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  • Receptors
  • The enzyme is a key regulator of numerous signalling pathways, including cellular responses to Wnt, receptor tyrosine kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, ranging from glycogen metabolism to cell cycle regulation and proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • Normal Trk receptors do not contain amino acid or DNA sequences related to tropomyosin. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • The gene that encodes the human EHD3 protein is located in chromosome number 2, most specifically in the 23.1 region. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a kinase also known as Goodpasture antigen-binding protein that specifically phosphorylates the N-terminal region of the non-collagenous domain of the alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen, known as the Goodpasture antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretory
  • To clarify the influence of GTRAP3-18 on trafficking in the early secretory pathway we employed an ER-to-Golgi transport assay. (nih.gov)
  • It does this through at least three mechanisms: 1) By stimulating release of somatostatin, 2) By inhibiting release of gastrin in the pyloric antrum, and 3) By direct downregulation of the parietal cell acid secretory mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrosine
  • The metabolic pathway is: Phenylalanine → Tyrosine → L-DOPA → Dopamine → Norepinephrine Thus the direct precursor of norepinephrine is dopamine, which is synthesized indirectly from the essential amino acid phenylalanine or the non-essential amino acid tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and, as such, are provided by ingestion of protein-containing food, with tyrosine being the most common. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary and minor metabolic pathways respectively are: Primary: L-Phenylalanine → L-Tyrosine → L-DOPA → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → L-Tyrosine → p-Tyramine → Dopamine Minor: L-Phenylalanine → m-Tyrosine → m-Tyramine → Dopamine The direct precursor of dopamine, L-DOPA, can be synthesized indirectly from the essential amino acid phenylalanine or directly from the non-essential amino acid tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • These amino acids are found in nearly every protein and so are readily available in food, with tyrosine being the most common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • High-intensity interval exercise (5 days weekly for 7 weeks), as well as L-lactate subcutaneous injection that leads to an increase in blood lactate levels similar to exercise, increases brain VEGFA protein and capillary density in wild-type mice, but not in knockout mice lacking HCAR1. (uio.no)
  • peptide
  • Protein post-translational modifications (PTM) increase the functional diversity of the proteome by the covalent addition of functional groups or proteins, by the hydrolisis of peptide bonds that link amino acids together or by the degradation of different parts of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This precursor contains an N-terminal signal peptide, spacer, secretin itself (residues 28-54), and a 72-amino acid C-terminal peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • CERT is a 68kDa protein that consists of three different parts, each of which with a special role: Pleckstrin homology domain (PH): It is the aminoterminal domain and it consists of about 100 aminoacid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • START domain: It consists of about 210 amino acid residues and has an important role in the transfer of ceramide, which is that it can recognize specifically only the natural D-erythro isomer of ceramide and extract it from the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrochloric acid
  • Because of the increased stability and water-solubility of the protonated form, dopamine is supplied for chemical or pharmaceutical use as dopamine hydrochloride-that is, the hydrochloride salt that is created when dopamine is combined with hydrochloric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • the acidity is due to hydrochloric acid in the chyme that enters the duodenum from the stomach via the pyloric sphincter. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • Secretin helps regulate the pH of the duodenum by (1) inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach and (2) stimulating the production of bicarbonate from the centroacinar cells and intercalated ducts of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the secretion of secretin is increased by the products of protein digestion bathing the mucosa of the upper small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretin release is inhibited by H2 antagonists, which reduce gastric acid secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • We sequenced the human VIAAT gene and determined that the human and rat proteins share over 98% sequence identity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Eps15 homology domain-containing protein 3, abbreviated as EDH3 and also known as PAST3, is a protein encoded by the EHD3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-ray crystallographic structures of human endoglin (PDB: 5I04, 5HZV​) and its complex with ligand BMP-9 (PDB: 5HZW​) revealed that the orphan region of the protein consists of two domains (OR1 and OR2) with a new fold resulting from gene duplication and circular permutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen type IV alpha-3-binding protein, also known as ceramide transfer protein (CERT) or StAR-related lipid transfer protein 11 (STARD11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL4A3BP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The β-adrenoceptor was the first G protein-coupled receptor the gene of which was cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Hence, its unspecific interference with photosynthetic membranes in vitro suggests that the inhibitory effect observed on intact cell photosynthesis is caused by uncoupling of phosphorylation. (diva-portal.org)
  • dopamine
  • L-DOPA is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (also known as DOPA decarboxylase), with pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine is then converted into norepinephrine by the enzyme dopamine β-monooxygenase (formerly known as dopamine β-hydroxylase), with O2 and ascorbic acid as cofactors. (wikipedia.org)
  • viaat
  • In vitro expression of VIAAT and immunoblotting of brain and islet lysates revealed two forms of the protein: an ∼52-kDa and an ∼57-kDa form. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • vitro
  • Electron transfer from excited chlorophyll to ANT is impossible due to the very low reduction potential of ANT and therefore we propose that toxic concentrations of ANT increase the thylakoid membrane permeability and thereby function as an uncoupler, enhancing electron transport in vitro. (diva-portal.org)
  • neuronal
  • GTRAP3-18 serves as a negative regulator of Rab1 in protein transport and neuronal differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, we propose a model where protein trafficking and neuronal differentiation are directly linked by the interaction of Rab1 and its regulator GTRAP3-18. (nih.gov)
  • Antidepressants and cocaine share the ability to alter neuronal signaling by blocking NE and 5HT transport. (acnp.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, the availability of transporter-specific antibodies and nucleic acid probes has renewed interest in the endogenous control mechanisms acutely regulating NE and 5HT transport in vivo and whether chronic alterations in NET and SERT genes underlie neuropsychiatric disorders. (acnp.org)
  • Golgi
  • GTRAP3-18 slows ER to Golgi transport of VSVG-ts045. (nih.gov)
  • When the protein reaches the Golgi it becomes resistant to Endo H. We transfected HEK293 cells with a plasmidencoding YFP-tagged VSVG-ts045 and either a plasmid encoding for CFP or a plasmid encoding for CFP-tagged GTRAP3-18. (nih.gov)
  • Lateral movement, either via diffusion or active transport, is quite distinct from currently studied pathways of ciliary protein transport in mammals, which emphasize directed trafficking of Golgi-derived vesicles to the base of the cilium. (rupress.org)
  • Ceramide transferase protein (or CERT) is responsible for the transfer of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, this drug inhibits the ATP-dependent transport of ceramide from ER to Golgi (and therefore the conversion of ceramide to sphingomyelin), but it does not inhibit protein trafficking. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiology
  • Transcytosis of proteins and hydrodynamic flow of cytoplasm is a major mechanism to sustain physiology in all cells, observable from gametes ( 1 ) to mature adult cells and tissues ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • bind
  • It has also been found that these EHD proteins bind to the Rab11-effector Rab11-FIP2 via EH-NPF interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain
  • This barrier creates a tight hydrophobic layer around the capillaries in the brain, inhibiting the transport of large or hydrophilic compounds. (wikipedia.org)