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  • tissues
  • However, as compared with metastatic tissues, primary tumors in the nervous system rarely give rise to long-surviving tumorspheres, thereby seriously limiting studies on these cancers. (jove.com)
  • Reports of other shark tumors afflicting nervous, digestive, excretory, blood, reproductive, skeletal, endocrine, and skin tissues-and even cartilage-are on file at a national archive devoted to cancer in cold-blooded animals. (phschool.com)
  • Interstitial fluid flow in particular is higher in tumors compared to normal tissues 8-10 . (jove.com)
  • Cells can be isolated from tissues for ex vivo culture in several ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can be isolated from solid tissues by digesting the extracellular matrix using enzymes such as collagenase, trypsin, or pronase, before agitating the tissue to release the cells into suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionizing radiation kills lymphoid cells while leaving other tissues of the body intact, and this eliminates immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrigel resembles the complex extracellular environment found in many tissues and is used by cell biologists as a substrate (basement membrane matrix) for culturing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together these results suggest that miR-155-5p is expressed in a number of tissues and cell types and, therefore, may play a critical role in a wide variety of biological processes, including hematopoiesis Although very few studies have investigated the expression levels of miR-155-3p, Landgraf et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALDEFLUOR is a fluorescent reagent system which uses the activity of the detoxifying enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) to identify, evaluate and isolate ALDH-expressing cells (primarily human stem and progenitor cells from multiple tissues). (wikipedia.org)
  • MammoCult is a medium for the culture and maintenance of human mammospheres from primary mammary tissues and human tumorspheres from breast cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Fuskova T, Fuska J, Ivanitskaya LP, Makwkho LV: Different sensitivity to antibiotics of the established intermittent In Vitro - in vivo tumor cell line in comparison with primary culture. (springer.com)
  • Restoring VEZT expression in MKN-45 and NCI-N87 gastric cancer cells inhibited growth, invasion and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. (jove.com)
  • The third layer (Layer III) forms a ribbon of astrocyte cell bodies that are believed to maintain a subpopulation of astrocytes able to proliferate in vivo and form multipotent neurospheres with self-renewal abilities in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • PET reporter gene technology, multimodality reporter genes, imaging of gene/cell therapies, imaging of the immune system, imaging of intracellular events in living subjects (e.g., protein-protein interactions), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in living subjects, nanoparticle based imaging, Raman imaging in vivo and photoacoustic molecular imaging with novel imaging agents in living subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic lineage marking demonstrated that rare luminal cells that express NKX3-1 in the absence of testicular androgens are bipotential and can self-renew in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ex vivo glycan engineering of the surface of live cells has been used to enforce HCELL expression on any cell that expresses CD44. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonogenic assays
  • A549 (lung cancer) and U373MG (glioblastoma) cells were exposed to radiation with or without six DNMT inhibitors (5-azacytidine, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, zebularine, hydralazine, epigallocatechin gallate, and psammaplin A) for 18 hours prior to radiation, after which cell survival was evaluated via clonogenic assays. (nih.gov)
  • Proliferation
  • Serum-free medium (NSC) allows for the maintenance of an undifferentiated stem cell state, and the addition of bFGF and EGF allows for the proliferation of multi-potent, self-renewing, and expandable tumorspheres. (jove.com)
  • Actively Proliferating Cells or Transit Amplifying Progenitors (Type C): express Nestin, and form clusters interspaced among chains throughout region The SVZ is a known site of neurogenesis and self-renewing neurons in the adult brain, serving as such due to the interacting cell types, extracellular molecules, and localized epigenetic regulation promoting such cellular proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clonogenic assay is a cell biology technique for studying the effectiveness of specific agents on the survival and proliferation of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Memory cell proliferation (activation) can also be assayed in vitro with CFSE chemical tagging. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • In his early career Dr Moore discovered that all stem cells of the blood and lymphoid system developed in the yolk sac at an early stage of embryo development and migrated via the blood stream to colonize the bone marrow and immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In collaboration with Dr . Shahin Raffi in 1994, a bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell was identified and shown to play an important role in the development of the blood supply of developing tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathology
  • Tumor Profiling and Pathology - An integrated histology and molecular biology grading system is used to improve the accuracy of ependymoma diagnosis and prognostication. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Human and rodent somatotroph cells express the RET receptor. (cancerindex.org)
