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  • transmembrane
  • EAATs are transmembrane integral proteins which traverse the plasmalemma 8 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two halves of the protein pack against each other in a clam-shell fashion, sealing via interactions at the ends of the transmembrane helices and extracellular loops. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • It has also been observed in withdrawn rats that a decrease in Group 2 mGluR inhibition of vesicular release, most likely due to the decrease in extrasynaptic glutamate levels, leads to an increase in cocaine-evoked glutamate signaling in their NAcc. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • Protective physiological functions of drug-transporting P-glycoproteins (ABCB1), i.a. in the blood-brain barrier (23) and in the gut (oral availability of drugs) (24) (25). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rats
  • If either of these transporters are impaired, it could result in a disruption in glutamate homeostasis and lead to a variety of CNS disorders It has been found that cocaine produces a decrease in Cystine-Glutamate exchange via system Xc-, leading to a decrease in basal, extra synaptic glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) region of the brains of cocaine-withdrawn rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • Casein kinases are operationally defined by their preferential utilization of acidic proteins such as caseins as substrates. (abcam.com)
  • Instead of binding to the active site on the serotonin transporter, they bind to an allosteric site, which exerts its effects by causing conformational changes in the transporter protein and thereby modulating the affinity of substrates for the active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • EAATs
  • There are two general classes of glutamate transporters, those that are dependent on an electrochemical gradient of sodium ions (the EAATs) and those that are not (VGLUTs and xCT). (wikipedia.org)
  • VGLUTs have only between one hundredth and one thousandth the affinity for glutamate that EAATs have. (wikipedia.org)
  • glial cells
  • Subtypes EAAT1-2 are found in membranes of glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • solute
  • The generalized transport reaction for the members of this family is: solute (out) + Na+ (out) → solute (in) + Na+ (in). (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • More specifically, the protein translocation site marker (Sec61α) and the Golgi cisternae markers (giantin and α-mannosidase II) have been observed in the spine apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • proton
  • The first structures were of the glycerol 3-phosphate/phosphate exchanger GlpT and the lactose-proton symporter LacY, which served to elucidate the overall structure of the protein family and provided initial models for understanding the MFS transport mechanism. (wikipedia.org)