• cases
  • Approximately 90% of cases are associated with a cancerous tumor that is compressing the superior vena cava, such as bronchogenic carcinoma including small cell and non-small cell lung carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphomas, pre-T-cell lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (rare), and other acute leukemias. (wikipedia.org)
  • heart
  • Buirski G, Jordan SC, Joffe HS, Wilde P.(1986) Superior vena caval abnormalities and angiographic classification in paediatric population with congenital heart disease. (eurorad.org)