  • DNMT (DNA methyltransferase) inhibitors radiosensitize human cancer cells by suppressing DNA repair activity. (nih.gov)
  • The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of DNMT inhibitors on the radiosensitivity of human cancer cell lines, and to elucidate the mechanisms relevant to that process. (nih.gov)
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol(R)) inhibits motility of paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • Eagle H, Foley GE: Cytotoxicity in human cell cultures as a primary screen for the detection of antitumor agents. (springer.com)
  • Fjelde A: Human tumor cells in tissue culture. (springer.com)
  • Berry RJ, Laing AH, Wells J: Fresh explant culture of human tumors In Vitro and the assessment of sensitivity to cytotoxic chemotherapy. (springer.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effect of trifluoperazine on (a) survival of bleomycin-treated human non-small cell lung carcinoma U1810 cells, (b) induction and repair of bleomycin-induced DNA strand breaks, and (c) nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), the major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in mammalian cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • In vitro activity of aplidine, a new marine-derived anti-cancer compound, on freshly explanted clonogenic human tumour cells and haematopoietic-precursor cells," British Journal of Cancer, vol. 78, No. 6, 739-744, 1998. (patentgenius.com)
  • Polamine contents of human breast cancer cells treated with the cytotoxic agents chlorpheniramine and dehydrodidemnin B," Cancer Letters, vol. 113, Nos. (patentgenius.com)
  • We applied culture conditions originally used for normal neural stem cells (NSCs) to a variety of human brain tumors and found that this culture method specifically selects for stem-like populations. (jove.com)
  • Orthotopic mouse models of colorectal cancer, which feature cancer cells growing in their natural location, replicate human disease with high fidelity. (jove.com)
  • There is a large unfulfilled need for a clinically-suitable human neuronal cell source for repair or regeneration of the damaged central nervous system (CNS) structure and circuitry in today's healthcare industry. (jove.com)
  • Despite some beneficial outcomes, the CNS-derived human neural stem cells (hNSCs) appear to exert their therapeutic effects primarily by their non-neuronal progenies through producing trophic and neuroprotective molecules to rescue the endogenous cells 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • Alternatively, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) proffer cures for a wide range of neurological disorders by supplying the diversity of human neuronal cell types in the developing CNS for regeneration 1,4-7 . (jove.com)
  • We defined conditions for induction of neuroblasts direct from pluripotent hESCs without an intervening multi-lineage embryoid body stage, enabling well-controlled efficient derivation of a large supply of human neuronal cells across the spectrum of developmental stages for cell-based therapeutics. (jove.com)
  • As far as human brain tumors are concerned, the orthotopic models currently available are established either by stereotaxic injection of cell suspensions or implantation of a solid piece of tumor through a complicated craniotomy procedure 3 . (jove.com)
  • A protocol has been developed to overcome the difficulties of isolating and characterizing rare T cells specific for pathogens, such as human papillomavirus (HPV), that cause localized infections. (jove.com)
  • A region within the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) E6 and E7 proteins which contained a T-cell epitope was identified using an IFN- g enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay performed with overlapping synthetic peptides ( Fig. 2 ). (jove.com)
  • Here we present an optimized protocol to grow H. pylori in varying conditions of iron availability prior to co-culture with human gastric epithelial cells. (jove.com)
  • In 1980-82 his group first identified (and provided an in vitro assay for) the human mesenchymal stem cell - the precursor of bone, cartilage, adipose tissue and smooth muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1983-84 his group succeeded in identifying and purifying a human growth factor, G-CSF, that stimulates white blood cell production (neutrophils). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most recently Dr Moore has been studying the cancer stem cell in lung cancer and ovarian cancer and has developed some novel methods for growing human cancer stem cells in vitro allowing extensive molecular analysis and identification of targets for therapy designed to eliminate this rare cell population that is responsible for aggressive tumor growth and relapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any type of cell could be used in an experiment, but since the goal of these experiments in oncological research is the discovery of more effective cancer treatments, human tumor cells are a typical choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • This indicates that one mechanism of NKX3-1 dependent transcriptional activation in prostate epithelia requires combinatorial interactions with other factors expressed within those cells In 2000, full length NKX3-1 cDNA was obtained from a human prostate cDNA library. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrigel is mixed with immortalized human cancer cells and the mixture is injected subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • A human tumor usually forms in two to four weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • EpiCult is a line of species-specific culture media used to support the monolayer culture of human or mouse mammary epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lung cancer
