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  • biofilm
  • Quorum sensing is regarded as a cell density dependent phenomenon where a group of bacteria can detect cell population and coordinate collective behavior such as virulence [ 2 ] and biofilm formation [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • bacteria
  • Classical models to assess the virulence of Pseudomonas bacteria include burn wound infections or pulmonary infections, usually in immuno-compromised mice or rats. (forschung3r.ch)
  • The factors that determine the virulence of S. pneumoniae are very complex but a key aspect of the organism's disease causing potential is the ability of the bacteria to regulate virulence factor expression and activity. (bl.uk)
  • genes
  • We hypothesized that the observed frequency of gene loss/pseudogenes may be an artifact of evolution in response to a changing environment, and that genes involved in virulence should be under strong positive selection. (springer.com)
  • We analyzed a subset of virulence and housekeeping genes from several F. tularensis subspecies genomes to ascertain the presence and extent of positive selection. (springer.com)
  • Eleven previously identified virulence genes were screened for positive selection along with 10 housekeeping genes. (springer.com)
  • Our results suggest that while the loss of functional genes through disuse could be accelerated by negative selection, the genome decay in Francisella could also be the byproduct of adaptive evolution driven by complex interactions between host, pathogen, and thier environment, as evidenced by several of its virulence genes which are undergoing strong, positive selection. (springer.com)
  • the sum total of niche-specific genes is the virus' virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, the prophage may transfer genes that enhance host virulence and resistance to the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Members of this group include: PagC, required by Salmonella typhimurium for survival in macrophages and for virulence in mice Rck outer membrane protein of the S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis virulence plasmid Ail, a product of the Yersinia enterocolitica chromosome capable of mediating bacterial adherence to and invasion of epithelial cell lines OmpX from Escherichia coli that promotes adhesion to and entry into mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PhoP/PhoQ: macrophage-specific modulators of Salmonella virulence? (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • We could give anti-virulence antibiotics to people with healthy immune systems, who would be able to clear infections with this assistance," he said, "and traditional antibiotics combined with antivirulence therapies to people with compromised immune systems, who really need them. (eurekalert.org)
  • This prevalence marks them as key microbial virulence factors in addition to a bacterium's ability to produce toxins and resist the immune defenses of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Deletion of the candidate proline transporters from P. luminescens abolished the induction of some small molecules and increased the abundance of others, suggesting that L-proline or its metabolites differentially regulate the production of virulence factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • increases
  • According to evolutionary medicine, virulence increases with horizontal transmission (between non-relatives) and decreases with vertical transmission (from parent to child). (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • This behavior has been well documented in human populations, yet the virulence of poliovirus has not increased for the 60 years during which the Salk vaccine has been used. (virology.ws)
  • regulation
  • Osmotic stress also contributes to the regulation of virulence factors, contributing to the detection of a new host, and L-proline enhanced the bacterial response to high osmotic medium. (sciencemag.org)
  • Proton motive force (PMF), a consequence of metabolic activity, also contributes to the regulation of bacterial virulence, and the addition of proline to the medium allowed P. luminescens to form colonies in the presence of drugs that disrupted PMF, suggesting that proline oxidation may provide an electron source for generation of PMF. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recent advancements in the field have identified new functions of encoded transcription factors and greatly expanded our understanding of virulence gene regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • isolates
  • To address their hypothesis, the authors inoculate vaccinated or unvaccinated chickens with a series of MDV isolates that range from low to high virulence. (virology.ws)
  • tularensis
  • Here we review the current knowledge of environmental adaptation by F. tularensis , its transcriptional regulators and their relationship to animal virulence. (frontiersin.org)
  • subspecies
  • These differences are thought to reflect the environmental adaptation of these subspecies and are associated with their differences in virulence. (frontiersin.org)
  • tends
  • He came to the conclusion that virulence tends to remain especially high in waterborne and vector-borne infections, such as cholera and Dengue. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • At one time, the consensus was that over time, virulence moderated and parasitic relationships evolved toward symbiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • systems
  • In most other contexts, especially in animal systems, virulence refers to the degree of damage caused by a microbe to its host. (wikipedia.org)