• cognitive
  • DYL), used because it was easy to learn and lacked pre-learned cognitive associations, and a common word (e.g. road). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cognitive testing toward the future: The example of Semantic Verbal Fluency (ANIMALS)" (- Scholar search). (wikipedia.org)
  • His most significant contribution to the fields of educational psychology, cognitive science, and science education learning was on the development and research on advance organizers since 1960. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the preface to his book Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View, he says that "If [he] had to reduce all of educational psychology to just one principle, [he] would say this: The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluency
  • Verbal fluency tests are a kind of psychological test in which participants have to produce as many words as possible from a category in a given time (usually 60 seconds). (wikipedia.org)
  • Performance in verbal fluency tests show a number of consistent characteristics in both children and adults: There is an hyperbolic decline in the rate of production of new items over the duration of the task. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebbinghaus
  • A vast outpouring of work on verbal learning followed Ebbinghaus' pioneer efforts (see e.g. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Underwood revisited the classic Ebbinghaus learning curve and found that much of the forgetting was due to interference from previously learned materials In 1924, James J. Jenkins and Karl Dallenbach showed that everyday experiences can interfere with memory with an experiment that resulted in retention being better over a period of sleep than over the same amount of time devoted to activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereby
  • Impaired verbal associative learning is a compound term referring to disturbances in a learning process whereby conjunctions are formed between co-occurring linguistic entities, ranging from the phonemic, through lexical, to propositional levels of language. (springer.com)
  • Mediational processes, especially verbal ones, have provided a mechanism whereby objective and behavioristic psychologists can account for forms of thought, stimulus and response equivalence, and other phenomena which are otherwise refractory to a simple analysis in terms of stimulus and response (Goss 1961a). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The spacing effect is the phenomenon whereby learning is greater when studying is spread out over time, as opposed to studying the same amount of content in a single session. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adults
  • Adults with limited learning capacity may perform well on early trials but reach a plateau where repeated trials do not reflect improved performance, or have inconsistent recall across trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • semantic
  • A big feature, compared to other verbal learning tests, is that the words are drawn from four semantic categories (tools, fruits, clothing, spices and herbs), with no consecutive words from the same category. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is suggested that a general verbal learning component consistently accounts for about 35-40% of the total variance and consists of total free recall over the five trials of list A, semantic clustering free and cued recall (both short- and long-delays), and recognition hits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining components, learning strategy (semantic and serial clustering), serial position (primacy and recency) and proactive effect (List B recall) are inconsistent and account for little additional variance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Test
  • The effect of proactive interference was reduced when the test was immediate and when the new target list was obviously different from the previously learned lists. (wikipedia.org)
  • context
  • It is most commonly discussed in the context of English language learning and teaching, but it can occur in any situation when someone does not have a native-level command of a language, as when translating into a second language. (wikipedia.org)
  • students
  • It was hypothesized that students higher in general ability would obtain higher posttest scores on the average than lower ability students, and that verbal and figural explanatory supplements to minimal instructional materials would reduce the regression of general ability on outcome. (ed.gov)
  • When studying, for example, students make judgements of whether they have successfully learned the assigned material and use these decisions, known as "judgments of learning", to allocate study time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the students with specific learning disabilities receiving special education services, 70-80% have a discrepancy in reading. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another typical example of negative transfer concerns German students trying to learn English. (wikipedia.org)
  • proactive interference
  • There are two main kinds of interference: proactive interference (see Proactive learning), retroactive interference (see Retroactive learning). (wikipedia.org)
  • If the items or pairs to be learned are conceptually related to one another, then proactive interference has a greater effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proactive interference also affected learning when dealing with multiple lists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, Proactive interference affected the correct recall of the last list learned, because of the previous one, or two. (wikipedia.org)
  • Negative transfer concerns itself with a detrimental effect of prior experience on the learning of a new task, whereas proactive interference relates to a negative effect of prior interference on the recall of a second task. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Non-verbal learning disabilities in children with infantile hydrocephalus, aged 4-7 years: a population-based, controlled study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The aim of this population-based, controlled study was to investigate non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) in children with infantile hydrocephalus (IH). (semanticscholar.org)
