• Intravenous
  • Intravenous injection of a large dose of rTNF-alpha resulted in a decrease in the number of bacteria in the liver and spleen, but an injection of rIFN-gamma and rTNF-alpha did not result in enhanced inhibition of the proliferation of L. monocytogenes. (mysciencework.com)
  • Both intravenous drug abuse (IDU) and HIV infection can increase TNF-alpha activity, but little information is available on the effects of a combination of these factors on TNF-alpha. (nova.edu)
  • These findings show that the effects of HIV infection and intravenous drug use may be additive in increasing TNF-alpha levels. (nova.edu)
  • cytokine
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is a cytokine that mediates normal homeostatic mammalian processes ( Schaible et al and Wajant et al ) but has been linked to the systemic autoimmune disease Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), where a TNFα induced cytokine cascade causes inflammation and joint destruction. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • TNF-alpha is a highly pleiotropic cytokine and plays an important role in regulating HIV-1 replication. (nova.edu)
  • expression
  • Together, the results of the present study are the first to demonstrate that endogenous TNF-alpha is required in vivo for the expression of macrophage activation with respect to the release of reactive nitrogen intermediates and toxoplasmastatic activity and for enhanced listericidal activity in the livers and spleens of mice stimulated with rIFN-gamma. (mysciencework.com)
  • TNF-alpha mRNA expression in peripheral monocytes was significantly increased in both HIV-1-positive and negative IDUs compared to controls. (nova.edu)