• calculi
  • Bladder stones ( uroliths or cystic calculi) are rock-like formations of minerals that develop in the urinary bladder. (lifelearn-cliented.com)
  • Urinary schistosomiasis, a disease caused by the digenean trematode Schistosoma haematobium, has been implicated in the development of vesical calculi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urinary stones may be composed of the following substances: Calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) Calcium oxalate dihydrate (weddellite) Calcium phosphate Magnesium phosphate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite) Calcium hydroxyphosphate (apatite) Uric acid and its salts (urates) Cystine Xanthine Indigotin (rare) Urostealith (rare) Sulfonamide (rare) Jackstone calculi are rare bladder stones that have an appearance resembling toy jacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Using PDD at transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) resulted in fewer residual tumors at check cystoscopy (relative risk [RR], 0.37, 95 percent CI, 0.20-0.69) and longer recurrence-free survival (RR, 1.37, 95 percent CI, 1.18-1.59), compared with WLC. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: PDD detects more bladder tumors than WLC, including more high-risk tumors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • wall
  • Gas in the bladder wall will often have the appearance of cobblestone or a "beaded necklace" with the use of conventional radiography (Weerakkody). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotics are proven to cure Emphysematous cystitis over time and reduce the amount of gas inside the bladder wall. (wikipedia.org)