  • We propose that TFP might be capable of inhibiting one or more elements of the DNA DSB repair machinery, thereby increasing the cytotoxicity of bleomycin in lung cancer cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Molecular profiling of single circulating tumor cells from lung cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, Showe's research led to the creation of a blood test that could be used to test for lung cancer using a 29-gene assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • The autologous LCLs served not only to present peptide antigens to the T-cell clone cells, but also to keep a high cell density in the wells allowing the epitope-specific T-cell clone cells to secrete IFN-γ. (jove.com)
  • Subsequently, PBMCs are challenged with tumor antigens such as tumor stem cell antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum is isolated from a clotted blood sample, and the circulating antibody that accumulates in the plasma is assayed by methods that include the following: Affinity chromatography, by which antibodies of interest are isolated from solution by the specific binding of antigens anchored to a solid matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), which are direct binding assays for antibodies that use pure preparations of known antigens to create a protein standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISPOT
  • These T-cell clones were screened using an IFN- γ ELISPOT assay in the presence of peptides covering the identified region and autologous Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs, obtained how described by Walls and Crawford) 2 in order to minimize the number of T-cell clone cells needed. (jove.com)
  • Instead of using 1 x 10 5 cells per well typically used in ELISPOT assays 1,3 , 1,000 T-cell clone cells in the presence of 1 x 10 5 autologous LCLs were used, dramatically reducing the number of T-cell clone cells needed. (jove.com)
  • This assures successful performance of IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. (jove.com)
  • Similarly, IFN- γ ELISPOT assays were utilized to characterize the minimal and optimal amino acid sequence of the CD8 T-cell epitope (HPV 16 E6 52-61 FAFRDLCIVY) and its HLA class I restriction element (B58). (jove.com)
  • The IFN- γ ELISPOT assay was also performed using autologous LCLs infected with vaccinia virus expressing HPV 16 E6 or E7 protein. (jove.com)
  • Frequently used assays include the ELISPOT, which measures the frequency of T cell response. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Weisenthal LM, Marsden J: A novel dye exclusion assay for predicting response to cancer chemotherapy. (springer.com)
  • Kondo T: Prediction of response of tumor and host to cancer chemotherapy. (springer.com)
  • Dehydrodidemnin B (DDB) a new marine derived anti-cancer agent (MDA) with activity against experimental tumor models" and Biological activity of thiocoraline. (patentgenius.com)
  • Tumorsphere culture enriches and expands tumor cells, thus providing important resources for cancer studies. (jove.com)
  • The traditional subcutaneous tumor model is less than ideal for studying colorectal cancer. (jove.com)
  • One technique involves injection of a colorectal cancer cell suspension into the cecal wall. (jove.com)
  • Cancer cells are first grown in culture, harvested when subconfluent and prepared as a single cell suspension. (jove.com)
  • In the Dec. 1, 2004 Cancer Research , his team reviews cases of illness in captured sharks and related fish that had been filed with the Registry of Tumors in Lower Animals in Sterling, Va. The team turned up 42 cases affecting 21 species. (phschool.com)
  • The growth and progression of most solid tumors depend on the initial transformation of the cancer cells and their response to stroma-associated signaling in the tumor microenvironment 1 . (jove.com)
  • All laboratory tests are evaluated on the basis of test accuracy and no laboratory test in the history of cancer medicine has ever been shown in clinical trials to improve the results of therapy, and this includes estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Her2/neu, bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, panels of immunohistochemical stains to subclassify tumors, and on and on. (weisenthal.org)
  • The Collaborative Ependymoma Research Network (CERN) Foundation is a Nonprofit organization composed of scientists and adult and pediatric cancer researchers who work together to develop new treatments for Ependymoma, a type of primary brain or spinal cord tumor that occurs in both children and adults, and improve the outcomes and care of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer Cell", September 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • born January 18, 1944) is the Enid A. Haupt Chair of Cell Biology at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the first (1970) to prove the existence of cancer stem cells in a study of leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Existing cancer treatments have mostly been developed based on animal models, where therapies able to promote tumor shrinkage were deemed effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficacy of cancer treatments is, in the initial stages of testing, often measured by the ablation fraction of tumor mass (fractional kill). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer stem cells were first identified by John Dick in acute myeloid leukemia in the late 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • This functional heterogeneity among cancer cells has led to the creation of multiple propagation models to account for heterogeneity and differences in tumor-regenerative capacity: the cancer stem cell (CSC) and stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer stem cell model, also known as the Hierarchical Model proposes that tumors are hierarchically organized (CSCs lying at the apex (Fig. 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the cancer population of the tumors there are cancer stem cells (CSC) that are tumorigenic cells and are biologically distinct from other subpopulations They have two defining features: their long-term ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into progeny that is non-tumorigenic but still contributes to the growth of the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This model suggests that only certain subpopulations of cancer stem cells have the ability to drive the progression of cancer, meaning that there are specific (intrinsic) characteristics that can be identified and then targeted to destroy a tumor long-term without the need to battle the whole tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cell model suggests these mutations could occur to any cell in the body resulting in a cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and CSC via in situ supporting a more Stochastic model. (wikipedia.org)
