senecavirus A.' Senecavirus is a replication-competent oncolytic picornavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • In a third set of experiments, the researchers removed the androgen receptor by genetic knockout, once again abolishing the androgen's effect on hepatitis B replication. (asm.org)
  • Then they drilled down still further, discovering elements within the HBV genome which are recognized by the host's activated androgen receptor, which then boosts viral gene expression and replication. (asm.org)
  • Enhancement of hepatitis B virus replication by androgen and its receptor in mice. (asm.org)
  • The glycoproteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer to form the viral spikes in the mature virion that are crucial for receptor recognition and virus entry while the SSP is responsible for modulating the response of GPC to acidic pH [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The receptor for Seneca Valley virus has been identified as anthrax toxin receptor 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Miles LA, Burga LN, Gardner EE, Bostina M, Poirier JT, Rudin CM (2017) Anthrax toxin receptor 1 is the cellular receptor for Seneca Valley virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogens
  • Hepatitis B virus is one of the most important human pathogens," says Ou. (asm.org)
  • Add to this the clinical significance of these human pathogens- 99% of the population of the world is infected with at least one of the viruses discussed in this volume (hepatitis B virus, EptsteinBarr virus or herpes simplex virus) - and it is difficult to overstate the importance of this group. (indigo.ca)
  • Positive-sense RNA viruses account for a large fraction of known viruses, including many pathogens such as the hepatitis C virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and SARS and MERS coronaviruses, as well as less clinically serious pathogens such as the rhinoviruses that cause the common cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Once bound to the host cell, viruses enter by a range of mechanisms, often involving uptake into vacuoles, although other routes such as fusion with the cell membrane may be used. (els.net)
  • Viruses that require a lipid envelope (enveloped viruses) can acquire this from a range of cellular sources, including the plasma membrane or internal membranes. (els.net)
  • Acquisition of lipid at the plasma membrane allows the virus to exit from the cell by budding. (els.net)
  • Desiree Benefield, a postdoctoral researcher in the Ahlquist Lab at the Morgridge Institute, says all positive strand RNA viruses rely on host membrane rearrangement and the formation of replication compartments in order to copy their genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dengue
  • Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, transmitted to human via mosquito. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In vitro propagation of Dengue virus (DENV) has been conventionally studied under atmospheric oxygen levels despite that in vivo, the tissue microenvironment is hypoxic. (mdpi.com)
  • machinery
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, relying on their host cells to provide the basic machinery to allow them to replicate. (els.net)
  • Viruses alter the cellular machinery to facilitate the production of the next generation of viruses, and repress cellular and immunological controls that attempt to prevent this. (els.net)
  • Simple DNA viruses can use (or induce the production of) the cellular DNA synthetic machinery, whereas more complex viruses carry genes for the enzymes they need, making the process of replication more efficient. (els.net)
  • The research, published June 27 in the journal eLife , uses pioneering cryo-electron tomography to reveal the complex viral replication process in vivid detail, opening up new avenues to potentially disrupt, dismantle or redirect viral machinery. (eurekalert.org)
  • To survive, the influenza virus hijacks the host animal or human's cellular machinery and forces it to make more copies of the virus. (emaxhealth.com)
  • cellular
  • In a productive infection, recognition of external structures on the cell is followed by entry, alteration of cellular function to support a time‐dependent cycle of virus‐specific macromolecular synthesis, assembly of the next generation of virus particles, and release from the cell. (els.net)
  • Major cellular structures involved in virus replication. (els.net)
  • New improved therapies attempt to targets cellular factors that are essential for viral replication. (eurekalert.org)
  • The therapeutic potential of inhibiting cellular factors essential for virus replication has thus far hardly been tapped," explains Professor Bartenschlager. (eurekalert.org)
  • Their study is providing key information for designing strategies of virus control and, at the same time, DNA viruses are extremely useful molecular tools to delineate the mechanisms behind basic cellular processes. (els.net)
  • inhibition
  • They found that only blocking cyclophilin A leads complete inhibition of virus replication and this cyclophilin is also the target of DEBIO-025. (eurekalert.org)
  • Krajcsi P and Wold WS (1998) Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor and interferon triggered responses by DNA viruses. (els.net)
  • Results of the inhibition and activation on viral entry/replication and host cell survival were examined. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Overexpression and silencing approaches as well as chemical inhibition and energy substrate exchanging experiments showed that hypoxia-mediated enhancement of DENV replication depends on the activation of the key metabolic regulators hypoxia-inducible factors 1α/2α (HIF-1α/2α) and the serine/threonine kinase AKT. (mdpi.com)
  • infection
