• bacterium
  • This method of recombinational diversity of the tail allows the virus to keep up with the bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adsorbtion and penetration process use such lysozymes to create an opening within the peptidoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall allowing transfer of the viral DNA into the bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • We know from previous genetic studies that this tail loop is almost identical across strains of influenza A, so drugs that target the tail have a high potential of being effective against multiple strains, including the H5N1 strains. (biologynews.net)
  • receptor
  • Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. (mdpi.com)
  • Env is the receptor binding protein, facilitating the early steps in the virus-cell interaction and additionally drives the fusion process between the viral and cellular membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • Influenza virus has two kinds of peplomers: 1) triangular, spike-shaped "haemagglutinin" and 2) mushroom-shaped "neuraminidase" Virus Glycoprotein Receptor (biochemistry) T4 phage Viral entry Viral life cycle Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary (3rd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant
  • These advances in structural biology were made possible due to the development of stable recombinant forms of the viral spike by the introduction of an intersubunit disulphide bond and an isoleucine to proline mutation in gp41. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant trimeric viral spikes are promising vaccine candidates as they display less non-neutralising epitopes than recombinant monomeric gp120 which act to suppress the immune response to target epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • These fosmids recruited a higher proportion of viral metagenomic sequences from Saanich Inlet than from nearby northeastern subarctic Pacific Ocean (Line P) waters, indicating differences in the viral communities between coastal and open ocean locations. (frontiersin.org)
  • This domain does not contact RNA, and instead, it recognizes 15 residues sequences that are a part of the PABP interaction motif (PAM-2) found on such proteins as eukaryotic translation termination factor (eRF3) and PABP interacting proteins 1 and 2 (PAIP 1, PAIP2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Replication results in the creation of a series of circular head to tail sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane fusion
  • During viral and target cell membrane fusion, the coiled coil regions (heptad repeats) assume a trimer-of-hairpins structure, positioning the fusion peptide in close proximity to the C-terminal region of the ectodomain. (abcam.com)
  • fragment
  • New method for localizing proteins in periodic structures: Fab fragment labeling combined with image processing of electron micrographs. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Most of these proteins contain a C-terminal putative transmembrane (TM) fragment and a pair of hydrophobic alpha helices (alpha5-alpha6) similar to the membrane insertion fragments of the ion-channel domain of diphtheria toxin and colicins. (jove.com)
  • amino
  • The terminal assembly complex investigated in this work, though, only covers a tiny part of the giant muscle protein titin, which possesses tens of thousands of amino acids in some isoforms. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The F-box domain is a protein structural motif of about 50 amino acids that mediates protein-protein interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • NP has about 500 amino acids and the tail loop contains about 30 of those," Tao said. (biologynews.net)
  • peptides
  • Progress in the knowledge of the structure of many of the main molecular actors of the apoptotic signal transduction pathways has driven the design of synthetic peptides that in some cases can function as simplified versions of their parent proteins. (jove.com)
  • Most applications of peptides in apoptosis research are so far related to caspases, caspase regulatory proteins, such as LAPs and Smac, and proteins of the Bcl-2 family. (jove.com)
  • Protein homeostasis results in a steady supply of peptides, which are further degraded to fuel protein synthesis or metabolic needs of the cell. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Antigenic peptides are guided to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules and are finally displayed on the cell surface, where they mount an adaptive immune response against viral infected or malignantly transformed cells. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • degradation
  • The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
  • The SCF E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex participates in the recognition and recruitment of target proteins for ubiquitination and degradation by the ubiquitin 26S proteasome system (UPS). (mdpi.com)
  • The poly(A)-binding protein may also protect the tail from degradation and regulate mRNA production. (wikipedia.org)
  • dsDNA
  • Group: dsDNA Order: Caudovirales Family: Myoviridae Sub-Family: Tevenvirinae Genus: T4virus (alias T4-like viruses) Escherichia virus AR1 Escherichia virus C40 Escherichia virus E112 Escherichia virus EMCL134 Escherichia virus RB3 Escherichia phage RB14 Enterobacteria phage T2 Enterobacteria phage T4 Shigella virus Pss1 Shigella virus Shfl2 Yersinia virus D1 Yersinia virus PST T4viruse species are nonenveloped, with a head and tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: dsDNA Order: Caudovirales Family: Myoviridae Sub-Family: Peduovirinae Genus: P2likevirus Burkholderia phage phi52237 Burkholderia phage phiE202 Burkholderia phage phiE12-2 Enterobacteria phage 186 Enterobacteria phage P2 Enterobacteria phage PsP3 Enterobacteria phage Wphi Mannheimia phage phiMhaA1-PHL101 Pseudomonas phage phiCTX Ralstonia phage RSA1 Salmonella Fels-2 Salmonella SopEphi Yersinia phage L-413C P2likeviruses are nonenveloped, with a head and tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: dsDNA Order: Caudovirales Family: Siphoviridae Genus: Tunalikevirus Cronobacter phage Esp2949-1 Enterobacter phage F20 Enterobacteria phage T1 Escherichia phage Eb49 Escherichia phage Jk06 Escherichia phage Rogue1 Escherichia phage Rtp Escherichia phage Tls Shigella phage Shfl1 Tunalikeviruses are nonenveloped, with a head and tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: dsDNA Order: Caudovirales Family: Siphoviridae Genus: Lambdalikevirus Enterobacteria phage HK022 Enterobacteria phage HK97 Enterobacteria phage lambda Lambdalikeviruses are nonenveloped, with a head and tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: dsDNA Order: Caudovirales Family: Podoviridae Sub-Family: Picovirinae Genus: Phi29likevirus Bacillus phage B103 Bacillus phage GA-1 Bacillus phage phi29 Kurthia phage 6 Phi29likeviruses are nonenveloped, with a head and tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group: dsDNA Order: Caudovirales Family: Podoviridae Sub-Family: Autographivirinae Genus: Sp6likevirus Enterobacteria phage K5 Enterobacteria phage K1-5 Enterobacteria phage K1E Enterobacteria phage SP6 Erwinia amylovora phage Era103 Sp6likeviruses are non-enveloped, with a head and tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • In particular, we are interested in molecular machineries that facilitate protein and peptide translocation across eukaryotic membranes. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • This binding forms the characteristic loop structure of eukaryotic protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • retroviruses
  • The C -terminal domains from three prototypical retroviruses are discussed, focusing on the different structures and functions, which include fusion activation, tumorigenesis and viral assembly and lifecycle influences. (mdpi.com)
  • The proteins common to all retroviruses (Gag, Pol, Pro and Env) have the same function regardless of the specific virus. (mdpi.com)
  • dependent
  • In infected cells, there have been high magnitudes of both translation induction (GACC-tailed mRNA) and reduction (poly(A)-tailed mRNA) both dependent on the rotavirus strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The P1 plasmid combats this by several methods: The plasmid replication is tightly regulated by a RepA protein dependent mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • machinery
  • In light of its important role within the MHC I antigen processing pathway, TAP is a prime target for viral immune evasion strategies, and we summarize how this antigen translocation machinery is sabotaged by viral factors. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Translation using host cell machinery produces new viral components to be assembled. (wikipedia.org)
  • complete
  • Here, we describe viral communities inhabiting oxic surface (10 m) and oxygen-starved basin (200 m) waters of Saanich Inlet, a seasonally anoxic fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia using viral metagenomics and complete viral fosmid sequencing on samples collected between April 2007 and April 2010. (frontiersin.org)
  • molecule
  • Wilmanns' lab and the team of Mathias Gautel, an EMBL alumnus and now at King's College, have thought that a molecule called titin, the largest protein made by human cells, is involved. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Peijian Zou and Nikos Pinotsis from the Wilmanns lab obtained crystals of parts of the titin molecule bound to another protein, called telethonin. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 6 . The isolated nucleic acid of claim 3 , wherein the viral surface protein is gp120 or a modified form of gp120, wherein the modification alters the immunogenicity of the molecule relative to wild type gp120. (google.com)
  • host
  • On the other hand, F-box proteins can be used in the defense response by the host. (mdpi.com)
  • This review describes the role of F-box proteins and the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in virus-host interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • Viral diversity and virus-host interactions in oxygen-starved regions of the ocean, also known as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), remain relatively unexplored. (frontiersin.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by lysis, and holin/endolysin/spanin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other parvoviruses replicate only when the host cell is in S phase: viral replication results in the death of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of the viral proteins alone does not cause host cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement, and monopartite non-tubule guided viral movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • Biochemists at Rice and UT found that even minor changes to the tail prevented NP from fulfilling one of its roles - linking together into structural columns that the virus uses to transmit copies of itself. (biologynews.net)
  • The so-called SOSIP trimers not only reproduce the antigenic properties of the native viral spike but also display the same degree of immature glycans as presented on the native virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term 'peplomer' is typically used to refer to a grouping of heterologous proteins on the virus surface that function together. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Disease can be the result of diverse mechanisms, including tumorigenesis induced by viral oncogenes or immune destruction, leading to the gradual loss of CD4 T-cells. (mdpi.com)
  • icosahedral
  • All viruses in this order have icosahedral or oblate heads but differ in the length and contractile abilities of their tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • The single-strand RNA is tightly bound to p17 nucleocapsid proteins, late assembly protein p6, and enzymes essential to the development of the virion, such as reverse transcriptase and integrase. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • and small drugs and actin-binding proteins strongly influence the functional properties of monomeric (G) as well as filamentous (F) actin in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • The engineered DNA was designed to be easier to work with in a number of ways: individual functional elements were separated by restriction endonuclease sites for simple modification, and overlapping protein coding domains were separated and, where necessary, modified by single base pair silent mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • The cell as a collection of protein machines: Preparing the next generation of molecular biologists. (currentprotocols.com)
  • There is a small binding pocket for the tail loop of the protein that appears to be a promising target for a new class of antiviral drugs," said lead researcher Jane Tao, assistant professor in biochemistry and cell biology. (biologynews.net)