  • In Thorndike's most frequently cited study of "multiple-choice learning" (1934, pp. 278+ff), Ss were presented with a series of multiple-choice items each consisting of one Spanish and five English words. (conductual.com)
  • Thus, Tilton's study provides evidence for the effectiveness of verbal punishment in multiple-choice learning, but his results are still in conflict with most of the recent results on punishment. (conductual.com)
  • The study of verbal learning was begun in the laboratory almost as early as the word association method. (encyclopedia.com)
  • curve
  • A computer administration and scoring system generates scores for every measure, graphs a learning curve, and provides learning parameters, response errors and interference effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • disability
  • Had an email last week from someone with a nonverbal learning disability - and he asked us a great question. (blogspot.com)
  • Did you know that almost one million children ages six through twenty-one have some sort of learning disability and receive special education in school? (wordpress.com)
  • Dyslexia is a common language-based learning disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • His results show verbal punishment to be only weakly effective in suppressing responses, whereas strong effects of at least one aversive stimulus (electric shock) have been repeatedly demonstrated with both animals and humans (e.g. (conductual.com)
  • language
  • Conference…1963), but current opinion is that verbal learning cannot be divorced from features of the subject's usual language. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Language-based learning disabilities or LBLD are "heterogeneous" neurological differences that can affect skills such as listening, reasoning, speaking, reading, writing, and maths calculations. (wikipedia.org)
  • show
  • It was designed to not only measure how much a subject learned but also show the strategies they used and ultimately what kind of errors they made. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robinson
  • Since his formal retirement in 1991, Robinson has been a volunteer learning consultant with professionals in health, education, adult literacy and a variety of other social service agencies that see the need to introduce formal curriculum design concepts into their increasingly pro-active (educational) professional work. (wikipedia.org)
  • By acting as reminders, the organizer points out explicitly "whether already established anchoring ideas are nonspecifically or specifically relevant to the learning material" (Ausubel & Robinson, 1969, p. 146). (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • However, Ausubel was a critic of discovery-based teaching techniques, stating: Actual examination of the research literature allegedly supportive of learning by discovery reveals that valid evidence of this nature is virtually nonexistent. (wikipedia.org)
  • tasks
  • Verbal thinkers tend to have less trouble than visual thinkers in conventional K-12 school tasks. (blogspot.com)
  • strong
  • The result was interesting because other studies using only twice-presented items have shown a strong spacing effect, although the lag between learning and testing was longer. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • As a child with NLD ages, their non-verbal deficits can cause significant academic and social issues. (wordpress.com)
  • In this program teachers and parents work together to monitor the progress of the child's comprehensive, verbal, written, social, and motor skills in school and in the home. (wikipedia.org)
  • free
  • The experimenter reads a list of 16 nouns aloud, at one-second intervals, in fixed order, over five learning trials (list A). After each trial, the subject is asked to recall as many words as they can in any order (i.e., free recall). (wikipedia.org)
  • better
  • Secondly, we investigated whether regularities are learned better when they are associated with contingent effects. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The speech therapist can work with the child to learn how to better understand and interpret non-verbal cues in communication and improve their interactions with others. (wordpress.com)
  • expression
  • Prior to that, the expression "verbal satiation" had been used along with terms that express the idea of mental fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • difficult
  • Advance organizers make it easier to learn new material of a complex or otherwise difficult nature, provided the following two conditions are met: 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • highly
  • We know and have learned of many highly (and sometimes exclusively) verbal thinkers working in various diverse occupations - academia / research, law, business, education, writing, science, math, and computers and engineering. (blogspot.com)
  • problems
  • but if visual perceptual and organization problems also exist (e.g. nonverbal learning disabilities), more struggles await them in their adult years, driving and reading maps, reading the emotions of their co-workers, bosses, and family members, and keeping their home and work life organized. (blogspot.com)
  • word
  • Prepare a 1,400- to 1,750-word paper in which you analyze the concept of verbal learning. (edusolutionguide.com)
  • Brainstorming may take place through conscious chains of deductive thinking, word play or conscious manipulation of words (e.g. drawing verbal analogies),or even verbal brainstorms (e.g. freewriting)in which loosely associated words, digressions, phrases, etc. are written down to open ideas up about a problem or question. (blogspot.com)
  • skills
  • SLPs evaluate the child's comprehension skills, and the child's ability to follow verbal and written directions. (wikipedia.org)