  • Cocking, E. C. (1966) An electron-microscopic study of the initial stages of infection of isolated tomato fruit protoplasts by tobacco mosaic virus. (springer.com)
  • Cocking, E. C. and Pojnar, E. (1969) An electron microscope study of the infection of isolated tomato fruit protoplast by tobacco mosaic virus. (springer.com)
  • Merkens, W. S. W., De Zoeten, G. A. and Gaard, G. (1972) Observation on ectodesmata and the virus infection process. (springer.com)
  • However, while laboratory experiments focus on productive infections where the host cell is rapidly turned into a virus factory, many other types of infection exist, some of them allowing the virus to exist alongside its host for long periods of time. (els.net)
  • These allow the virus to select the nature of its target cell with great precision and at least to some extent to confirm its suitability before committing to infection. (els.net)
  • A generalised scheme of a (productive) virus infection, from entry to release. (els.net)
  • The search for inhibitors of viral replication is dependent on understanding the events taking place at the molecular level during viral infection. (springer.com)
  • Bryant PA, Tingay D, Dargaville PA, Starr M, Curtis N (2004) Neonatal coxsackie B virus infection - a treatable disease? (springer.com)
  • The virus is telling us--by voting with its most precious resource, its coding capacity--that this is the big job of infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • As public health officials around the world keep a nervous eye on the spread of avian influenza, the University of Saskatchewan's Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO) has uncovered a key step in how the influenza virus causes infection . (emaxhealth.com)
  • We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. (mdpi.com)
  • We investigated the involvement of PKR during infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) infection using a custom-made rabbit antiserum and the PKR inhibitor C16. (mdpi.com)
  • pathogenesis
  • Recently, significant progress has been achieved with the development of new technologies (e.g. reverse genetics) that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. (mdpi.com)
  • We will also summarize current knowledge on Junín virus pathogenesis focusing on the recent development of vaccines and potential therapeutics. (mdpi.com)
  • 1971
  • Bancroft, J. B., McLean, G. D., Rees, M. W. and Short, M. N. (1971) The effect of an arginyl to a cysteinyl replacement in the uncoating behaviour of a spherical plant virus. (springer.com)
  • Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus Double-stranded RNA virus Baltimore classification Sense (molecular biology) Baltimore, D (1971). (wikipedia.org)
  • DENV
  • Inhibitions of PKC by a PKC-specific chemical inhibitor or siRNA suppressed NS5 phosphorylation in vivo, increased viral replication and reduced viability of the DENV-infected cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results indicated that PKC may act as a restricting mechanism that modulates the DENV replication and represses the viral outburst in the host cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we compared the efficiency of DENV replication in liver cells, monocytes, and epithelial cells under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, investigated the ability of DENV to induce a hypoxia response and metabolic reprogramming and determined the underlying molecular mechanism. (mdpi.com)
  • In DENV-infected cells, hypoxia had no effect on virus entry and RNA translation, but enhanced RNA replication. (mdpi.com)
  • Finally, reactive oxygen species were shown to contribute, at least in part through HIF, both to the hypoxia-mediated increase of DENV replication and to virus-induced hypoxic reprogramming. (mdpi.com)
  • mechanisms
  • In addition to the standard scanning process to start translation, two other mechanisms (ribosome shunting and leaky scanning) are used by different DNA viruses to control translation of various viral ORFs. (els.net)
  • The details of this process have been examined with the use of mammalian hepatitis B viruses to map the sites for initiation and termination of DNA synthesis and to explore the consequences of mutations introduced at short, separated direct repeats (DR1 and DR2) implicated in the mechanisms of initiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • receptors
  • Individual viruses can use multiple receptors, or a series of receptors of increasing specificity. (els.net)
  • genes
  • Different viral genes are expressed at different stages of replication. (els.net)
  • These studies will allow the team to identify the genes that enable the virus to cause disease, laying the groundwork for antiviral drug development. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The genome of a positive-sense ssRNA virus usually contains relatively few genes, usually between three and ten, including an RdRP. (wikipedia.org)
  • picornavirus
  • Members of the (+)ssRNA picornavirus group are also extremely abundant - to the point of "unexpected dominance" - in marine viruses characterized by metagenomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • Presence of viral particles in fecal matter and in epithelial intestinal cells indicate that the virus replicates in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viruses do not have a capsid or envelop and do not form any infectious viral particles except lipid vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • The constant threat of pandemic influenza is highlighted by the emergence of novel pandemic H1N1 viruses in 2009 ( 2 ) and the potential for highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses to gain human-to-human transmissibility ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Many pathogenic (+)ssRNA viruses are arthropod-borne viruses (also called arboviruses) - that is, transmitted by and capable of replicating in biting insects which then transfer the pathogen to animal hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cai G, Myers K, Fry WE, Hillman BI (2011) A member of the virus family Narnaviridae from the plant pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora infestans. (wikipedia.org)
