• vacuole
  • While many compound mutant phenotypes can be explained by this biochemical phenomenon, a reduction of ATPase activity at the vacuole along with reduced V-ATPase assembly at the vacuole for some strains (e.g. vma13Δ x vma3Δ heterozygotes) suggests that perturbation of certain subunit levels may also have synergistic effects on overall enzyme stability and assembly. (syr.edu)
  • We have identified mutations in the Stv1p N-terminal domain that lead to mislocalization of the Stv1-associated V-ATPase to the vacuole. (grantome.com)
  • In plants, vacuoles contain two enzymes for acidifying the interior of the vacuole, the V-ATPase and the V-PPase (V is for vacuolar). (wikipedia.org)
  • V-type ATPases acidify the lumen of the vacuole (hence the symbol 'V') of fungi and plants, and that of the lysosome in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Here we provide models of the regulation of two sets of mutually exclusive exons, 4a-4c and 7a-7b, of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated (unc)-32 gene, encoding the a subunit of V0 complex of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPases. (nih.gov)
  • adenosine
  • P-type ATPases are α-helical bundle primary transporters named based upon their ability to catalyze auto- (or self-) phosphorylation (hence P) of a key conserved aspartate residue within the pump and their energy source, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • pyrophosphatases
  • The archaeon, Methanosarcina mazei Gö1, encodes within its genome two H+-translocating pyrophosphatases (PPases), Mvp1 and Mvp2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two types of inorganic diphosphatase, very different in terms of both amino acid sequence and structure, have been characterised to date: soluble and transmembrane proton-pumping pyrophosphatases (sPPases and H(+)-PPases, respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • V-ATPases are also found in the plasma membranes of a wide variety of cells such as intercalated cells of the kidney, osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells), macrophages, neutrophils, sperm, midgut cells of insects, and certain tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by H+-PPases is: pyrophosphate (P2) + H2O + H+ (cytoplasm) → inorganic phosphate (2 Pi) + H+ (external milieu or vacuolar lumen). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proton ATPases are divided into three groups as outlined below: P-type ATPases form a covalent phosphorylated (hence the symbol 'P') intermediate as part of its reaction cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generalized reaction for P-type ATPases is: nLigand1 (out) + mLigand2 (in) + ATP → nLigang1 (in) + mLigand2 (out) + ADP + Pi. (wikipedia.org)
  • lumen
  • The plant enzymes probably pump one H+ upon hydrolysis of pyrophosphate, thereby generating a proton motive force, positive and acidic in the tonoplast lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-termini are predicted to be in the vacuolar lumen while the C-termini are thought to be in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proton pumping can be initialized by PP(i) hydrolysis, and H+ is then transported into the vacuolar lumen through a pathway consisting of Arg 242, Asp 294, Lys 742 and Glu 301. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • It is interesting to note that the folding pattern and the locations of the critical amino acids for phosphorylation in P-type ATPases has the haloacid dehalogenase fold characteristic of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily, as predicted by sequence homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Given the importance of V-ATPase in several cellular processes and human diseases, these data suggest that modulation of RILP activity could be used to control V-ATPase function. (biologists.org)
  • Understanding V-ATPase function will provide important insights into diseases of the kidney (renal tubular acidosis), bone diseases (osteopetrosis), and in tumor metastasis, and new drug targets should arise from our studies. (grantome.com)
  • secretion
  • Targeting V-ATPase in primary human monocytes by archazolid potently represses the classical secretion of cytokines due to accumulation at the endoplasmic reticulum. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In conclusion, by interference with V-ATPase, archazolid significantly affects the secretion of cytokines due to accumulation at the ER which might be of relevance when using these agents for cancer therapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In humans, P-type ATPases serve as a basis for nerve impulses, relaxation of muscles, secretion and absorption in the kidney, absorption of nutrient in the intestine and other physiological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • In view of the growing link between inflammation and cancer, we investigated whether inhibition of V-ATPase by archazolid may affect primary human monocytes that can promote cancer by sustaining inflammation through the release of tumor-promoting cytokines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • driven
  • Complex III ((EC 1.10.2.2)) (also referred to as cytochrome bc1 or the coenzyme Q : cytochrome c - oxidoreductase) is a proton pump driven by electron transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • This proton pump is driven by electron transport and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from plastoquinol to plastocyanin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complex IV (EC 1.9.3.1) (also referred to as cytochrome c oxidase), is a proton pump driven by electron transport. (wikipedia.org)