• Intravenous
  • Intravenous injection of a large dose of rTNF-alpha resulted in a decrease in the number of bacteria in the liver and spleen, but an injection of rIFN-gamma and rTNF-alpha did not result in enhanced inhibition of the proliferation of L. monocytogenes. (mysciencework.com)
  • Both intravenous drug abuse (IDU) and HIV infection can increase TNF-alpha activity, but little information is available on the effects of a combination of these factors on TNF-alpha. (nova.edu)
  • These findings show that the effects of HIV infection and intravenous drug use may be additive in increasing TNF-alpha levels. (nova.edu)
  • cytokine
  • TNF-alpha is a highly pleiotropic cytokine and plays an important role in regulating HIV-1 replication. (nova.edu)
  • Methods We measured plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotractant protein 1, IL-10, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNFR1) during longitudinal testing over a period of two years in 234 patients with HF following AMI recruited for participation in the OPTIMAAL trial, focusing on the possible prognostic value of circulating cytokine levels in these patients. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Although several studies have focused on the possible role of TNF-alpha, the individual cytokine exists as part of a cytokine network, and the effect of various inflammatory cytokines is influenced by other inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory mediators, illustrating the complexity of this network ( 3 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • role
  • Given the multiple effects of TNF-alpha in HIV infection, additional investigation of its role is needed. (nova.edu)
  • expression
  • Together, the results of the present study are the first to demonstrate that endogenous TNF-alpha is required in vivo for the expression of macrophage activation with respect to the release of reactive nitrogen intermediates and toxoplasmastatic activity and for enhanced listericidal activity in the livers and spleens of mice stimulated with rIFN-gamma. (mysciencework.com)
  • TNF-alpha mRNA expression in peripheral monocytes was significantly increased in both HIV-1-positive and negative IDUs compared to controls. (nova.edu)