  • ICTV
  • In addition to the above, there are a large number of rhabdo-like viruses (~130) that have not yet been officially classified by the ICTV. (wikipedia.org)
  • ssRNA
  • Positive-sense ssRNA viruses belong to Group IV in the Baltimore classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The (+)ssRNA viruses are classified into 3 orders - the Nidovirales, Picornavirales, and Tymovirales - and 33 families, of which 20 are not assigned to an order. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among known (+)ssRNA viruses, only the Leviviridae are bacteriophages (that is, viruses that infect bacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive-sense ssRNA viruses are the most common type of plant virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • icosahedral
  • The virus is not enveloped and has an icosahedral capsid (triangulation number=3) ranging from 29 to 35 nm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astroviruses are 28-35 nm diameter, icosahedral viruses that have a characteristic five- or sixpointed star-like surface structure when viewed by electron microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • Movement between hosts is entirely passive, but once they encounter a suitable host cell viruses can begin a cycle that can produce hundreds of new viruses within a very short time. (els.net)
  • Viruses contain only a minimum of genetic material and therefore need a host cell for replication. (eurekalert.org)
  • DNA viruses have evolved very different replication strategies as well as a rich variety of molecular interactions with their host cells. (els.net)
  • Several studies on influenza virus have pointed to components of the ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) as key factors in host adaptation ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • You can see that the virus does not reproduce on its own but instead 'tricks' the host cell into making millions of copies of the virus. (ck12.org)
  • The virus is spread through the aerosolization of host rodent excreta and endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent metagenomics studies have also identified large numbers of RNA viruses whose host range is specific to insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and viroporins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by cell to cell movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • stages
  • The main stages constituting the replicative cycle of a DNA virus are depicted. (els.net)
  • molecular biology
  • We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. (mdpi.com)
  • US - Researchers from the University of Georgia have used molecular biology to devise a way to stop viruses such as Newcastle disease replicating in poultry. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • replicates
  • Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have, for the first time, imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • influenza virus
  • The tail loop has been shown biochemically to be important for oligomerization of NP monomers within the RNP ( 10 - 12 ), but structural information on the native RNP has been lacking, and it is unclear how the NPs form the helical filament structures that are characteristic of influenza virus RNPs ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • To address the plethora of biological questions surrounding the influenza virus RNP, we used cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to analyze the structure of recombinant RNPs. (sciencemag.org)
  • avian
  • Ultimately, you could have birds that are both avian influenza resistant and Newcastle disease virus resistant," said Mr West. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • membranes
  • In a mitochondrion infected with the virus, the space between those membranes is expanded and filled up with spherules, round vesicles about 50 nanometers in size. (eurekalert.org)
  • PKR inhibitor pre-treatment resulted in decreased virus titers, extra- and intracellularly, concomitant with reduction of cells with compromised membranes in IPNV-permissive cell lines. (mdpi.com)
  • Taxonomy
  • The Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. (els.net)
  • International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses University of Leicester Archived 5 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccinia virus
  • An isolated recombinant vaccinia virus complement control protein (hrVCP) polypeptide comprises a modified amino acid sequence comprising one or more amino acid substitutions to an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 2. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • substituting one or more amino acids of the VCP polypeptide amino acid sequence to produce a recombinant vaccinia virus complement control protein (hrVCP) polypeptide having enhanced complement activation regulatory activity when compared to a complement activation regulatory activity of the VCP polypeptide. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Immunofluorescence deconvolution micrograph of a cell infected with vaccinia virus particles. (sciencephoto.com)
  • RNAs
  • Lassa virus (Arenaviridae) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Arenaviridae) Hantavirus (Bunyaviridae) Marburg Virus (Filoviridae) Ebola virus (Filoviridae) Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae) Measles (Paramyxoviridae) Mumps virus (Paramyxoviridae) Human respiratory syncytial virus (Paramyxoviridae) Parainfluenza (Paramyxoviridae) Rabies (Rhabdoviridae) Vesicular stomatitis virus (Rhabdoviridae) The genome for negative-stranded RNA virus (NSV) consists of one to several single-stranded RNAs, which are assembled into complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases subgenomic RNAs are also created during replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • RdRp