  • These isolated B cells are in turn fused with immortal B cell cancer cells, a myeloma, to produce a hybrid cell line called a hybridoma, which has both the antibody-producing ability of the B-cell and the exaggerated longevity and reproductivity of the myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research focuses on the development of imaging assays to monitor fundamental cellular/molecular events in living subjects with an emphasis on the detection and management of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is frequently used in cancer research laboratories to determine the effect of drugs or radiation on proliferating tumor cells as well as for titration of Cell-killing Particles (CKPs) in virus stocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • This indicates that CARNs represent a new luminal stem cell population that is an efficient target for oncogenic transformation in prostate cancer In 2010 it was shown that NKX3-1 was controlled by ERG and ESE3 both directly and through induction of EZH2 (Polycomb group pcg). (wikipedia.org)
  • The NKX3-1 protein expression was detected a hormone-responsive, androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cell line, but was absent from androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer cell lines as well as other cell lines of varied origins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, variations in CD44 are reported as cell surface markers for some breast and prostate cancer stem cells.In breast cancer research CD44+/CD24- expression is commonly used as a marker for breast CSCs and is used to sort breast cancer cells into a population enriched in cells with stem-like characteristics and has been seen as an indicator of increased survival time in epithelial ovarian cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • All these biological properties are essential to the physiological activities of normal cells, but they are also associated with the pathologic activities of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Test molecules that promote endothelial cell network formation are candidates for tissue regeneration therapies whereas test molecules that inhibit endothelial cell network formation are candidates for anti-cancer therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, test molecules that inhibit tumor cell migration may also have potential as anti-cancer drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company specializes in developing cell culture media, cell separation products, instruments and other reagents for use in stem cell, immunology, cancer, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription
  • In rodents, when normal somatotrophs are deprived of the RET ligand, GDNF (Glial Cell Derived Neurotrophic Factor), RET is processed intracellularly to induce overexpression of Pit1 [Transcription factor (gene : POUF1) essential for transcription of Pituitary hormones GH, PRL and TSHb], which in turn leads to p19Arf/p53-dependent apoptosis. (cancerindex.org)
  • G protein-coupled receptor 56(GPR56), cell growth, cell division cycle 42(CDC42), migration/invasion and transcription factor 19(TCF19), cell cycle progression, were identified as direct VEZT target genes. (jove.com)
  • It acts as a transcription factor that has critical function in prostate development and tumor suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • NKX3-1 expression acts as a transcription factor that has been found to play a main role in prostate development and tumor suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD44 gene transcription is at least in part activated by beta-catenin and Wnt signalling (also linked to tumour development). (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • But the existence of both biologically distinct non-CSC and CSC populations supports a more CSC model, proposing that both models may play a vital role in tumor heterogeneity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biopanning, which isolates cell populations from solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Th17 cells have emerged as a central culprit in overzealous inflammatory immune responses associated with many autoimmune disorders. (jove.com)
  • B cell immune responses are measured by analyzing antibodies produced through the humoral immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • STEMCELL has gradually expanded their product portfolio to include immune cell isolation tools as well as products that support research using pluripotent stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • EasySep is a column-free immunomagnetic system for isolating immune cells from a variety of species and sample types. (wikipedia.org)
  • self-renewal
  • Self-renewal assays and transcript analysis by single cell RT-PCR can subsequently be performed on these isolated cells. (jove.com)
  • This might be due to the limited self-renewal capability of tumor cells and/or to inappropriate culture conditions. (jove.com)
