• cytoplasmic
  • Mediates internalization and degradation of host CD4 through the interaction of with the cytoplasmic tail of CD4, the recruitment of AP-2 (clathrin adapter protein complex 2), internalization through clathrin coated pits, and subsequent transport to endosomes and lysosomes for degradation. (uniprot.org)
  • Results of RNA transfection experiments suggest that cytoplasmic proteins are insufficient for SNV RU5 translational enhancement of gag or luc RNA. (jove.com)
  • viruses
  • 3. Structural disorder within the nucleoproteins and phosphoproteins of measles, Nipah and Hendra viruses ( Johnny Habchi and Sonia Longhi ). (wiley.com)
  • 6. Structural disorder in matrix proteins from HiV-related viruses ( Vladimir Uversky and Keith Dunker ). (wiley.com)
  • Later, in her work with her husband at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, one of the vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) she studied made ribonucleic acid (RNA) from RNA instead of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which did not follow the conventional central dogma: DNA RNA Protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid of some viruses are enclosed in a membrane called the viral envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAST proteins are coded for by members of the nonenveloped reoviridae family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two major classes of methods are those that use recombinant viruses (sometimes called biological nanoparticles or viral vectors) and those that use naked DNA or DNA complexes (non-viral methods). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a shift in the ORF is not universally deleterious, as many viruses capitalize on this phenomenon by using a programmed ribosomal frameshift (PRF) to translate several proteins from the same sequence, thereby maximizing the storage capacity of their genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Expression of the JSRV Envelope protein activates signalling cascades that promote cellular proliferation and malignant transformation of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cellular receptor for JSRV is hyaluronidase 2 (Hyal2), a glycophosphatidylinol(GPI)-anchored protein belonging to the hyaluronidase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rev-directed export of viral RNAs is similar to the mechanism by which snRNAs and the 5s rRNAs are exported, as opposed to the mechanism for export of cellular mRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which mediates cellular endocytosis of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fusion of the viral envelope with the cellular membrane requires high energy to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • This change in conformation then facilitates the destabilization and fusion of the viral envelope with the cellular membrane by allowing fusion loops (FLs) or hydrophobic fusion peptides (FPs) on the viral envelope to interact with the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, because eRF1 is known to complex with at least 32 cellular binding partners, it remains unclear if eRF1 acts independently to modulate PRF in HIV-1 or if it is part of a larger regulatory protein complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • assembly
  • The understanding of self-assembly of VLPs was once based on viral assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is rational as long as the VLP assembly takes place inside the host cell (in vivo), though the self-assembly event was found in vitro from the very beginning of the study about viral assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this approach sometimes leads to impaired VLP assembly and has limited utility if the targeting agent is not protein-based. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthesis
  • Intact and consistent protein biosynthesis relies on the ability of the ribosome to stay in the correct open reading frame (ORF) during translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • These advances in structural biology were made possible due to the development of stable recombinant forms of the viral spike by the introduction of an intersubunit disulphide bond and an isoleucine to proline mutation in gp41. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigenic
  • These processes are associated with the production of antigenic proteins that make the virus vulnerable to immune control mechanisms 'warning' the host of the presence of an invader [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The so-called SOSIP trimers not only reproduce the antigenic properties of the native viral spike but also display the same degree of immature glycans as presented on the native virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteomes
  • With chapters by leading research groups, it features current information on the structural and functional roles of intrinsic disorders in viral proteomes. (wiley.com)
  • cytokine
  • All these proteins are responsible for recognizing viral components and induce proinflammatory cytokine expression or interferon (IFN) response factors. (intechopen.com)
  • Electron
  • Studies have not shown whether or not OFV actually replicates within B. californicus but electron microscopy has revealed an intricate viral life cycle within the host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular structure of the viral spike has now been determined by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • conformation
  • In 1998, he moved to the University of California Santa Cruz where for six years he was studying protein folding, misfolding, protein conformation diseases, and protein intrinsic disorder phenomenon. (wiley.com)
  • characteristic
  • However, two non-orchid indicator hosts (plants used in research that show characteristic symptoms of specific viral infections) C. quinoa and T. expansa are commonly used for viral inoculation and isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following symptoms are characteristic: A usual brief viral prodrome with fever, headache, nausea, diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • Exon shuffling was first introduced in 1978 when Walter Gilbert discovered that the existence of introns could play a major role in the evolution of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for exon shuffling to start to play a major role in protein evolution the appearance of spliceosomal introns had to take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, exon shuffling became a major role in the construction of younger proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • A viral structural protein is a viral protein that is a structural component of the mature virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • She has authored more than 70 scientific publications and edited a book on measles virus nucleoprotein and coedited, with Prof. Vladimir Uversky, a book entitled Instrumental Analysis of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (Wiley). (wiley.com)
  • The cowpox virus (CPV) complement inhibitor, termed inflammation modulatory protein (IMP), blocks immunopathological tissue damage at the site of infection, presumably by inhibiting production of the macrophage chemo attractant factors C3a and C5a. (intechopen.com)
  • For the research, she isolated a rabies type of virus which produced mutant strains interfering with viral growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • VP1-proteins are incorporated into the capsid structure in a non-stochiometrical relation (based on antibody-binding analysis and X-ray structural analysis the VP1-unique region is assumed to be exposed at the surface of the virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome and proteins of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) have been the subject of extensive research since the discovery of the virus in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • A viral protein is both a component and a product of a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most viral structural proteins are components for the capsid and the envelope of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of class II viral fusion proteins include the dengue virus E protein, and the west nile virus E protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HIV-1 ribosomal frameshift signal has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for the HIV-1 virus due to the requirement of the programmed ribosomal frameshift for the regulation of the Gag/Gag-Pol protein ratio and the relatively conserved structure. (wikipedia.org)