  • The genome of a positive-sense ssRNA virus usually contains relatively few genes, usually between three and ten, including an RdRP. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • It has been repeatedly noted that many test conditions such as the cell culture system, virus strain, virus challenge dose, virus input multiplicity of infection, and time of harvesting, etc., can substantially affect or even alter the test results, thus making comparative studies and unambiguous evaluations very difficult. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Areas of virus assembly within the cell are pink. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In more details, replication of the virion consists of the following steps: A virion enters the host cell and releases its negative RNA into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Positive-sense RNA viruses account for a large fraction of known viruses, including many pathogens such as the hepatitis C virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and SARS and MERS coronaviruses, as well as less clinically serious pathogens such as the rhinoviruses that cause the common cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • enhances
  • Interestingly, overexpression of poIRF1 enhances dsRNA-induced IFN-β and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activation, whereas knockdown of poIRF1 cannot significantly affect the activation of IFN-β promoter induced by RNA viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • vitro
  • We have previously shown that the N-7 substituted acyclic nucleoside analog 2-amino-7-[1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]purine (compound S2242) is, both in vitro and in animal models, a potent inhibitor of the replication of several herpesviruses (Neyts et al. (kuleuven.be)
  • genus
  • Gammapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Papillomaviridae Genus: Gammapapillomavirus Gammapapillomavirus 1 Gammapapillomavirus 2 Gammapapillomavirus 3 Gammapapillomavirus 4 Gammapapillomavirus 5 Gammapapillomavirus 6 Gammapapillomavirus 7 Gammapapillomavirus 8 Gammapapillomavirus 9 Gammapapillomavirus 10 Gammapapillomavirus 11 Gammapapillomavirus 12 Gammapapillomavirus 13 Gammapapillomavirus 14 Gammapapillomavirus 15 Gammapapillomavirus 16 Gammapapillomavirus 17 Gammapapillomavirus 18 Gammapapillomavirus 19 Gammapapillomavirus 20 Viruses in Gammapapillomavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=7 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another virus (Weissella phage phiYS61) that has been isolated is so unlike the known members that it may belong to a new genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lambdatorquevirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Anelloviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Torque teno zalophus virus 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: ssDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Anelloviridae Genus: Lambdatorquevirus Torque teno zalophus virus 1 Viruses in Lambdatorquevirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=1 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • When the first Archaeal genome, Methanococcus jannaschii, had been sequenced completely in 1996, it was found that the genes in the genome of Methanococcus jannaschii involved in DNA replication, transcription, and translation were more related to their counterparts in eukaryotes than to those in other prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In P2's genome, the genes related to chromosome replication were likewise found to be more related to those in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • Following treatment with H961 at 100 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days (either via oral gavage or s.c. injection) VV-inoculated SCID mice were completely protected, for at least 3 months, against virus-induced morbidity and mortality. (kuleuven.be)
  • At that time, no virus could be recovered from the organs of these mice (as assessed by titration for infectious virus, a DNA hybridization assay, and a PCR for VV-specific sequences). (kuleuven.be)
  • cellular
  • Viroporins are small and usually hydrophobic multifunctional viralproteins that modify cellular membranes, thereby facilitating virus release from infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Viroporins expressed transgenically, in the absence of their virus of origin, induce the same effect, a feature that has facilitated viroporin discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • origin
  • The Ti plasmid contains regions for origin of replication, the new DNA (with T-DNA transfer functions), T-DNA that encodes for tumor growth, and nopaline utilization. (macalester.edu)
  • This was the first time that more than a single origin of DNA replication had been shown to be used in a prokaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) after a long latent period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In general, type I interferons are produced when the body recognizes a virus has invaded it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once released, type I interferons will activate molecules which prevent the virus from producing and replicating its RNA and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • Picovirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Caudovirales, in the family Podoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noroviruses (NoV) are a genetically diverse group of single-stranded positive-sense RNA, non-enveloped viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae family. (wikipedia.org)