  • Primary tumors in MYCN transgenic mice, a NB model, could be serially transplanted, suggesting that these tumors contain cells with a high self-renewal potential. (jove.com)
  • Multiple cell numbers of a particular population can also be sorted in different wells for limiting dilution analysis, to analyze self-renewal capacity. (jove.com)
  • therefore, it is essential to perform functional studies to test the putatively conserved mechanisms of pluripotent stem cell self-renewal between species. (jove.com)
  • When embryonic stem cells are grown in the absence of feeder cells, extracellular matrix components are needed to maintain the pluripotent, undifferentiated state (self-renewal). (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • Cell-based therapies hold great promise to restore the lost nerve tissue and function for CNS disorders. (jove.com)
  • However, cell therapies based on CNS-derived neural stem cells have encountered supply restriction and difficulty to use in the clinical setting due to their limited expansion ability in culture and failing plasticity after extensive passaging 1-3 . (jove.com)
  • The study of tumorigenesis and the evaluation of new therapies for GBM require accurate and reproducible brain tumor animal models. (jove.com)
  • mice
  • In this method we purify T lymphocytes from the spleen and lymph nodes of C57BL/6 mice, and stimulate purified CD4+ T cells under control and Th17-inducing environments. (jove.com)
  • In particular, in mice, whose life spans do not exceed two years, tumor relapse is difficult to study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional assays of NKX3-1 mutant mice in serial prostate regeneration suggested that NKX3-1 is required for stem cell maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Recently, CD4(+)IL-17A(+) T helper 17 (Th17) cells were identified and reported in several diseased states, including autoimmunity, infection and various peripheral nervous system tumors. (jove.com)
  • A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) is any peripheral blood cell having a round nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral blood cell Delves, Peter, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods include the following: Density centrifugation, which isolates a population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by separating the solution into layers of differing densities. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitivity
  • They used the assay results in these patients to establish retrospective cut-off definitions between sensitivity and resistance for the various drugs used in treatment. (weisenthal.org)
  • tissue culture
  • In our technique we harvest cells from tissue culture to create a cell suspension used to implant directly into the brain. (jove.com)
  • In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells derived from multicellular eukaryotes, especially animal cells, in contrast with other types of culture that also grow cells, such as plant tissue culture, fungal culture, and microbiological culture (of microbes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The myeloma cell line that is used in this process is selected for its ability to grow in tissue culture and for an absence of antibody synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are "plated" in a tissue culture vessel and allowed to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • microenvironment
  • Thus we use this orthotopic brain model to study the interaction of the microenvironment of the brain and the tumor, to test the effectiveness of different therapeutic agents with and without radiation. (jove.com)
  • Previously, research on the tumor microenvironment has focused primarily on tumor-stromal interactions 1-2 . (jove.com)
  • However, the tumor microenvironment also includes a variety of biophysical forces, whose effects remain poorly understood. (jove.com)
  • precursor
  • Once miR-155 pri-miRNA is transcribed, this transcript is cleaved by the nuclear microprocessor complex, of which the core components are the RNase III type endonuclease Drosha and the DiGeorge critical region 8 (DGCR8) protein, to produce a 65 nucleotide stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-mir-155) (see Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • EpiCult-B media can assay for the presence of mammary precursor cells using either the mammary colony-forming cell (Ma-CFC) assay or 3D Matrigel-based cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • Essentially this theory proposes that all cells have the ability to be tumorigenic making all tumor cells equipotent with the ability to self-renew or differentiate, leading to tumor heterogeneity while others can differentiate into non-CSCs The cell's potential can be influenced by unpredicted genetic or epigenetic factors, resulting in phenotypically diverse cells in both the tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells that compose the tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • By using a clonogenic survival assay, we show here that concomitant administration of trifluoperazine at a subtoxic concentration enhances the cytotoxicity of bleomycin. (diva-portal.org)
  • A graphical representation of survival versus drug concentration or dose of ionizing radiation is called a cell survival curve. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Brain tumors are typically comprised of morphologically diverse cells that express a variety of neural lineage markers. (jove.com)
  • The primary neural stem cells of the brain and spinal cord, termed radial glial cells, reside in the ventricular zone (VZ) (so-called because the VZ lines the developing ventricles). (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, the subventricular zone serves as a source of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the process of adult neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor Stem Cell Laboratory Models - CERN Foundation laboratory scientists seek to understand how normal neural development goes wrong to result in ependymoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxicity
  • McDonald GO, Mclver JM, Llamas AJ, Sky-Peck HH: Tumor cytotoxicity: quantitative changes in DNA synthesis as an indicator. (springer.com)
  • inhibit
  • To support that contention, sellers point to studies indicating that something in shark cartilage can inhibit the blood vessel growth that tumors rely on for access to nutrients. (phschool.com)
  • The absence of blood vessels in cartilage led to the hypothesis that cartilage cells (also known as chondrocytes ) produce one or more substances that inhibit blood vessel formation. (cancer.gov)
  • protein
  • The secondary layer (Layer II) provides for a hypocellular gap abutting the former and has been shown to contain a network of functionally correlated Glial Fibrillary Acid Protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytic processes that are linked to junctional complexes, yet lack cell bodies except for the rare neuronal somata. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrigel is the trade name for a gelatinous protein mixture secreted by Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) mouse sarcoma cells produced and marketed by Corning Life Sciences and BD Biosciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • This often involves the analysis of antiserum samples that contain specific antibodies against the immunizing antigen, and blood lymphocytes from lymphoid organs for examination of T cell-mediated responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competitive inhibition assays, which determine the concentration of a particular antigen in an unknown sample based on how successfully it competes with a labelled reference antigen in binding to antibodies bound to a plastic well. (wikipedia.org)
  • A type of white blood cell, the B cell that produces antibodies that bind to the antigen are then harvested from the mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hybridomas can be grown in culture, each culture starting with one viable hybridoma cell, producing cultures each of which consists of genetically identical hybridomas which produce one antibody per culture (monoclonal) rather than mixtures of different antibodies (polyclonal). (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells produce antibodies (a property of B cells) and are immortal (a property of myeloma cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the antibodies in a well are produced by the same B cell, they will be directed towards the same epitope, and are thus monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B cell that produces the desired antibodies can be cloned to produce many identical daughter clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Select antibodies are used to cross-link targeted cells to the magnetic particles in a standard FACs tube, which is placed in an EasySep magnet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, because alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications generate many different CD44 sequences, including, perhaps, tumor-specific sequences, the production of anti-CD44 tumor-specific agents may be a realistic therapeutic approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • glioma
  • Gambhir S.S. (January 2017)Reporter gene imaging of targeted T cell immunotherapy in recurrent glioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore
  • 33 , 34 , 41 , 51 - 54 ] A developing tumor, therefore, cannot continue to grow unless it establishes connections to the circulatory system of its host. (cancer.gov)
  • Therefore, intracellular tTG is mostly inactive due to the relatively high concentration of GTP/GDP and the low levels of calcium inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • rodents
  • It harbors the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain of rodents, monkeys and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • This novel scoring system has three major components: 1) assessment of the extent and severity of colorectal inflammation (based on perianal findings, transparency of the wall, mucosal bleeding, and focal lesions), 2) quantitative recording of tumor lesions (grid map and bar graph), and 3) numerical sorting of clinical cases by their pathological and research relevance based on decimal units with assigned categories of observed lesions and endoscopic complications (decimal identifiers). (jove.com)
  • chromatin
  • Global microarray analysis was applied to analyze the molecular basis of the biological functions of VEZT after VEZT transfection combined with real-time PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. (jove.com)
  • Genetic
  • The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Overexpression of TCF19 in MKN-45 cells increased cell cycle progress and growth ability. (jove.com)
  • however, only the white cells are capable of growth in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from temperature and gas mixture, the most commonly varied factor in culture systems is the cell growth medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clonal evolution model, which occurs in both the CSC model and stochastic model, postulates that mutant tumor cells with a growth advantage outproliferate others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in the dominant population have a similar potential for initiating tumor growth (Fig. 4). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a negative regulator of epithelial cell growth in prostate tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • senescence
  • For the majority of isolated primary cells, they undergo the process of senescence and stop dividing after a certain number of population doublings while generally retaining their viability (described as the Hayflick limit). (wikipedia.org)